Portmeirion

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Portmeirion
Portmeirion, Wales (48559387366).jpg
The Piazza
Gwynedd UK location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Portmeirion
Location within Gwynedd
OS grid reference SH588370
Community
Principal area
Country Wales
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Historic county
Post town PENRHYNDEUDRAETH
Postcode district LL48
Dialling code 01766
Police North Wales
Fire North Wales
Ambulance Welsh
UK Parliament
Senedd Cymru – Welsh Parliament
List of places
UK
Wales
Gwynedd
52°54′43″N4°05′56″W / 52.912°N 4.099°W / 52.912; -4.099 Coordinates: 52°54′43″N4°05′56″W / 52.912°N 4.099°W / 52.912; -4.099

Portmeirion is a tourist village in Gwynedd, North Wales. It was designed and built by Sir Clough Williams-Ellis between 1925 and 1975 in the style of an Italian village, and is now owned by a charitable trust. The village is located in the community of Penrhyndeudraeth, on the estuary of the River Dwyryd, 2 miles (3.2 km) south east of Porthmadog, and 1 mile (1.6 km) from Minffordd railway station. Portmeirion has served as the location for numerous films and television shows, most famously as "The Village" in the 1960s television show The Prisoner .

Contents

History

Sir Clough Williams-Ellis at Portmeirion in 1969 Views of Portmeirion (26275785812).jpg
Sir Clough Williams-Ellis at Portmeirion in 1969
Castell Deudraeth Portmeirioncastle.jpg
Castell Deudraeth

Sir Clough Williams-Ellis, Portmeirion's architect, denied repeated claims that the design was based on the fishing village of Portofino on the Italian Riviera. He stated only that he wanted to pay tribute to the atmosphere of the Mediterranean. He did, however, draw on a love of the Italian village stating, "How should I not have fallen for Portofino? Indeed, its image remained with me as an almost perfect example of the man-made adornment and use of an exquisite site." [1] Williams-Ellis designed and constructed the village between 1925 and 1975. He incorporated fragments of demolished buildings, including works by a number of other architects. Portmeirion's architectural bricolage and deliberately fanciful nostalgia have been noted as an influence on the development of postmodernism in architecture in the late 20th century.

The main building of the hotel and the cottages "White Horses", "Mermaid", and "The Salutation" had been a private estate called Aber Iâ (Welsh : Ice estuary), developed in the 1850s on the site of a late 18th-century foundry and boatyard. Williams-Ellis changed the name (which he had interpreted as "frozen mouth") to Portmeirion: "Port-" from its place on the coast; "-meirion" from the county of Merioneth (Meirionydd) in which it was sited. [2] The very minor remains of a mediaeval castle (known variously as Castell Deudraeth, Castell Gwain Goch and Castell Aber Iâ) are in the woods just outside the village, recorded by Gerald of Wales in 1188.

In 1931 Williams-Ellis bought from his uncle, Sir Osmond Williams, Bt, the Victorian crenellated mansion Castell Deudraeth with the intention of incorporating it into the Portmeirion hotel complex, but the intervention of the war and other problems prevented this. Williams-Ellis had always considered the Castell to be “the largest and most imposing single building on the Portmeirion Estate" and sought ways to incorporate it. Eventually, with support from the Heritage Lottery Fund and the European Regional Development Fund as well as the Wales Tourist Board, his original aims were achieved and Castell Deudraeth was opened as an 11 bedroom hotel and restaurant on 20 August 2001, 23 years after Williams-Ellis's death, by the Welsh opera singer Bryn Terfel.

The village of Portmeirion has been a source of inspiration for writers and television producers. Noël Coward wrote Blithe Spirit while staying in the Fountain 2 (Upper Fountain) suite at Portmeirion. George Bernard Shaw and H. G. Wells were also early visitors. In 1956 the architect Frank Lloyd Wright came and other famous guests included Gregory Peck and Ingrid Bergman. In the late 1950s, Stanley Long, a former RAF photographer, came to create a collectible stereoview series through VistaScreen. [3] The village has many connections to the Beatles. Their manager Brian Epstein was a frequent visitor, along with Paul McCartney, and George Harrison spent his 50th birthday there in 1993. It was while Harrison was in Portmeirion that he filmed interviews for The Beatles Anthology documentary. Musician Jools Holland visited whilst filming for the TV music show The Tube , and was so impressed that he has had his studio and other buildings at his home in Blackheath built to a design inspired by Portmeirion.

