Last updated
Chinese Jingdezhen porcelain moonflask with underglaze blue and red. Qianlong period, 1736 to 1796 Chinese - Flask - Walters 491632 (square).jpg
Chinese Jingdezhen porcelain moonflask with underglaze blue and red. Qianlong period, 1736 to 1796
A lithophane exploits the translucency of porcelain Lithophanie - Tischlampe, Porzellan, Vista Alegre, D2196.jpg
A lithophane exploits the translucency of porcelain
Nymphenburg porcelain group modelled by Franz Anton Bustelli, 1756 Bustelli Liebesgruppe Der gestorte Schlafer BNM.jpg
Nymphenburg porcelain group modelled by Franz Anton Bustelli, 1756

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pottery</span> Craft of making objects from clay

Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other raw materials, which are fired at high temperatures to give them a hard and durable form. The place where such wares are made by a potter is also called a pottery. The definition of pottery, used by the ASTM International, is "all fired ceramic wares that contain clay when formed, except technical, structural, and refractory products". End applications include tableware, decorative ware, sanitary ware, and in technology and industry such as electrical insulators and laboratory ware. In art history and archaeology, especially of ancient and prehistoric periods, pottery often means vessels only, and sculpted figurines of the same material are called terracottas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Earthenware</span> Nonvitreous pottery

Earthenware is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery that has normally been fired below 1,200 °C (2,190 °F). Basic earthenware, often called terracotta, absorbs liquids such as water. However, earthenware can be made impervious to liquids by coating it with a ceramic glaze, and such a process is used for the great majority of modern domestic earthenware. The main other important types of pottery are porcelain, bone china, and stoneware, all fired at high enough temperatures to vitrify. End applications include tableware and decorative ware such as figurines.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Stoneware</span> Term for pottery or other ceramics fired at a relatively high temperature

Stoneware is a broad term for pottery fired at a relatively high temperature. A modern definition is a vitreous or semi-vitreous ceramic made primarily from stoneware clay or non-refractory fire clay. End applications include tableware, decorative ware such as vases.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Japanese pottery and porcelain</span> Overview of Japanese pottery and porcelain

Pottery and porcelain is one of the oldest Japanese crafts and art forms, dating back to the Neolithic period. Kilns have produced earthenware, pottery, stoneware, glazed pottery, glazed stoneware, porcelain, and blue-and-white ware. Japan has an exceptionally long and successful history of ceramic production. Earthenwares were made as early as the Jōmon period, giving Japan one of the oldest ceramic traditions in the world. Japan is further distinguished by the unusual esteem that ceramics hold within its artistic tradition, owing to the enduring popularity of the tea ceremony.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Celadon</span> Term for ceramics with two different types of glazes

Celadon is a term for pottery denoting both wares glazed in the jade green celadon color, also known as greenware or "green ware", and a type of transparent glaze, often with small cracks, that was first used on greenware, but later used on other porcelains. Celadon originated in China, though the term is purely European, and notable kilns such as the Longquan kiln in Zhejiang province are renowned for their celadon glazes. Celadon production later spread to other parts of East Asia, such as Japan and Korea, as well as Southeast Asian countries, such as Thailand. Eventually, European potteries produced some pieces, but it was never a major element there. Finer pieces are in porcelain, but both the color and the glaze can be produced in stoneware and earthenware. Most of the earlier Longquan celadon is on the border of stoneware and porcelain, meeting the Chinese but not the European definitions of porcelain.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Korean pottery and porcelain</span>

Korean ceramic history begins with the oldest earthenware from around 8000 BC. Throughout the history, the Korean peninsula has been home to lively, innovative, and sophisticated art making. Long periods of stability have allowed for the establishment of spiritual traditions, and artisan technologies specific to the region. Korean ceramics in Neolithic period have a unique geometric patterns of sunshine, or it is decorated with twists. In Southern part of Korea, Mumun pottery were popular. Mumun togi used specific minerals to make colors of red and black. Korean pottery developed a distinct style of its own, with its own shapes, such as the moon jar or Buncheong sagi which is a new form between earthenware and porcelain, white clay inlay celadon of Goryeo, and later styles like minimalism that represents Korean Joseon philosophers' idea. Many talented Korean potters were captured and brought to Japan during the invasions of Korea, where they heavily contributed to advancing Japanese pottery. Arita ware, founded by Yi Sam-pyeong opened a new era of porcelain in Japan. Another Japanese representative porcelain, Satsuma ware was also founded by Dang-gil Shim and Pyeong-ui Park. 14th generation of Su-kwan Shim have been using the same name to his grandfather and father to honor they are originally Korean, 14th Su-kwan Shim is honorable citizen of Namwon, Korea.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Blue and white pottery</span> Vases

