Popular Democratic Front (Italy)

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Popular Democratic Front

Fronte Democratico Popolare
Leaders Palmiro Togliatti
Pietro Nenni
Founded28 December 1947 (1947-12-28)
Dissolved18 April 1948 (1948-04-18)
Ideology Socialism [1] [2]
Communism [3] [4]
Frontism
Anti-fascism
Anti-Atlanticism
Political position Left-wing to Far-left [5] [6]
Colors     Red
Restored 1948 graffito in Rome's Garbatella neighbourhood calling to vote for the Popular Democratic Front Roma - Garbatella - Graffito restaurato dal Municipio - Fronte popolare alle elezioni del 18 aprile 1948.jpg
Restored 1948 graffito in Rome's Garbatella neighbourhood calling to vote for the Popular Democratic Front

The Popular Democratic Front (Italian : Fronte Democratico Popolare), shortened name of the Popular Democratic Front for Freedom, Peace, Labour (Fronte Democratico Popolare per la libertà, la pace, il lavoro) was a political alliance of political parties in Italy.

Italian language Romance language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to Vulgar Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both Italian and other regional languages.

A political alliance, also referred to as a political coalition, political bloc, is an agreement for cooperation among different political parties on common political agenda, often for purposes of contesting an election to mutually benefit by collectively clearing election thresholds, or otherwise benefiting from characteristics of the electoral system or for government formation after elections. These may break up quickly, or hold together for decades becoming the de-facto norm, operating almost as a single unit.

Contents

History

The alliance was formed for the 1948 general election and consisted of the Italian Communist Party (PCI) and Italian Socialist Party (PSI). [7] Its symbol was the picture of Italian Unification hero Giuseppe Garibaldi within a star. [7] The Christian Social Party (PCS) and Sardinian Action Party (PSd'Az) were not allied with the coalition, and formed their own electoral lists. The right wing of PSI opposed the Front, left the party, and organise the list of Socialist Unity, which later became the Italian Democratic Socialist Party (PSDI).

Italian Communist Party communist political party in Italy (1943–1991)

The Italian Communist Party was a communist political party in Italy.

Italian Socialist Party former Italian political party (1892–1994)

The Italian Socialist Party was a socialist and later social-democratic political party in Italy. Founded in Genoa in 1892, the PSI dominated the Italian left until after World War II, when it was eclipsed in status by the Italian Communist Party. The Socialists came to special prominence in the 1980s, when their leader Bettino Craxi, who had severed the residual ties with the Soviet Union and re-branded the party as liberal-socialist, served as Prime Minister (1983–1987). The PSI was disbanded in 1994 as a result of the Tangentopoli scandals. Prior to World War I, future dictator Benito Mussolini was a member of the PSI.

Giuseppe Garibaldi Italian general and politician

Giuseppe Garibaldi was an Italian general and nationalist. A republican, he contributed to the Italian unification and the creation of the Kingdom of Italy. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini.

The elections of 1948 was maybe the most important one in Italian republican history, the future alliance with United States or with the Soviet Union being in game. The Popular Front managed to obtain 31.0% of the vote for the Chamber of Deputies and 30.8% of the vote for the Senate. [8] Following the defeat of the FDP by Christian Democracy, Italy became a founding member of the NATO in 1949.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

Christian Democracy (Italy) Italian political party, founded in 1943 and dissolved in 1994

Christian Democracy was a Christian democratic political party in Italy.

Composition

It was composed of the following political parties:

PartyIdeologyLeader
Italian Communist Party (PCI) Communism Palmiro Togliatti
Italian Socialist Party (PSI) Socialism Pietro Nenni

Election results

Chamber of Deputies
Election yearVotes%Seats+/−Leader
1948 8,136,637 (2nd)31.0
183 / 574
Palmiro Togliatti
Senate of the Republic
Election yearVotes%Seats+/−Leader
1948 6,969,122 (2nd)30.8
72 / 237
Palmiro Togliatti

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References

  1. Fedele, Santi (1978). Bompiani (ed.). Fronte popolare: la sinistra e le elezioni del 18 aprile 1948.
  2. Cacciatore, Giuseppe (1979). Dedalo (ed.). La sinistra socialista nel dopoguerra. Meridionalismo e politica unitaria in Luigi Cacciatore. pp. 2014–218.
  3. Gori, Francesca; Gons, Silvio (1998). Carocci (ed.). Dagli archivi di Mosca: l'URSS, il Cominform e il PCI : 1943-1951. p. 83.
  4. Gundle, Stephen (1995). Giunti (ed.). I comunisti italiani tra Hollywood e Mosca: la sfida della cultura di massa : 1943-1991. p. 86.
  5. Gori, Francesca; Gons, Silvio (1963). Aggiornamenti sociali. 14. p. 217.
  6. Tobagi, Walter (2009). Il Saggiatore (ed.). La rivoluzione impossibile: l'attentato a Togliatti, violenza politica e reazione popolare. p. 35.
  7. 1 2 Victoria Belco (2010). War, Massacre, and Recovery in Central Italy, 1943-1948. University of Toronto Press. p. 498. ISBN   978-0-8020-9314-1.
  8. Ram Mudambi; Pietro Navarra; Giuseppe Sobbrio (2001). "A History of the Italian Political System – 1913 to the Present". Rules, Choice and Strategy: The Political Economy of Italian Electoral Reform. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 32–33. ISBN   978-1-78195-082-1.