Port Elizabeth

Last updated

Port Elizabeth

Die Baai(in Afrikaans)
iBhayi(in Xhosa)
City Hall Port Elizabeth-003.jpg
City Hall, Market Square, Port Elizabeth.
South Africa Eastern Cape location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Port Elizabeth
South Africa adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Port Elizabeth
Coordinates: 33°57′29″S25°36′00″E / 33.95806°S 25.60000°E / -33.95806; 25.60000 Coordinates: 33°57′29″S25°36′00″E / 33.95806°S 25.60000°E / -33.95806; 25.60000
Country South Africa
Province Eastern Cape
Municipality Nelson Mandela Bay
Established1820
Government
  Mayor Mongameli Bobani (UDM)
Area
[1]
  City251.03 km2 (96.92 sq mi)
  Metro
1,959 km2 (756 sq mi)
Population
 (2011) [1]
  City312,392
  Density1,200/km2 (3,200/sq mi)
   Metro
[1]
1,152,915
  Metro density590/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
Racial makeup (2011)
[1]
   Black African 30.6%
   Coloured 27.0%
   Indian/Asian 3.2%
   White 37.8%
  Other1.4%
First languages (2011)
[1]
   Afrikaans 40.2%
   English 33.2%
   Xhosa 22.2%
  Other4.3%
Time zone UTC+2 (SAST)
Postal code (street)
6001
PO box
6000
Area code 041

Port Elizabeth or The Bay [2] (Xhosa : iBhayi; Afrikaans : Die Baai [di ˈbɑːi] ) is one of the major cities in South Africa; it is situated in the Eastern Cape Province. The city, often shortened to PE and nicknamed "The Windy City", stretches for 16 kilometres (10 mi) along Algoa Bay, and is one of the major seaports in South Africa. Port Elizabeth is the southernmost large city on the African continent, just farther south than Cape Town. Port Elizabeth was founded as a town in 1820 to house British settlers as a way of strengthening the border region between the Cape Colony and the Xhosa. It now forms part of the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality, which has a population of over 1.3 million.

Xhosa language Nguni Bantu language

Xhosa is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants and is one of the official languages of South Africa. It is also an official language of Zimbabwe. Xhosa is spoken as a first language by approximately 8.2 million people and by another 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape Province. Like most other Bantu languages, Xhosa is a tonal language; the same sequence of consonants and vowels can have different meanings, depending on intonation. Xhosa has two tones: high and low.

South Africa Republic in the southernmost part of Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Bantu ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European, Asian (Indian), and multiracial (Coloured) ancestry.

Algoa Bay

Algoa Bay is a bay in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. It is located in the east coast, 425 miles east of the Cape of Good Hope.

Contents

History

Pre-Apartheid

Hunters and gatherers ancestral to the San first settled the area around what is now called Algoa Bay at least 10,000 years ago. Around 2,000 years ago, they were gradually displaced or assimilated by agriculturalist populations ancestral to the Xhosa people, who migrated into the region from the north. [3]

The first Europeans to visit the area sailed with the Portuguese explorers Bartholomeu Dias, who landed on St Croix Island in Algoa Bay in 1488, [4] and Vasco da Gama, who noted the nearby Bird Island in 1497. For centuries, the area appeared on European navigation charts marked simply as "a landing place with fresh water". [5]

Vasco da Gama Portuguese explorer

Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira, was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea. His initial voyage to India (1497–1499) was the first to link Europe and Asia by an ocean route, connecting the Atlantic and the Indian oceans and therefore, the West and the Orient.

The Portuguese Crown had as one of its main goals in the Indian Ocean taking over the lucrative trade of Arab and Afro-Arabian merchants who plied routes between the East African coast and India. As they took over that trade, the Portuguese strengthened trading with Goa, their main trading point in India. The name Algoa means "to Goa", just as the port further north in present-day Mozambique, Delagoa means "from Goa" in Portuguese. [6]

Kingdom of Portugal kingdom in Southwestern Europe between 1139 and 1910

The Kingdom of Portugal was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal. It was in existence from 1139 until 1910. After 1415, it was also known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, and between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. The name is also often applied to the Portuguese Empire, the realm's extensive overseas colonies.

Goa State in India

Goa is a state on the southwestern coast of India within the region known as the Konkan, separated from the Deccan highlands of the state of Karnataka by the Western Ghats. It is bounded by Maharashtra to the north and Karnataka to the east and south, with the Arabian Sea forming its western coast. It is India's smallest state by area and the fourth-smallest by population. Goa has the highest GDP per capita among all Indian states, two and a half times that of the country. It was ranked the best-placed state by the Eleventh Finance Commission for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the best quality of life in India by the National Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators.

The area became part of the Cape Colony. This area had a turbulent history between the settlement by the Dutch East India Company in 1652 and the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910. [7]

Cape Colony Dutch and British colony in Southern Africa

The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony, was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope. The British colony was preceded by an earlier Dutch colony of the same name, the Kaap de Goede Hoop, established in 1652 by the Dutch East India Company. The Cape was under Dutch rule from 1652 to 1795 and again from 1803 to 1806. The Dutch lost the colony to Great Britain following the 1795 Battle of Muizenberg, but had it returned following the 1802 Peace of Amiens. It was re-occupied by the UK following the Battle of Blaauwberg in 1806, and British possession affirmed with the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814.