"Blue and white pottery" covers a wide range of white pottery and porcelain decorated under the glaze with a blue pigment, generally cobalt oxide. The decoration is commonly applied by hand, originally by brush painting, but nowadays by stencilling or by transfer-printing, though other methods of application have also been used. The cobalt pigment is one of the very few that can withstand the highest firing temperatures that are required, in particular for porcelain, which partly accounts for its long-lasting popularity. Historically, many other colours required overglaze decoration and then a second firing at a lower temperature to fix that.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Islamic pottery</span> Pottery of Islamic lands

Islamic pottery occupied a geographical position between Chinese ceramics, and the pottery of the Byzantine Empire and Europe. For most of the period, it made great aesthetic achievements and influence as well, influencing Byzantium and Europe. The use of drinking and eating vessels in gold and silver, the ideal in ancient Rome and Persia as well as medieval Christian societies, is prohibited by the Hadiths, with the result that pottery and glass were used for tableware by Muslim elites, as pottery also was in China but was much rarer in Europe and Byzantium. In the same way, Islamic restrictions greatly discouraged figurative wall painting, encouraging the architectural use of schemes of decorative and often geometrically patterned titles, which are the most distinctive and original speciality of Islamic ceramics.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Soft-paste porcelain</span> Porcelain material consisting of clay and other materials

Soft-paste porcelain is a type of ceramic material in pottery, usually accepted as a type of porcelain. It is weaker than "true" hard-paste porcelain, and does not require either its high firing temperatures or special mineral ingredients. There are many types, using a range of materials. The material originated in the attempts by many European potters to replicate hard-paste Chinese export porcelain, especially in the 18th century, and the best versions match hard-paste in whiteness and translucency, but not in strength. But the look and feel of the material can be highly attractive, and it can take painted decoration very well.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hard-paste porcelain</span>

Hard-paste porcelain, sometimes called "true porcelain", is a ceramic material that was originally made from a compound of the feldspathic rock petuntse and kaolin fired at a very high temperature, usually around 1400 °C. It was first made in China around the 7th or 8th century and has remained the most common type of Chinese porcelain.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chinese ceramics</span> Pottery and porcelain from China

Chinese ceramics show a continuous development since pre-dynastic times and are one of the most significant forms of Chinese art and ceramics globally. The first pottery was made during the Palaeolithic era. Chinese ceramics range from construction materials such as bricks and tiles, to hand-built pottery vessels fired in bonfires or kilns, to the sophisticated Chinese porcelain wares made for the imperial court and for export. Porcelain was a Chinese invention and is so identified with China that it is still called "china" in everyday English usage.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ceramic glaze</span> Fused coating on ceramic objects

Ceramic glaze, or simply glaze, is a glassy coating on ceramics. It is used for decoration, to ensure the item is impermeable to liquids and to minimise the adherence of pollutants.

This is a list of pottery and ceramic terms.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dehua porcelain</span> UNESCO World Heritage Site

Dehua porcelain, more traditionally known in the West as Blanc de Chine, is a type of white Chinese porcelain, made at Dehua in the Fujian province. It has been produced from the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) to the present day. Large quantities arrived in Europe as Chinese export porcelain in the early 18th century and it was copied at Meissen and elsewhere. It was also exported to Japan in large quantities. In 2021, the kilns of Dehua were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List along with many other sites near Quanzhou for their importance for medieval maritime trade and the exchange of cultures and ideas around the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Qingbai ware</span> Type of Chinese porcelain

Qingbai ware is a type of Chinese porcelain produced under the Song Dynasty and Yuan dynasty, defined by the ceramic glaze used. Qingbai ware is white with a blue-greenish tint, and is also referred to as Yingqing. It was made in Jiangxi province in south-eastern China, in several locations including Jingdezhen, and is arguably the first type of porcelain to be produced on a very large scale. However, it was not at the time a prestigious ware, and was mostly used for burial wares and exports, or a middle-rank Chinese market. The quality is very variable, reflecting these different markets; the best pieces can be very thin-walled.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chinese influences on Islamic pottery</span>

Chinese influences on Islamic pottery cover a period starting from at least the 8th century CE to the 19th century. This influence of Chinese ceramics has to be viewed in the broader context of the considerable importance of Chinese culture on Islamic arts in general.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Seto ware</span>

Seto ware is a type of Japanese pottery, stoneware, and ceramics produced in and around the city of Seto in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The Japanese term for it, setomono, is also used as a generic term for all pottery. Seto was the location of one of the Six Ancient Kilns of Japan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">China painting</span> Art of painting on ceramics

