In Yemen, popular committees are armed groups formed by Yemeni tribes on behalf of more professional military forces.
Yemen , officially the Republic of Yemen, is a country at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 square kilometres. The coastline stretches for about 2,000 kilometres. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, and the Arabian Sea and Oman to the east. Yemen's territory includes more than 200 islands. Yemen is a member of the Arab League, United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The Yemeni army has required the support of tribal militias or what have become known as People's Committees in internal and external wars. When the 1963 revolution in northern Yemen did not receive military support from the United Kingdom, some troops allied with the deposed imams to regain power. Tribal links weakened, especially in Taiz and Ibb; members received a monthly salary, wore military uniforms and underwent military training.
The Armed Forces of Yemen includes the Yemen Army, Navy, 1st Armored Division, and the Yemeni Air Force (2008). A major reorganization of the armed forces continues. The unified air forces and air defenses are now under one command. The navy is concentrated in Aden. The Yemen Arab Republic and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen joined to form the Republic of Yemen on May 22, 1990.
The Aden Emergency, also known as the Radfan Uprising, was an insurgency against the Occupying Forces of the former British Empire in the Protectorate of South Arabia, which now form part of Yemen. Partly inspired by Nasser's pan-Arab nationalism, it began on 14 October 1963 with the throwing of a grenade at a gathering of British officials at Aden Airport. A state of emergency was then declared in the British Crown colony of Aden and its hinterland, the Aden Protectorate. The emergency escalated in 1967 and hastened the end of British rule in the territory which had begun in 1839. On 30 November 1967, British forces withdrew and the independent People's Republic of South Yemen was proclaimed.
Imam is an Islamic leadership position.
During the presidency of Abdul Rahman al-Iryani (1967–1974) the military battled over policy, beginning with a conflict over the establishment of the National Council. The popular committees further polarized the country.
During the 1980s Ali Abdullah Saleh reemphasized tribal affairs, in contrast with assassinated president Ibrahim al-Hamdi. His government clashed with the Houthis in Saada and 'Amran Governorates from 2004 to 2009, and the popular committees were used to a regional al-Qaeda's insurgency.
Ali Abdullah Saleh was a Yemeni politician who served as the first President of Yemen, from Yemeni unification on 22 May 1990 to his resignation on 25 February 2012, following the Yemeni Revolution. Previously, he had served as President of the Yemen Arab Republic, or North Yemen, from July 1978 to 22 May 1990, after the assassination of President Ahmad al-Ghashmi.
Lieutenant-Colonel Ibrahim al-Hamdi was the leader of a military coup d'etat in the Yemen Arab Republic that overthrew the regime of President Abdul Rahman al-Iryani on June 13, 1974. After the revolt, he was President of the Military Command Council that governed the country. During his rule, he cemented the central government's control over the country, planned on ending tribal loyalty, and Yemen's medieval social classes by proclaiming all Yemenis as equal. He also improved relations with Saudi Arabia.
Saada is one of the governorates of Yemen. The governorate's seat and the largest city is Sa'dah.
In course of the Yemeni Revolution, more and more self-defense groups or popular committees sprung up around the country. One of these was led by warlord Abdullatif Al-Sayed who initially fought against President Saleh's government and with al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), but later sided with the new government of Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi. He reorganized his forces as auxiliaries for the army and supported Hadi in the later Yemeni Civil War.By 2015, popular committees had spread to other provinces of Yemen, and played a major role in the Battle of Aden (2015) against the Houthis. In some provinces, they joined the popular resistance against AQAP.
The Yemeni Uprising (intifada), and also known as the Yemeni Revolution of Dignity followed the initial stages of the Tunisian Revolution and occurred simultaneously with the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and other Arab Spring protests in the Middle East and North Africa. In its early phase, protests in Yemen were initially against unemployment, economic conditions and corruption, as well as against the government's proposals to modify Yemen's constitution. The protesters' demands then escalated to calls for the resignation of Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh. Mass defections from the military, as well as from Saleh's government, effectively rendered much of the country outside of the government's control, and protesters vowed to defy its authority.
Abdullatif Al-Sayed Bafaqih is a Southern Yemenite Abyani warlord, who played a major role during the wars against Al-Qaeda after 2012 in
Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, or AQAP, also known as Ansar al-Sharia in Yemen, is a militant Islamist organization, primarily active in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. It was named for al-Qaeda, and states it is subordinate to that group and its now-deceased leader Osama bin Laden, a Saudi citizen of Yemeni heritage. It is considered the most active of al-Qaeda's branches, or "franchises," that emerged due to weakening central leadership. The U.S government believes AQAP to be the most dangerous al-Qaeda branch. The group established an emirate during the 2011 Yemeni Revolution, which waned in power after foreign interventions in the subsequent Yemeni Civil War.
By 2018, the Houthi rebels had also started to organize their own "popular committees".
Ahmed Ali Abdullah Saleh al-Ahmar is the eldest son of former Yemeni president Ali Abdullah Saleh, and was a commander of approx. 80,000 troops of the Republican Guard unit of the Yemen Army. On April 14, 2015, the United States Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control added Saleh to the list of Specially Designated Nationals, barring US citizens and businesses from interacting with Saleh or his assets.
Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi is a Yemeni politician and former Field Marshal of the Yemeni Armed Forces. He has been the President of Yemen since 27 February 2012, and was Vice President from 1994 to 2012.
Ali Mohsen Saleh al-Ahmar, sometimes spelled "Muhsin", is the Vice President of Yemen. He is a general in the Yemeni Army and was the commander of the northwestern military district and the 1st Armoured Division. He played a leading role in the creation of the General People's Congress. Mohsen has a good relationship with Saudi Arabia and other Arab states of the Persian Gulf.
Saleh Ali al-Sammad was a Yemeni political figure from the Houthi movement who served as the president of Yemen's Supreme Political Council until his death.
The aftermath of the Houthi takeover in Yemen refers to developments following the Houthis' takeover of the Yemeni capital of Sana'a and dissolution of the government, which eventually led to a civil war and the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen.
The Battle of Aden International Airport broke out in the early morning hours of 19 March 2015, when Yemen Army units loyal to former president Ali Abdullah Saleh attacked the airport in Aden, Yemen. The airport was defended by soldiers and guards supporting Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, Yemen's internationally recognised president.
Major general Mahmoud al-Subaihi is a Yemeni military officer. He serves in the cabinet of President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi as defence minister. In the Yemen Army, he holds the rank of major general. He was appointed to head the Ministry of Defence by Prime Minister Khaled Bahah in November 2014.
The Yemeni Civil War is an ongoing conflict that began in 2015 between two factions: the internationally recognized Yemeni government, led by Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, and the Houthi armed movement, along with their supporters and allies. Both claim to constitute the official government of Yemen. Houthi forces controlling the capital Sanaʽa, and allied with forces loyal to the former president Ali Abdullah Saleh, have clashed with forces loyal to the government of Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, based in Aden. Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant have also carried out attacks, with AQAP controlling swathes of territory in the hinterlands, and along stretches of the coast.
The Battle of Mukalla (2015) was a battle between al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, local tribesmen, and the Yemen Army for control of the coastal city of Mukalla, Yemen.
The Abyan campaign was a campaign for control of the Abyan Governorate of Yemen, between the Houthis and Yemen Army units loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh on one side, and militiamen and Yemen Army units loyal to Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi on the other side, supported by jihadists of al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula. The Pro-Hadi Forces recaptured the Abyan Governorate on 11 August, after launching an offensive on pro-Houthi forces in early August.
The Shabwah campaign was a campaign for control of the Shabwah Governorate of Yemen, between the Houthis and Yemen Army units loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh on one side, and militiamen and Yemen Army units loyal to Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi on the other side. The offensive have also launched during a previously started AQAP offensive.
The Lahij insurgency was a guerrilla war waged by tribesmen loyal to Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi against the Houthis and Yemen Army units loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh, who controlled most of the Lahij Governorate of Yemen. In late July, Pro-Hadi forces had launched an offensive to recapture Al Anad Air Base and rest of Lahij Governorate. On 4 August, Pro-Hadi forces had retaken full control of the Lahij Governorate.
In early December 2015, two Yemeni towns, Zinjibar and Ja'ar, were captured by the jihadist group Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP). Zinjibar was retaken by pro-government forces 14 August 2016. This was the second capture and occupation of Zinjibar during unrest in Yemen. The town was earlier taken by AQAP’s in May 2011 and held until the summer of 2012.
The Southern Abyan Offensive refers to a 2016 offensive that AQAP launched in late February, which ended with a victory for AQAP as Yemeni tribal fighters loyal to president Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi were driven out of the Abyan Governorate.
The Aden unrest refers to initialy ongoing conflict between Islamist factions, such as al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant's Yemen Branch, against the loyalists of president Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi and later to conflict between UAE-backed and Saudi-backed factions within the coalition. In 2017, fighting also broke out between factions aligned with different members of the Saudi-led coalition namely Saudi Arabia-backed Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi and Al-Islah and UAE-backed separatist Southern Transitional Council and Southern Movement.
The Popular Resistance, also known as "popular resistance committees", are armed groups that have been established in several Yemeni provinces during the Yemeni Civil War, after the Houthi takeover in Yemen. They fight alongside the Yemeni army loyal to president Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi, and the Popular committees. They are currently fighting against the Houthi fighters, and forces loyal to former president, Ali Abdullah Saleh. In some provinces, they have united with the People's Committees to fight against AQAP.
The Hadramaut Insurgency is an ongoing insurgency in Yemen launched by AQAP and ISIL-YP against forces loyal to president Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi.
The Hadhramaut Tribal Alliance, also known as the Tribal Alliance of Hadramout or the Hadhramaut Tribes Alliance, is an armed group involved in the ongoing Yemeni Civil War. The Alliance's forces are primarily drawn from the Hadhrami people in southern Yemen. During the civil war, the Alliance is often cited as supporting the government of Yemeni President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi and is noted for operating alongside the Republic of Yemen Armed Forces in Hadhramaut.