Dutch East India Company 17th-century Dutch trading company

The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company was an early megacorporation founded by a government-directed amalgamation of several rival Dutch trading companies (voorcompagnieën) in the early 17th century. It was established on March 20, 1602, as a chartered company to trade with Mughal India during the period of proto-industrialization, from which 50% of textiles and 80% of silks were imported, chiefly from its most developed region known as Bengal Subah. In addition, the company Indianised Southeast Asian countries when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade. It has been often labelled a trading company or sometimes a shipping company. However, VOC was in fact a proto-conglomerate company, diversifying into multiple commercial and industrial activities such as international trade, shipbuilding, and both production and trade of East Indian spices, Formosan sugarcane, and South African wine. The Company was a transcontinental employer and an early pioneer of outward foreign direct investment. The Company's investment projects helped raise the commercial and industrial potential of many underdeveloped or undeveloped regions of the world in the early modern period. In the early 1600s, by widely issuing bonds and shares of stock to the general public, VOC became the world's first formally listed public company. In other words, it was the first corporation to be listed on an official stock exchange. It was influential in the rise of corporate-led globalisation in the early modern period.

Union of South Africa state in southern Africa from 1910 to 1961, predecessor to the Republic of South Africa

The Union of South Africa is the historical predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, the Transvaal, and the Orange River Colony. It included the territories that were formerly a part of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State.

Fort Frederick Port Elizabeth Fort Frederick.jpg
Fort Frederick

In 1799, at the time of the first British occupation of the Colony during the Napoleonic Wars, British troops built a stone fort named Fort Frederick after the Duke of York. This fort, aiming to deter a possible landing of French troops, overlooked the site of what later became Port Elizabeth. The fort is now preserved as a monument. [8]

Napoleonic Wars Series of early 19th century European wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), the Fifth (1809), the Sixth (1813), and the Seventh (1815).

Fort Frederick in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, was built in 1799 in order to stop the French from conquering the Cape Colony during the Napoleonic wars and played a vital role in establishing British rule in South Africa in combination with the Battle of Blaauwberg.

Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany British prince

Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany was the second son of George III, King of the United Kingdom and Hanover, and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. A soldier by profession, from 1764 to 1803 he was Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück in the Holy Roman Empire. From the death of his father in 1820 until his own death in 1827 he was the heir presumptive to his elder brother, George IV, in both the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Hanover.

From 1814 to 1821 the Strandfontein farm, which later became the Summerstrand beach suburb of Port Elizabeth, was owned by Piet Retief. [9] He later became a Voortrekker leader and was killed in 1837 by Zulu king Dingane during negotiations about land. An estimated 500 men, woman and children of his party were massacred. Frederik Korsten owned the Strandfontein farm after Retief. The suburb of Korsten was named after Frederick since the 19th Century. [10]

In 1820 a party of 4,000 British settlers arrived by sea, encouraged by the government of the Cape Colony to form a settlement to strengthen the border region between the Cape Colony and the Xhosa people. At this time the seaport town was founded by Sir Rufane Shaw Donkin, the Acting Governor of the Cape Colony (in office: 1820-1821), who named it "Port Elizabeth" after his late wife, Elizabeth, [11] Diplomat Edmund Roberts visited Port Elizabeth in the early 1830s. Roberts noted that Port Elizabeth in the 1820s had "contained four houses, and now it has upward of one hundred houses, and its residents are rated at above twelve hundred persons". [12]

The Roman Catholic Church established the Apostolic Vicariate of Cape of Good Hope, Eastern District in the city in 1847, and in 1861 Port Elizabeth was granted the status of autonomous municipality. The population increased rapidly after 1873 when the railway to Kimberley was built. Cape Colony Prime Minister John Molteno had formed the Cape Government Railways in 1872, and the massive expansion of the Cape Colony's railway network over the following years saw the harbour of Port Elizabeth servicing a large area of the Cape's hinterland. The rapid economic development around the port, which followed the railway construction, caused Port Elizabeth to get the nickname "the Liverpool of South Africa". The town expanded as a diverse community comprising Xhosa as well as European, Cape Malay and other immigrants. [13] [14] [15]

Horse Memorial Port Elizabeth Horse Memorial.jpg
Horse Memorial

During the Second Boer War of 1899-1902 the port served as an important transit-point for British soldiers, horses and materials headed to the front by railway. While no armed conflict took place within the city, many refugees from the war moved into the city. These included Boer women and children, whom the British interned in a concentration camp. "The unveiling of the monument commemorating the services of the horses which perished during the Anglo Boer War, 1899-1902, took place on Saturday afternoon, February 11, 1905, with His Worship the Mayor, Mr A Fettes, performing the ceremony." [16]

Apartheid era

Under apartheid, the South African government established legal racial segregation and started programs to separate communities physically as well as by classification and custom. The forced relocation under the auspices of the Group Areas Act of the non-white population from mixed areas began in 1962, causing various townships to be built for their use. Classification was sometimes arbitrary, and as in many other localities throughout the country, many citizens appearing to have mixed ancestry were at times subject to re-classification, which often had intrusive sociopolitical results. The non-white tenants of South End, and land owners in Fairview were forcibly relocated from 1965 through to 1975, as these areas were valued as prime real estate. [17] The city-planning was viewed as the prototypical apartheid city.