China painting, or porcelain painting, is the decoration of glazed porcelain objects such as plates, bowls, vases or statues. The body of the object may be hard-paste porcelain, developed in China in the 7th or 8th century, or soft-paste porcelain, developed in 18th-century Europe. The broader term ceramic painting includes painted decoration on lead-glazed earthenware such as creamware or tin-glazed pottery such as maiolica or faience.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ceramic art</span> Decorative objects made from clay and other raw materials by the process of pottery

Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials, including clay. It may take varied forms, including artistic pottery, including tableware, tiles, figurines and other sculpture. As one of the plastic arts, ceramic art is a visual art. While some ceramics are considered fine art, such as pottery or sculpture, most are considered to be decorative, industrial or applied art objects. Ceramic art can be created by one person or by a group, in a pottery or a ceramic factory with a group designing and manufacturing the artware.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tradeware ceramics in the Philippines</span> Ceramics produced in different countries and traded within the Philippines

Tradeware ceramics in the Philippines are ceramics produced in different countries and traded within the Philippines. They are often referred to as export ware and became popular due to their kaolin-type clay that was difficult to replicate. Tradeware ceramics in the Philippines range from Pre-Spanish arrival through the Manila Galleon of the Colonial period. Leading scholars in this field are Carl E. Guthe, Li Jian'an, Li Min, Olov Janse, and Robert Fox.