Portmerion Hotel Portmerion Hotel - view from NE.jpg
Portmerion Hotel

The grounds contain an important collection of rhododendrons and other exotic plants in a wild-garden setting, which was begun before Williams-Ellis's time by the previous owner George Henry Caton Haigh and has continued to be developed since Williams-Ellis's death.

Battery Square Portmeirion, Wales (49280865701).jpg
Battery Square

Portmeirion is now owned by a charitable trust, and has always been run as a hotel, which uses the majority of the buildings as hotel rooms or self-catering cottages, together with shops, a cafe, tea-room, and restaurant. Portmeirion is today a major tourist attraction in North Wales [4] and day visits can be made on payment of an admission charge.

The village was the setting of the inaugural Festival N°6, which took place in September 2012 and featured headline acts Spiritualized, Primal Scream and New Order. Since then, this festival is celebrated each year in September at Portmeirion.

Architecture

Pantheon, also: The Green Dome Town hall at Portmeirion.jpg
Pantheon, also: The Green Dome

Architecture critic Lewis Mumford devoted a large part of a chapter of his 1964 book The Highway and the City to Portmeiron, which he called

an artful and playful little modern village, designed as a whole and all of a piece ... a fantastic collection of architectural relics and impish modern fantasies. ... As an architect, [Williams-Ellis] is equally at home in the ancient, traditional world of the stark Welsh countryside and the once brave new world of "modern architecture." But he realized earlier than most of his architectural contemporaries how constricted and desiccated modern forms can become when the architect pays more attention to the mechanical formula or the exploitation of some newly fabricated material than to the visible human results. In a sense, Portmeiron is a gay, deliberately irresponsible reaction against the dull sterilities of so much that passes as modern architecture today. ... [I]t is prompted by [the] impulse ... to reclaim for architecture the freedom of invention — and the possibility of pleasurable fantasy — it had too abjectly surrendered to the cult of the machine. [5]

Round House Portmeirion. (48576915327).jpg
Round House

Mumford referred to the architecture as both romantic and picturesque in Baroque form, "with tongue in cheek." He described the total effect as "relaxing and often enchanting" with "playful absurdities" that are "delicate and human in touch", making the village a "happy relief" from the "rigid irrationalities and the calculated follies" of the modern world. [5]

The houses Anchor, Arches, the hotel building, Lady's Lodge, the inside of the Pantheon and the vaulted ceiling of Gate House are decorated with murals and frescoes by the Frankfurt-born artist and friend of Clough Williams-Ellis Hans Feibusch.

Chronology of constructions in Portmeirion

timebuilding
19th centuryExisting buildings: White Horses, former blacksmith's shop; Castell Deudraeth (the hospital in The Prisoner ); main building; gardener's house, stables
1925Conversion of the main building into a hotel, gardener's house becomes Mermaid; stables become Salutation
1925/26Angel & Neptune
1926Watch House, opening of the hotel
1927/28Campanile; Prior's Lodging
1928/29Government House
1929Toll House
1930Amis Réunis
1930sHercules Hall; Pilot House; Battery Cottage, Dolphin; Fountain; Anchor, Trinity
1933/34Chantry
1937/38Camera Obscura
1954Lighthouse (after the end of building restrictions during the Second World War)
1954/55Gate House
1956/57Telford's Tower
1958Bristol Colonnade; High Cloister (porch of the dome)
1958/59Round House (residence of number 6 in The Prisoner), Bridge House
1959Pantheon – dome (the green roofing had to be removed after renovations in the 1990s due to fire protection requirements)
1960Belvedere
1961/62Chantry Row
1962Playhouse
1963Triumphal Arch; Gothic Pavilion
1963/64Arches
1964Gloriette Balkon
1964/65Unicorn
1966Villa Winch; Central Piazza (replacing a tennis court)
1968/70Cliff House
1977New Toll Booth
1978Terrace, self-service restaurant
1981The hotel was destroyed by fire
1983Centenary Gazebo; Prisoner information centre opened in the Round House
1988Reopening of the hotel after reconstruction
1998Tudor Room, annex to the Hercules Hall
1999Prisoner Information Centre closed; second pay kiosk opposite Toll Booth; Castell Deudraeth reopened as hotel after renovations.
2001New Prisoner shop in the Round House
2007Caffi Glas (The Blue Café), Italian restaurant (built 1950 as garages for guests)
2016Permanent chess set, built in remembrance of The Prisoner next to the central piazza

Filming location

Battery Square and souvenir shops Portmeirionsquare.jpg
Battery Square and souvenir shops