As black South Africans organized to try to achieve civil rights and social justice, government repression increased. In 1977 Steve Biko, the black anti-apartheid activist, was interrogated and tortured by the security police in Port Elizabeth before being transported to Pretoria, where he died. [18] Other notable deaths in the city during this time included those of The Cradock Four, [19] and of George Botha, [20] a high-school teacher.

1952 Defiance Campaign

In 1952 the African National Congress and the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) called all South Africans to stand up against the apartheid government's unjust laws directed at the black African, Indian and coloured population. On April 6, while most white South Africans celebrated the tercentenary of Jan van Riebeeck's arrival at the Cape in 1652, the ANC and SAIC called on black South Africans to observe the day as a "A National Day of Pledge and Prayer". 15 000 people attended in Johannesburg, 10 000 in Cape Town, 10 000 in Durban and 20 000 in Port Elizabeth. The meeting in Port Elizabeth was led by Professor Z. K. Matthews and by Raymond Mhlaba.

On 25 July 1952, a day before the official start of the Defiance Campaign, 30 volunteers led by Raymond Mhlaba gathered at the New Brighton Civic Centre and prayed throughout the night. At 5am on 26 July, they left the Civic Centre and walked towards the New Brighton Railway Station. In Raymond Mhlaba's Personal Memoirs: Reminiscing from Rwanda and Uganda, Mhlaba recalled:

"I led the very first group and we entered the 'Europeans Only' section of the New Brighton station. By half past six we were already in police vans on our way to jail. It turned out that my party (group) was the very first to defy unjust laws in the whole of South Africa. Little did we know that we were making history." [21]

Mhlaba became the first man to be arrested during the campaign, while Francis Matomela was the first woman. [22] 2 007 people were arrested in Port Elizabeth during the Defiance Campaign included Oom Gov (Govan Mbeki) and Vuyisile Mini. Other volunteers who emerged as key role players during the campaign included Nosipho Dastile, Nontuthuzelo Mabala, Lillian Diedricks and Veronica Sobukwe. [23]

1985 Consumer Boycotts

After the formation of the ANC-affiliated United Democratic Front in 1983, political consciousness in black townships grew.[ citation needed ] With numerous protests across the country and the massacre in Langa township near Uitenhage, Eastern Cape police presence had increased in South African townships. In Port Elizabeth townships, black South Africans demanded the integration of public institutions, the removal of troops from black townships, and the end of workplace discrimination. To launch an effective campaign to cripple the white-owned institutions of Port Elizabeth and to undermine the legitimacy of apartheid, several women suggested the idea of a consumer boycott to the Port Elizabeth Black Civic Organisation (PEBCO) in May 1985. The economic boycott began on July 15, 1985, and received massive support in townships around Port Elizabeth. By September 1985, white business-owners became desperate and called on the government to meet the demands of black South Africans. In November the boycott was still hurting white businesses in Port Elizabeth greatly. The white South African government reached an agreement with PEBCO which stated that the boycott would halt until March 1986 if business owners arranged for the release of black leaders. [24]

In 1986, as the deal was approaching its end, the boycotters imposed a deadline of March 31, stating that the boycott would resume if the initial demands were not met. On March 11, the government unexpectedly banned two leaders, one of whom was Mkuseli Jack. However, on March 22, the ban was lifted by the decision of a Supreme Court Justice on the grounds that the government had given insufficient reasons. Jack ripped up the ban papers, and used the celebration as a way to represent the solidarity that the campaign required. As the demands of the boycotters were not met by March 31, the boycott was renewed on April 1. The boycott continued for nine weeks, but on June 12, 1986, another state of emergency was imposed by the National Party government. Security forces searched through the townships, arresting thousands and raiding the offices of black civics, trade unions, the UDF, the South African Council, and churches and also confiscating documents. [25]

Post Apartheid

With the establishment of the Coega Industrial Development Zone (CIDZ), foreign direct and also national-level investment has improved substantially in the region of Nelson Mandela Bay/Port Elizabeth. The IDZ, under the stewardship of the Coega Development Corporation (CDC), since inception has managed to attract to its investment account in excess of R140-billion into the economy of the Eastern Cape and has enabled the creation of over 45 000 jobs.[ citation needed ] This is significant for the sustainability of the IDZ, Nelson Mandela Bay, and the economy of the Eastern Cape. The CDC consistently continues to demonstrate its capability as the leading catalyst for socio-economic growth in the Eastern Cape,[ citation needed ] with a view to becoming so for South Africa.

In 2001 the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality formed as an administrative area covering Port Elizabeth, the neighbouring towns of Uitenhage and Despatch and the surrounding agricultural areas. The name honours former President Nelson Mandela. The combined metropolitan area had a population estimated at around 1.3 million in 2006.