  1. "Porcelain, n. and adj". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 18 Jun 2018.
  2. OED, "China"; An Introduction to Pottery. 2nd edition. Rado P. Institute of Ceramic / Pergamon Press. 1988. Usage of "china" in this sense is inconsistent, & it may be used of other types of ceramics also.
  3. Harmonized commodity description and coding system: explanatory notes, Volume 3, 1986, Customs Co-operation Council, U.S. Customs Service, U.S. Department of the Treasury
  4. Definition in The Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities defines, Burton, 1906
  5. Valenstein, S. (1998). A handbook of Chinese ceramics Archived September 9, 2016, at the Wayback Machine , pp. 22, 59-60, 72, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. ISBN   9780870995149
  6. 'Porcelain Tableware Market - Outlook To 2031'. Transparency Market Research, 2021.
  7. 1 2 3 Richards, Sarah (1999). Eighteenth-century ceramic: Products for a civilised society . Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp.  23–26. ISBN   978-0-7190-4465-6.
  8. Reed, Cleota; Skoczen; Stan (1997). Syracuse China. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. pp. 51–52. ISBN   978-0-8156-0474-7. Archived from the original on 2014-01-07.
  9. N. Hudson Moore (1903). The Old China Book. Wildside Press LLC. p. 7. ISBN   978-1-4344-7727-9. Archived from the original on 2013-05-28.
  10. Strumpf, Faye (2000). Limoges boxes: A complete guide. Iola, WI: Krause Publications. p. 125. ISBN   978-0-87341-837-9. Archived from the original on 2017-12-02.
  11. 1 2 Burton, William (1906). Porcelain, Its Nature, Art and Manufacture. London. pp. 18–19.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  12. Science Of Early English Porcelain. Freestone I C. Sixth Conference and Exhibition of the European Ceramic Society. Extended Abstracts. Vol.1 Brighton, 20–24 June 1999, pg.11-17
  13. The Special Appeal Of Bone China. Cubbon R C P.Tableware Int. 11, (9), 30, 1981
  14. All About Bone China. Cubbon R C P. Tableware Int. 10, (9), 34, 1980
  15. Spode's Bone China – Progress In Processing Without Compromise In Quality. George R T; Forbes D; Plant P. Ceram. Ind. 115, (6), 32, 1980
  16. An Introduction To The Technology Of Pottery. Paul Rado. Institute of Ceramics & Pergamon Press, 1988
  17. Changes & Developments Of Non-plastic Raw Materials. Sugden A. International Ceramics Issue 2 2001.
  18. Kelun, Chen (2004). Chinese porcelain: Art, elegance, and appreciation. San Francisco: Long River Press. p. 3. ISBN   978-1-59265-012-5. Archived from the original on 2013-05-28.
  19. 1 2 "Porcelain". Columbia Encyclopedia Sixth Edition. 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-03-02. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
  20. Vainker, 66
  21. 1 2 Te-k'un, Cheng (1984). Studies in Chinese ceramics. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press. pp. 92–93. ISBN   978-962-201-308-7. Archived from the original on 2017-12-02.
  22. 1 2 3 Temple, Robert K.G. (2007). The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery, and Invention (3rd edition). London: André Deutsch, pp. 104-5. ISBN   978-0-233-00202-6
  23. Kerr, Rose, Needham, Joseph, Wood, Nigel, Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 12, Ceramic Technology, 2004, Cambridge University Press, ISBN   978-0-521-83833-7, Google books
  24. Wood, Nigel (2011). Chinese Glazes: Their Origins, Chemistry, and Recreation. London: A. & C. Black. ISBN   978-1-4081-4025-3.
  25. Cohen, David Harris; Hess, Catherine (1993). Looking at European ceramics : a guide to technical terms. Malibu: The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal. p. 59. ISBN   978-0-89236-216-5. Archived from the original on 2014-07-06.
  26. Rawson, Jessica "Chinese Art", 2007, publisher:the British Museum Press, London, ISBN   978-0-7141-2446-9
  27. Smith, Harris, & Clark, 163-164; Watson, 260
  28. Smith, Harris, & Clark, 164-165; Watson, 261
  29. Smith, Harris, & Clark, 165; Watson, 261
  30. De Ayala, Fernando Zobel (1961). "The First Philippine Porcelain". Philippine Studies. 9 (1): 17–19. JSTOR   42719652.
  31. Ouano-Savellon, R. (2014). Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society Vol. 42, No. 3/4: Aginid Bayok Sa Atong Tawarik: Archaic Cebuano and Historicity in a Folk Narrative. University of San Carlos Publications.
  32. cap. CLVIII dell'edizione a cura di L.F. Benedetto, 1928; cap. 153 dell'edizione a cura di V. Pizzorusso Bertolucci
  33. 1 2 Burns, William E. (2003). Science in the enlightenment: An encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio. pp. 38–39. ISBN   978-1-57607-886-0. Archived from the original on 2015-11-20.
  34. Wardropper, Ian (1992). News from a radiant future: Soviet porcelain from the collection of Craig H. and Kay A. Tuber. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago. ISBN   978-0-86559-106-6. Archived from the original on 2017-12-02.
  35. 1 2  Baghdiantz McAbe, Ina (2008). Orientalism in Early Modern France. Oxford: Berg Publishing, p. 220. ISBN   978-1-84520-374-0
     Finley, Robert (2010). The pilgrim art. Cultures of porcelain in world history. University of California Press, p. 18. ISBN   978-0-520-24468-9
     Kerr, R. & Wood, N. (2004). Joseph Needham : Science and Civilisation in China, Volume 5 Chemistry and Chemical Technology : Part 12 Ceramic Technology Archived August 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine . Cambridge University Press, p. 36-7. ISBN   0-521-83833-9
     Zhang, Xiping (2006). Following the steps of Matteo Ricci to China. Beijing: China Intercontinental Press. p. 168. ISBN   978-7-5085-0982-2. Archived from the original on 2013-05-28.
     Burton, William (1906). Porcelain, Its Nature, Art and Manufacture. London. pp. 47–48.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  36. Gleeson, Janet. The Arcanum, a short history on the greed, obsession, murder and betrayal that led to the creation of Meissen porcelain. Bantam Books, London, 1998.
