|Papacy began||August 897|
|Papacy ended||November 897|
by Pope Nicholas I
|Birth name||Romano Marini|
|Born||Gallese, Papal States|
Pope Romanus (died November 897) was Pope from August to November 897.
Romanus was the supposed nephew of Pope Marinus I. [ who? ] He was installed as the cardinal of St. Peter ad Vincula prior to his election to the papacy.Romanus, whose personal name is unknown, was born in Gallese, Italy near Civita Castellana. Romanus was son of Constantine.
Romanus was elected to succeed the murdered Pope Stephen VI during a period when the papacy was fought over by various Italian factions.Pope Stephen VI was murdered after exhuming Pope Formosus's corpse for the posthumous Cadaver Synod, in which Stephen VI put charges to Formosus' "propped up" body. Romanus annulled all the acts and decrees of his predecessor.
During his short reign, he granted the Farfa Abbey Abbot Vitalis the pallium (a vestment in the Catholic Church), and appointed Vitalis as the patriarch of Grado. Romanus also confirmed the possessions of the Spanish bishops of Girona and Elna of their sees.His short rule was regarded as a virtuous one by contemporary historian Flodoard, but 15th-century historian Bartolomeo Platina scorned him for continuing the practice of annulling the acts and decrees of his predecessor.
Romanus died in November 897 of an unknown cause, however it is believed that he could have been deposed by supporters of his predecessor Pope Stephen VI, who was of an opposing faction.This belief is due to the description that "he was made a monk" , which was often used at the time to describe deposition.
Pope Boniface VI was Pope in April 896. He was a native of Rome. His election came about as a result of riots soon after the death of Pope Formosus. Prior to his reign, he had twice incurred a sentence of deprivation of orders as a subdeacon and as a priest. After a pontificate of fifteen days, he is said by some to have died of the gout, by others to have been forcibly ejected to make way for Stephen VI, the candidate of the Spoletan party.
Pope Stephen V was Pope from September 885 to his death in 891. He succeeded Pope Adrian III, and was in turn succeeded by Pope Formosus. In his dealings with Constantinople in the matter of Photius, as also in his relations with the young Slavic Orthodox church, he pursued the policy of Pope Nicholas I.
Pope Stephen VI was Pope from 22 May 896 to his death in 897.
Pope Sergius III was Pope from 29 January 904 to his death in 911. He was pope during a period of feudal violence and disorder in central Italy, when warring aristocratic factions sought to use the material and military resources of the Papacy. Because Sergius III had reputedly ordered the murder of his two immediate predecessors, Leo V and Christopher, and allegedly fathered an illegitimate son who later became pope, his pontificate has been variously described as "dismal and disgraceful", and "efficient and ruthless".
Pope Theodore II was Pope for twenty days in December 897. His short reign occurred during a period of partisan strife in the Catholic Church, which was entangled with a period of feudal violence and disorder in central Italy. His main act as pope was to annul the "Cadaver Synod" of the previous January, therefore reinstating the acts and ordinations of Pope Formosus, which had themselves been annulled by Pope Stephen VI. He also had the body of Formosus recovered from the river Tiber and reburied with honour. He died in office in late December 897.
Pope Formosus was Cardinal-bishop and Pope, his papacy lasting from 6 October 891 to his death in 896. His brief reign as Pope was troubled, marked by interventions in power struggles over the Patriarchate of Constantinople, the kingdom of West Francia, and the Holy Roman Empire. Formosus's remains were exhumed and put on trial in the Cadaver Synod.
Year 897 (DCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.
Pope Leo V was Pope from July 903 to his death in 904. He was pope during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum. He was thrown into prison in September 903 by the Antipope Christopher, and was probably killed at the start of the pontificate of Pope Sergius III. If his deposition is not considered valid, then his papacy may be considered to have ended with his death in 904.
Pope Leo VI was Pope for just over seven months, from June 928 to his death in February 929. His pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum.
Pope Leo VII was Pope from 3 January 936 to his death in 939. He was preceded by Pope John XI and followed by Pope Stephen VIII. Leo VII's election to the papacy was secured by Alberic II of Spoleto, the ruler of Rome at the time. Alberic wanted to choose the pope so that the papacy would continue to yield to his authority. Leo was the priest of the church of St. Sixtus in Rome, thought to be a Benedictine monk. He had little ambition towards the papacy, but consented under pressure.
Lando was Pope from c. September 913 to his death c. March 914. His short pontificate fell during an obscure period in papal and Roman history, the so-called Saeculum obscurum (904–64). He was the last pope to use a papal name that had not been used previously until the election of Pope Francis in 2013.
Pope John XI was Pope from March 931 to his death in December 935.
Pope John IX was Pope from January 898 to his death in 900.
Pope Benedict IV was Pope from 1 February 900 to his death in 903. The tenth-century historian Flodoard, who nicknamed him "the Great", commended his noble birth and public generosity. He succeeded Pope John IX (898–900) and was followed by Pope Leo V (903).
The Cadaver Synod is the name commonly given to the posthumous ecclesiastical trial of Pope Formosus, held in the Basilica of St. John Lateran in Rome during January 897. The trial was conducted by Pope Stephen VI, the successor to Formosus' successor, Pope Boniface VI. Stephen had Formosus' corpse exhumed and brought to the papal court for judgment. He accused Formosus of perjury and of having acceded to the papacy illegally. At the end of the trial, Formosus was pronounced guilty and his papacy retroactively declared null.
A year of three popes is a common reference to a year when the College of Cardinals of the Catholic Church are required to elect two new popes within the same calendar year. Such a year generally occurs when a newly elected pope dies or resigns very early into his papacy. This results in the Catholic Church's being led by three different popes during the same calendar year.
The Bad Popes is a 1969 book by E. R. Chamberlin documenting the lives of eight of the most controversial popes :
Auxilius of Naples was an ecclesiastical writer. To him are attributed a series of writings that deal with the controversies concerning the succession and fate of Pope Formosus (891-896), and especially the validity of the orders conferred by him. Auxilius was a Frank, who was ordained a priest, or perhaps only a deacon, in Rome by Formosus, and lived later in southern Italy, apparently at Naples.
Papal appointment was a medieval method of selecting a pope. Popes have always been selected by a council of Church fathers, however, Papal selection before 1059 was often characterized by confirmation or "nomination" by secular European rulers or by their predecessors. The later procedures of the papal conclave are in large part designed to constrain the interference of secular rulers which characterized the first millennium of the Roman Catholic Church, and persisted in practices such as the creation of crown-cardinals and the jus exclusivae. Appointment might have taken several forms, with a variety of roles for the laity and civic leaders, Byzantine and Germanic emperors, and noble Roman families. The role of the election vis-a-vis the general population and the clergy was prone to vary considerably, with a nomination carrying weight that ranged from near total to a mere suggestion or ratification of a prior election.
From 756 to 857, the papacy shifted from the orbit of the Byzantine Empire to that of the kings of the Franks. Pepin the Short, Charlemagne, and Louis the Pious had considerable influence in the selection and administration of popes. The "Donation of Pepin" (756) ratified a new period of papal rule in central Italy, which became known as the Papal States.
|Catholic Church titles|
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