2010 FIFA World Cup

Overtaking its next door neighbouring city East London, Port Elizabeth became the host. The Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium hosted eight World Cup games, featuring South Korea, Greece; Ivory Coast, Portugal; Germany, Serbia; Chile, Switzerland; Slovenia, England in the First Stage, then Uruguay, South Korea in the Group of 16. A quarter-final between Netherlands, Brazil was hosted, then for the Third Place playoff, Uruguay, Germany were hosted at the stadium. The World Cup was played between 11 June 2010 and 11 July 2010. Spain were the eventual champions. [26]

2013 Africa Cup of Nations

Port Elizabeth was also one of the five cities that hosted the 2013 Afcon event. Same stadium of 2010 World Cup hosted eight games: five matches of Group B included Ghana, DR Congo; Mali, Niger; Ghana, Mali; DR. Congo, Niger; Ghana, Niger; one match of Group A Cape Verde, Angola. Quarterfinal Ghana, Cape Verde, then Third Place playoff Ghana, Mali. The Africa Cup of Nations took place between 19 January and 10 February 2013. Nigeria were eventual champions. [27] [28]

Geography

Climate

Port Elizabeth
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
36
 
 
25
18
 
 
40
 
 
25
18
 
 
54
 
 
25
17
 
 
58
 
 
23
14
 
 
59
 
 
22
12
 
 
62
 
 
20
9
 
 
47
 
 
20
9
 
 
64
 
 
20
10
 
 
62
 
 
20
11
 
 
59
 
 
21
13
 
 
49
 
 
22
15
 
 
34
 
 
24
16
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: SAWS [29]

Under the Köppen climate classification, Port Elizabeth has an oceanic climate (Cfb). The area lies between the winter rainfall, Mediterranean climate zones of the Western Cape and the summer rainfall regions of eastern South Africa. Winters are cool but mild and summers are warm but considerably less humid and hot than more northerly parts of South Africa's east coast. [30] The climate is very even throughout the year with extreme heat or moderate cold rare.

Climate data for Port Elizabeth (1961−1990, extremes 1936–1990)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)39.0
(102.2)
40.0
(104.0)
40.7
(105.3)
39.0
(102.2)
35.4
(95.7)
32.4
(90.3)
33.1
(91.6)
36.8
(98.2)
39.7
(103.5)
39.8
(103.6)
40.2
(104.4)
36.0
(96.8)
40.7
(105.3)
Average high °C (°F)25.4
(77.7)
25.4
(77.7)
24.6
(76.3)
23.0
(73.4)
21.7
(71.1)
20.3
(68.5)
19.7
(67.5)
19.6
(67.3)
20.0
(68.0)
20.8
(69.4)
22.3
(72.1)
24.3
(75.7)
22.3
(72.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)21.3
(70.3)
21.2
(70.2)
20.3
(68.5)
18.2
(64.8)
16.1
(61.0)
14.3
(57.7)
13.9
(57.0)
14.3
(57.7)
15.4
(59.7)
16.7
(62.1)
18.2
(64.8)
20.1
(68.2)
17.5
(63.5)
Average low °C (°F)17.9
(64.2)
17.9
(64.2)
16.9
(62.4)
14.3
(57.7)
11.5
(52.7)
9.2
(48.6)
8.8
(47.8)
9.8
(49.6)
11.4
(52.5)
13.1
(55.6)
14.6
(58.3)
16.4
(61.5)
13.5
(56.3)
Record low °C (°F)7.4
(45.3)
7.9
(46.2)
7.0
(44.6)
4.4
(39.9)
−0.3
(31.5)
−0.5
(31.1)
−0.5
(31.1)
−0.2
(31.6)
1.5
(34.7)
3.0
(37.4)
5.6
(42.1)
6.5
(43.7)
−0.5
(31.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)36
(1.4)
40
(1.6)
54
(2.1)
58
(2.3)
59
(2.3)
62
(2.4)
47
(1.9)
64
(2.5)
62
(2.4)
59
(2.3)
49
(1.9)
34
(1.3)
624
(24.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)55765557677570
Average relative humidity (%)77808180767374767778787777
Mean monthly sunshine hours 265.9222.9228.7220.6221.7207.5227.8232.0213.0236.3250.1278.92,805.4
Source #1: NOAA, [31] Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes) [32]
Source #2: South African Weather Service [29]

Hydrology

Port Elizabeth has numerous water features in its encompassing area.

Oceanic

There is a vast length of marine coastline on the city's outer encroachments particularly southwards. Beaches like Kings Beach, Hobie Beach, Bluewater Bay, Sardinia Bay, and the beaches along Marine Drive are abundant. Kings Beach is adjacent to Port Elizabeth's harbour, and the longshore drift from Cape Recife provides a plentiful supply of sea sand. On the north westerly coastline of Port Elizabeth,the contours tends to be rockier than the area between Cape Recife, and the Port of Ngqura.

Freshwater

Port Elizabeth has a few rivers, of which the Baakens River is the most prominent. This river usually floods when a reasonable amount precipitation is observed, especially at low level crossings. North End Lake is the largest natural freshwater [33] body in Port Elizabeth, but has experienced a form of contamination [34] from industry. (It is not recommended to ingest anything from this lake) Also, numerous smaller "lakes" are in the surrounding area, namely Lake Farm.

Drought

Port Elizabeth (as a whole, the entire Eastern Cape) is experiencing a devastating drought, of which a disaster has been declared by the current office bearers of the greater municipality. Water restrictions are in place, and measures are in place to provide enough water in the near future, namely freshwater treatment works being constructed to acquire additional water from the Gariep Dam.