  37. BBC4 How it works: Ep 3. Ceramics how they work 16 Apr 2012
  38. History of Russian inventions. Porcelain. (In Russian).
  39. "History of Russian porcelain: from its origins to the present day". Archived from the original on 2020-10-01. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  40. Lobanov-Rostovsky, Nina (1989). "Soviet Propaganda Porcelain". The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts. 11: 126–141. ISSN   0888-7314. JSTOR   1503986.
  41. Crichton-Miller, Emma. "The tale of Russia's revolutionary ceramics | Blog | Royal Academy of Arts". www.royalacademy.org.uk. Retrieved 2022-03-03.
  42. "Porcelain Pop Art by Oksana Zhnikrup". Ukrainian Art Library. Retrieved 2022-03-02.
  43. Honey, W.B., European Ceramic Art, Faber and Faber, 1952, p.533
  44. Munger, Jeffrey (October 2004). "Sèvres Porcelain in the Nineteenth Century Archived September 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine ". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 31 October 2011
  45. Metropolitan Museum of Art Archived May 8, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  46. Battie, 102-105: Le Corbellier, 1-29
  47. ‘Science Of Early English Porcelain.’ I.C. Freestone. Sixth Conference and Exhibition of the European Ceramic Society. Vol.1 Brighton, 20–24 June 1999, p.11-17
  48. ‘The Sites Of The Chelsea Porcelain Factory.’ E.Adams. Ceramics (1), 55, 1986.
  49. "Bow". Museum of London. Archived from the original on 3 December 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  50. "Bow porcelain bowl, painted by Thomas Craft". British Museum. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  51. 1 2 "Bow porcelain". British History Online. University of London & History of Parliament Trust. Archived from the original on 3 December 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  52. "St James's (Charles Gouyn)". Museum of London. Archived from the original on 3 December 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  53. Ceramic Figureheads. Pt. 3. William Littler And The Origins Of Porcelain In Staffordshire. Cookson Mon. Bull. Ceram. Ind. (550), 1986.
  54. "The History of Royal Crown Derby". Royal Crown Derby. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  55. History of Royal Crown Derby Co Ltd, from "British Potters and Potteries Today", publ 1956
  56. 'The Lowestoft Porcelain Factory, and the Chinese Porcelain Made for the European Market during the Eighteenth Century.' L. Solon. The Burlington Magazine. No. 6. Vol.II. August 1906.
  57. 'Insulators For High Voltages.' J. S. T. Looms. Institution of Electrical Engineers. 1988. Pg. 4
  58. ’High-Voltage Insulators: Basics and Trends for Producers, Users and Students.’ J. Liebermann. Schulze. 2012. Pg. 15
  59. 'Development Of Electrical Porcelain Insulators From Local Clays' C.C. Okolo; O.A. Ezechukwu; E.N. Ifeagwu E. N & R.C. Unegbu. International Journal of Engineering Innovation & Research. Volume 3, Issue 6, ISSN: 2277 – 566
  60. 'Manufacture of Porcelain Insulators' INMR magazine June 2022
  61. 'Insulators For High Voltages.' J. S. T. Looms. Institution of Electrical Engineers. 1988. Pg. 60
  62. 'The Influence of Kiln Atmospheres on Electrical Porcelain Firing' Hong Yin, Xhengqun Liu, Xiaoli Hu. Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 15. [1] 176-179. (1994)
  63. "Largest ceramic structure". 25 September 2018.
  64. "Transformer Insulators Recognized by Guinness World Records | News".
  65. 'Overview of World Markets for Insulators & Bushings' INMR magazine Sept. 2016.
  66. 'Industrial Ceramics. Singer F. & Singer S.S. Chapman & Hall. 1971
  67. 'Dictionary of Ceramic Science and Engineering' 3rd edition. I.J.McColm. Springer. 2013. pg. 89
  68. Standard Terminology Of Ceramic Whitewares And Related Products. ASTM C242-01 (2007). ASTM International)
  69. ’Manufacturers Of Porcelain Tiles’ Ceram.World Rev. 6, No.19, 1996 … ‘The main manufacturers of porcelain tiles in Italy, Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania and the Americas are listed.’
  70. ”Italian Porcelain Tile Production At The Top” Ind.Ceram. 27, No.2, 2007.
  71. Porcelain Room, Aranjuez [ dead link ] Comprehensive but shaky video
  72. “Porcelain Tile: The Revolution Is Only Beginning.” Tile Decorative Surf. 42, No.11, 1992.
  73. "What is a Bourdaloue?". wisegeek.com. 2014. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  74. 'Sanitaryware' Domenico Fortuna. Faenza (Gruppo Editoriale), 2000
  75. "Buick made bathtubs before he built cars | Las Vegas Review-Journal". reviewjournal.com. 2014. Archived from the original on 4 October 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  76. 'A Clinical Guide To Applied Dental Materials' S. J. Bonsor and G. J. Pearson. Elsevier 2013
  77. "Maghsoud Factories Group". Maghsoud Factories Group. Archived from the original on 13 July 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  78. "History". Zarin Iran Porcelain Industries. Archived from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
  79. "Trang chủ | Gốm sứ cao cấp Minh Long I". Archived from the original on 2017-02-23. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  80. Richard Ginori: Gucci firma l'accordo per l'acquisizione | Il Sito di Firenze
  81. Jiesia
  82. Iwona Kienzler "Dwudziestolecie międzywojenne" Tom 48 "Kultowe marki" s. 27 ISBN   978-83-7945-029-9
  83. "Polskie Fabryki Porcelany 'Ćmielów' i 'Chodzież' S.A." Polskie Fabryki Porcelany Ćmielów i Chodziez S.A. Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
  84. "Kristoff Porcelain". Kristoff Porcelain. Archived from the original on 24 July 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  85. "Lubiana S.A. - polski producent porcelany dla domu i rynku horeca". Lubiana S.A. - polski producent porcelany dla domu i rynku horeca. Archived from the original on 10 December 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017.


Further reading