Demographics

Population density in the Nelson Mandela Metro
.mw-parser-output div.columns-2 div.column{float:left;width:50%;min-width:300px}.mw-parser-output div.columns-3 div.column{float:left;width:33.3%;min-width:200px}.mw-parser-output div.columns-4 div.column{float:left;width:25%;min-width:150px}.mw-parser-output div.columns-5 div.column{float:left;width:20%;min-width:120px}
<1 /km2
1-3 /km2
3-10 /km2
10-30 /km2
30-100 /km2
100-300 /km2
300-1000 /km2
1000-3000 /km2
>3000 /km2 Nelson Mandela Bay population density map.svg
Population density in the Nelson Mandela Metro
Geographical distribution of home languages in the Nelson Mandela Metro
Afrikaans
English
Xhosa
None dominant Nelson Mandela Bay dominant language map.svg
Geographical distribution of home languages in the Nelson Mandela Metro

In 2001: [35]

GenderPopulation%
Female122,25351.47
Male115,24748.53
RacePopulation%
Black 123,72252.09
White 32,61813.73
Coloured 71,91230.28
Asian 9,2483.89
First language Population%
IsiZulu 5800.24
IsiXhosa 27,31211.5
Afrikaans 112,79847.49
Sepedi 900.04
Setswana 4110.17
English94,06839.61
Sesotho 4940.21
Xitsonga 1070.05
SiSwati 750.03
Tshivenda 1140.05
IsiNdebele 2970.13
Other 1,1520.49
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1985272,844    
1991303,353+11.2%
2001 237,503−21.7%
2011 312,392+31.5%
[36]

Economy

Trade and industry

Historically, the majority of trade in the region came through Port Elizabeth. In the 1830s, at least five ships regularly transported goods to Europe. [12] It became a free port in 1832. [37] In 1833, about 50 vessels had moved through the port. In 1828, 55,201 pounds, (25038 kg), of goods were imported through the port, increasing by 1832 to 112,845 pounds, (51185 kg), imported in that year. Port Elizabeth exported 41,290 pounds, (18738 kg), in 1828, with a large increase to 86,931 pounds, (39431 kg), goods exported in 1829. Exports included wine, brandy, vinegar, ivory, hides and skins, leather, tallow, butter, soap, wool, ostrich feathers, salted beef, wheat, candles, aloe, barley, and more. [12]

Home of South Africa's motor vehicle industry, Port Elizabeth boasts most vehicle assembly plants, General Motors, Ford, Volkswagen, Continental Tyres and many other automotive-related companies. As of 2018, after GM's exit from Port Elizabeth and South Africa, Isuzu took over their production plant in Struandale. FAW also have built a multi-billion rand plant in the region. Most other industries in Port Elizabeth are geared towards the motor vehicle industry, providing parts such as wiring harnesses, catalytic converters, batteries and tyres to the vehicle manufacturers.

Port Elizabeth is also a major seaport, with the most significant ore loading facilities in the southern hemisphere. As part of the ongoing development, a new Industrial Development Zone with expanded port facilities has been built at Coega.

Tourism

The Donkin Reserve in Port Elizabeth, taken in September 2014. It portrays both the older and parts of the newer sections of the monument. The Donkin Reserve, Port Elizabeth.jpg
The Donkin Reserve in Port Elizabeth, taken in September 2014. It portrays both the older and parts of the newer sections of the monument.

Located at the end of the picturesque Garden Route along the Cape coast, the city has beaches in and near it. The most popular swimming beaches include King's Beach and Hobie Beach.

Many local historic attractions are linked by the Donkin Heritage Trail. These include the Campanile (bell tower), built in 1923 to commemorate the arrival of the 1820 Settlers and offering a viewpoint over the city; the city hall (1862); the Donkin Reserve park and monument; and the old stone Fort Frederick itself (1799). The CBD also boasts the towering Eastern Cape post office headquarters.

Route 67 is a walking trail consisting of 67 public artworks, symbolising 67 years which Nelson Mandela dedicated to the freedom of South Africa. The artwork is a celebration of South African culture and history and is scattered along the route as it starts from the Campanile, up the stairs to the Vuysile Mini Market Square and to the large South African flag at the Donkin Reserve. The artworks were created by local Eastern Cape artists. [38]

Other attractions include the gardens at St George's Park, the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Art Museum (formerly known as the King George VI Art Gallery), the museum and oceanography room at Humewood, and the new Boardwalk waterfront complex.

The wider area surrounding PE also features game viewing opportunities, including the Addo Elephant National Park, 72 kilometres (45 mi) to the north near the Zuurberg mountain range.

Port Elizabeth is also a destination for whale watching with humpback whales sighted between June and August, and again between November and January, southern right whales sighted between July and November, and Bryde's whales sighted all year round. [ citation needed ]

Sports

The Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium in 2009 Nelson Mandela Stadium in Port Elizabeth.jpg
The Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium in 2009

The biggest sporting events in Port Elizabeth, is the annual Ironman triathlon and the Herald Cycle tour. The Tuna classic deep-sea fishing competition attracts anglers from all over the world.

The city has facilities catering for cricket, rugby union, athletics, association football, field hockey and many other sports. Its coastal location also makes it a base for many watersports.

Port Elizabeth is the location of the St George's Park cricket ground, which holds test cricket matches. St George's Park is the oldest cricket ground in South Africa, and was the venue for the first Test match played outside of Australia or England, between South Africa and England on 12 and 13 March 1889. The Warriors, a franchise cricket team in South Africa, is based in Port Elizabeth. The stadium is also known for its band that entertains fans at the Proteas games.

The headquarters of the Southern Spears rugby franchise was in Port Elizabeth. The long-standing Eastern Province Rugby Union, now commonly known as the Eastern Province Elephants, formed the basis of the Spears franchise together with East London's Border Bulldogs. The remnants of the Spears were later reconstituted into the Southern Kings, also based in Port Elizabeth, which joined Super Rugby in 2013. The Southern Kings did not participate in Super Rugby in 2014 or 2015, and returned to Super Rugby in 2016, 2017, but were dropped for economical reasons by SARU. The team now competes in the Guinness Pro14. The Eastern Province Rugby Union play their home matches at Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium, built for the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

In December 2011, Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium became the new home of the South Africa Sevens, the country's leg of the annual IRB Sevens World Series in rugby sevens. The event had previously been held in three other cities, most recently in George in the Western Cape from 2002 to 2010. As of 2015, is hosted annually in Cape Town, in the Western Cape.

The city's main football club is Chippa United, they currently use the Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium as their home ground. Previous clubs to play in the country's top tier were Bay United, Michau Warriors, Port Elizabeth Blackpool, Hotspur F.C., Port Elizabeth City and Westview Apollon.

The Algoa Bay Yacht Club operates out of the Port of Port Elizabeth.

Government

Port Elizabeth had its own municipality from 1843 to 2000. Since then, it has formed part of the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality, and serves as the seat for the surrounding Cacadu District Municipality. It has a Magistrate's Court, a local seat of the Eastern Cape Division of the High Court, and a branch of the Labour Court. As a result of the presence of a High Court, several other related organs of state such as a Masters Office and a Director of Public Prosecutions are present in the city. All Government (mostly provincial) departments maintain branches or other offices in Port Elizabeth.

Coat of arms

The Port Elizabeth municipality assumed a coat of arms on 9 January 1878. [39] [40] The design, prepared by Bradbury Wilkinson and Company (of London), was a simplified version of the arms of Sir Rufane Donkin : Gules, on a chevron Argent between two cinquefoils in chief and a bugle horn stringed in base Or, three buckles Sable; a chief embattled Argent thereon an elephant statant proper. The crest was a sailing ship, and the motto In meliora spera.

(In layman's terms : a red shield displaying, from top to bottom, an elephant on a silver horizontal strip whose lower edge is embattled, two gold cinquefoils, a silver chevron bearing three black buckles, and a gold bugle horn.)

Eighty years later, in 1958, the council made slight changes to the arms, and had them granted by the College of Arms. The changes consisted of adding two anchors to the chief of the shield, placing a red mural crown bearing three golden rings below the ship in the crest, and changing the motto to Tu meliora spera. The arms were registered with the Cape Provincial Administration in 1959, [41] and at the Bureau of Heraldry in 1986. [42]

Education

University Level

The Nelson Mandela University was formed by the amalgamation of the University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth Technikon, and the Port Elizabeth campus of Vista University. It is the largest university in the Eastern and Southern Cape, with around 24,000 students in seven faculties spread over seven campuses.

Russell Road College and AFDA also have campuses in Port Elizabeth.

High School Level

The city has a number of top government-funded and private schools, although the abuse of substances seems to prevail in some schools due to a lack of drug prevention training on the part of the educational system, [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] including Alexander Road High School, [48] Collegiate Girls' High School, Victoria Park High School, Grey High School, [48] [49] Pearson High School, [48] Woodridge College, Andrew Rabie High School and Lawson Brown High School.

Transport

Roads

Port Elizabeth lies on the N2 road. To the west the road travels the Garden Route to George and Cape Town; to the east, the road runs through the Border Country through Grahamstown, to East London then on to Durban, terminating in Ermelo in Mpumalanga. The R75 connects Port Elizabeth to the Karoo. The major routes within the city are numbered as metropolitan or M routes.

The city's main bus station is in Market Square. The public bus service is run by the Algoa Bus Company. Between 1881 and 1948, there was a Port Elizabeth tramway network, powered initially by horses, and later by electricity.

The city is in the process of building a bus rapid transit system which was intended for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. This has been a massive failure as local taxi associations have prevented the implementation. [ citation needed ] Port Elizabeth lacks a proper public transport system which has had a negative impact on the poorer residents of the city who are dependent on public transport. Construction of the bus rapid transit network has been suspended due to mismanagement which led to the project missing its May 2010 deadline. Calls for the project, which has left many parts of the city in a permanent state of construction, have been made recently, and it is expected that the government will make a decision on the matter soon. [ when? ]

Railway

Port Elizabeth railway station is served by South Africa's rail network. Local commuter services are operated by Metrorail, while the Shosholoza Meyl long-distance passenger service links PE with Johannesburg via Bloemfontein where it is possible to connect with other long-distance routes. [50]

The Apple Express narrow-gauge tourist train to Avontuur operated from the separate station in Humewood Road near King's Beach. It departed regularly for Thornhill Village via Van Stadens River bridge, the highest narrow-gauge rail bridge in the world. The Apple Express was launched to provide a service to transport fresh produce and wood from the farms along the line to Avontuur. The line was completed in 1914 and the train delivered produce directly from the farms to ships in the Port Elizabeth Harbour. Due to modern transport methods such as containerisation, and refrigerated containers and trucks, the Apple Express and its services became redundant. Service has now ceased.

In preparation for the 2010 World Cup Soccer event the Humerail Station was extensively upgraded. Several disused narrow gauge goods wagons were scrapped and removed from the site, several buildings in the area have also been renovated and revamped.

Air

Port Elizabeth Airport (IATA airport code PLZ, ICAO airport code FAPE) serves the city for both passenger and cargo traffic. It is the fourth busiest airport in South Africa after Johannesburg International Airport, King Shaka International Airport in Durban, and Cape Town International Airport.

International visitors to the city must currently fly to either Johannesburg, Cape Town or Durban, and then take a domestic flight to Port Elizabeth. An upgrade to the terminal building, completed in 2004, created the necessary facilities to handle international flights [51] although none are scheduled as yet.

Sea

Port Elizabeth has a harbour in Algoa Bay, and the construction of an additional international harbour at Coega has supported an increase in the size of the city's industries and the addition of new industries.

Health care

The city has government-funded and private hospitals, [52] including:

Media

Radio

Port Elizabeth is served by a few radio [53] outlets, namely Algoa FM, Umhlobo Wenene FM [54] (radio broadcasting to the residents of Port Elizabeth, as well as the entire Eastern Cape, and Garden Route, and globally, online.)

Newspapers

The Herald [55] serves the English populace in terms of newspaper, on a daily basis. Die Burger serves the Afrikaans communities as well with a well established readership base.

Internet

There are various social media news groups in Port Elizabeth, which is used at most as neighbourhood watch groups.

Television

The SABC has a regional office in Port Elizabeth. [56]

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Raymond Mhlaba anti-apartheid activist and politician from South Africa

The Honorable Raymond Mphakamisi Mhlaba was an anti-apartheid activist and leader of the African National Congress (ANC) also as well the first premier of the Eastern Cape. Mhlaba spent 25 years of his life in prison. Well known for being sentenced, along with Nelson Mandela, Govan Mbeki, Walter Sisulu and others in the Rivonia Trial, he was an active member of the ANC and the South African Communist Party (SACP) all his adult life. His kindly manner brought him the nickname "Oom Ray".

Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa. Its capital is Bhisho, but its two largest cities are Port Elizabeth and East London. It was formed in 1994 out of the Xhosa homelands or bantustans of Transkei and Ciskei, together with the eastern portion of the Cape Province. It is the landing place and home of the 1820 Settlers. The central and eastern part of the province is the traditional home of the Xhosa people.

Defiance Campaign

The Defiance Campaign against Unjust Laws was presented by the African National Congress (ANC) at a conference held in Bloemfontein, South Africa in December 1951. The Campaign had roots in events leading up the conference. The demonstrations, taking place in 1952 were the first "large-scale, multi-racial political mobilization against apartheid laws under a common leadership."

Nelson Mandela University (NMU), formerly known as University of Port Elizabeth (UPE), is a South African university with its main administration in the coastal city of Port Elizabeth. Nelson Mandela University was founded through a merger of three institutions in January 2005, but its history dates back to 1882, with the foundation of the Port Elizabeth Art School.

The following lists events that happened during 1820 in South Africa.

Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality Metropolitan municipality in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality is one of eight metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. It is located on the shores of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province and comprises the city of Port Elizabeth, the nearby towns of Uitenhage and Despatch, and the surrounding rural area.

Mthatha Place in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Mthatha , or Umtata, is the main town of the King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality in Eastern Cape province of South Africa and the capital of OR Tambo District Municipality. The town has an airport, previously known by the name K. D. Matanzima Airport after former leader Kaiser Matanzima. Mthatha derives its name from the nearby Mthatha River which was named after the Sneezewood (umtati) trees, famous for their wood and medicinal properties.

New Brighton, Eastern Cape Place in Eastern Cape, South Africa

New Brighton is a township situated within Port Elizabeth, in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium stadium in Port Elizabeth, South Africa

The Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium is a 46,000-seater stadium in Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

Algoa Bay Yacht Club

The Algoa Bay Yacht Club (ABYC) is a yacht club in Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Port Elizabeth forms part of the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality.

Red Location Museum

The Red Location Museum is a museum in the New Brighton township of Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

Algoa FM

Algoa FM has been broadcasting in the Eastern Cape since 1 January 1986. This is monitored by the South African licensing authority known as the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa, or ICASA.

Motherwell, Eastern Cape Place in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Motherwell is a suburb in Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.

Mkhuseli "Khusta" Jack was a South African Anti-Apartheid activist in the 1980s, known for his involvement in the Anti-Apartheid struggle and his efforts in the Consumer Boycott Campaign. Currently he is a businessman in Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

Coega Wind Farm building in South Africa

The Coega Wind Farm is a wind farm in Coega, an Industrial Development Zone (IDZ) covering 110 km2 (42 sq mi) of land, that is situated within the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality near Port Elizabeth, in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Installed by the Belgian company Electrawinds, it was the first commercial wind farm built in the country.

Dora Nginza South African nurse

Sister Dora Nginza, known as the “Mother of New Brighton", was one of the earliest and most influential pioneers of public health service for black people in New Brighton, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape.

The following is a timeline of the history of Port Elizabeth in the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality, Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

Statue of Nelson Mandela, Cape Town City Hall

A Statue of Nelson Mandela was unveiled on 24 July 2018. It was placed on the balcony of Cape Town City Hall overlooking the Grand Parade, Cape Town, South Africa. Nelson Mandela was the first post-apartheid president of South Africa and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "Main Place Port Elizabeth". Census 2011.
  2. Pettman, Charles (1913). Africanderisms; a glossary of South African colloquial words and phrases and of place and other names. Longmans, Green and Co. p. 51.
  3. "The San". SA History. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  4. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Algoa Bay"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 655.
  5. "Nelson Mandela Bay Tourism – Historical information". Nelson Mandela Bay Tourism.
  6. "Google". Google Translate. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  7. "Unit 2. Colonialism and Segregation: The Origins of Apartheid". South Africa: Overcoming Apartheid, Building Democracy. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  8. "Fort Frederick". Nelson Mandela Bay Tourism. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  9. "Port Elizabeth of Yore: Piet Retief as Land Speculator". The Casual Observer. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  10. "Colonial History of Port Elizabeth". SA History. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  11. "The Port Elizabeth Pyramid". Internet Archive. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  12. 1 2 3 Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 388.
  13. Burman, Jose (1984). Early Railways at the Cape. Cape Town. Human & Rousseau, p.66. ISBN   0-7981-1760-5
  14. "Info Please article". Info Please.
  15. http://www.sahistory.org.za/place/aloes-railway-station
  16. "The Horse Memorial". St George's Park. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  17. "History Of South End". South End Museum. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  18. "Biography of Steve Biko". about.com African History.
  19. "The Cradock Four". The Cradock Four. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  20. "George Botha jumped a railing..." SA History. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  21. Mhlaba, Raymond; Mufamadi, Thembeka (2001). "Vulindlela (opening the way)". Raymond Mhlaba's Personal Memoirs: Reminiscing from Rwanda and Uganda. Robben Island memory series. Pretoria: Human Sciences Research Council and Robben Island Museum. p. 84. ISBN   9780796919748 . Retrieved 21 February 2018. I led the very first group and we entered the 'Europeans Only' section of the New Brighton station. By half past six we were already in police vans on our way to jail. It turned out that my party was the very first to defy unjust laws in the whole of South Africa. Little did we know that we were making history.
  22. "Raymond Mhlaba Biography - Began as a Trade Unionist, Sentenced to Life Imprisonment, Continued the Struggle from Prison". Jrank. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  23. "Oom Ray and The Power of Mass Action". South African History Online. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  24. "South African blacks boycott apartheid in Port Elizabeth, 1985-86". Global Non-Violent Action Database. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  25. "South African blacks boycott apartheid in Port Elizabeth, 1985-86". Global Non-Violent Action Database. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  26. "Matches". FIFA. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  27. "Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium and training venues ready for AFCON". Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  28. "2013 African Nations Cup Fixtures and Results". ESPN Soccernet. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
  29. 1 2 "Climate data for Port Elizabeth". South African Weather Service. June 2011. Archived from the original on 4 March 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
  30. "Rainfall". Falling Rain.
  31. "Port Elizabeth Climate Normals 1961−1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
  32. "Klimatafel von Port Elizabeth (Flugh.), Prov. Eastern Cape / Südafrika" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
  33. "Freshwater". National Geographic. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  34. "Types of Drinking Water Contaminants". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  35. , Census 2001 – Main Place "Port Elizabeth"
  36. , Nelson Mandela Bay: Metropolitan Municipality & Main Places – Statistics & Maps on City Population
  37. Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 391.
  38. "67 Steps to take in Port Elizabeth". Umoya Cottages in Port Elizabeth.
  39. Western Cape Archives : Port Elizabeth Municipal Minutes (9 January 1878)
  40. Eastern Province Herald (11 January 1878)
  41. Cape of Good Hope Official Gazette 2969 (1 May 1959)
  42. National Archives of South Africa : Data of the Bureau of Heraldry
  43. "Cocaine scandal rocks top school". Herald Live. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  44. "Top school in drug scandal". News24. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  45. "'Cocaine teacher' found guilty". The New Age. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  46. "Drugs among biggest problems facing PE schools". News24. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  47. "Substance Abuse Education for Teachers". Substance Abuse. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  48. 1 2 3 SA's Top Schools 17 Oct 2009
  49. "The 100 best high schools in Africa, 2003." Archived 14 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine Africa Almanac. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
  50. "Shosholoza Meyl". Spoornet.
  51. "Introduction and History of Port Elizabeth Airport". Airports Company of South Africa. Archived from the original on 23 September 2007.
  52. List of hospitals in South Africa
  53. "Radio Stations in Port Elizabeth". World Radio Map. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  54. "AlgoaFM". AlgoaFM. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  55. "Herald Live". Herald Live. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  56. "SABC". South African Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 20 March 2018.

Bibliography