Television series and films have shot exterior scenes at Portmeirion, often depicting the village as an exotic European location. These include the 1960 Danger Man episode "View from the Villa" starring Patrick McGoohan and the 1976 four-episode Doctor Who story titled The Masque of Mandragora set in Renaissance Italy. [6] The last episode of Citizen Smith , the Christmas 1980 episode Buon Natale, was filmed partly in Portmeirion. In 2002 some scenes were filmed there for the final episode (at the time) of the TV series Cold Feet . [7] The town of Wiggyville in the CBeebies series Gigglebiz is shot in Portmeirion as well. The village of Llan-ar-goll-en in the Welsh preschool show of the same name on S4C, was shot there. [8]

Portmeirion has been the location for music videos and concerts. The 1980s Scottish band Altered Images used Portmeirion in their video "See Those Eyes". Siouxsie and the Banshees used Portmeirion as a setting in their 1987 recording of "The Passenger" for the "Laughing Prisoner" spoof. This video included various scenes from The Prisoner .

Hercules, a statue by William Brodie Hercules statue by William Brodie (Portmeirion, Wales).jpg
Hercules, a statue by William Brodie

The Prisoner

In 1966–1967, Patrick McGoohan returned to Portmeirion to film exteriors for The Prisoner , a surreal spy drama in which Portmeirion played a starring role as "The Village", in which McGoohan's retired intelligence agent, known only as "Number 6", was incarcerated and interrogated, albeit in pleasant surroundings. At Williams-Ellis' request, Portmeirion was not identified on screen as the filming location until the credits of the final episode of the series, and indeed, Williams-Ellis stated that the levy of an entrance fee was a deliberate ploy to prevent the Village from being spoilt by overcrowding. [2] The show, broadcast on ITV in the UK during the winter of 1967-68 and CBS in the US in the summer of 1968, became a cult classic, and fans continue to visit Portmeirion, which hosts annual Prisoner fan conventions. [9] The building that was used as the lead character's home in the series currently operates as a Prisoner-themed souvenir shop. Many of the locations used in The Prisoner are virtually unchanged after more than 40 years.

Because of its Prisoner connection, Portmeirion has been used as the filming location for a number of homages to the series, ranging from comedy skits to an episode of the BBC documentary series The Celts , which recreated scenes from The Prisoner. Other occasions include:

Amis Reunis Stoneship 2.jpg
Amis Reunis


Portmeirionpiazza.jpg
Panoramic view of the central piazza

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>The Prisoner</i> British science fiction television show (1967–1968)

The Prisoner is a 1967 British avant-garde social science fiction television series about an unnamed British intelligence agent who is abducted and imprisoned in a mysterious coastal village, where his captors try to find out why he abruptly resigned from his job. It was created by Patrick McGoohan and George Markstein, with McGoohan playing the lead role of Number Six. Episode plots have elements of science fiction, allegory, and psychological drama, as well as spy fiction. It was produced by Everyman Films for distribution by Lew Grade's ITC Entertainment.

<i>Danger Man</i> British television series

Danger Man is a British television series that was broadcast between 1960 and 1962, and again between 1964 and 1968. The series featured Patrick McGoohan as secret agent John Drake. Ralph Smart created the programme and wrote many of the scripts. Danger Man was financed by Lew Grade's ITC Entertainment.

Patrick McGoohan Irish-British-American actor

Patrick Joseph McGoohan was a British-Irish-American actor, screenwriter, producer, and director. Born in the U.S. to Irish parents, he was raised in Ireland and England. He began his career in England in the 1950s and moved back to the U.S. in the 1970s. His career-defining roles were in the British television series Danger Man and the surreal psychological drama The Prisoner, which he co-created. He received two Primetime Emmy Awards and a BAFTA.

Clough Williams-Ellis English-born Welsh architect

Sir Bertram Clough Williams-Ellis, CBE, MC was a Welsh architect known chiefly as the creator of the Italianate village of Portmeirion in North Wales.

Llanystumdwy Human settlement in Wales

Llanystumdwy[ɬanɪstɪmdʊɨ] is a predominantly Welsh-speaking village, community and electoral ward on the Llŷn Peninsula of Gwynedd in Wales. It is not regarded as being part of Llŷn, but as belonging instead to the ancient commote of Eifionydd on the Cardigan Bay coast, where it has its own beach. The community includes the villages of Chwilog, Afon Wen, Llanarmon, Gwynedd, and Llangybi, Gwynedd, plus the hamlets of Rhoslan and Pencaenewydd.

The Village (<i>The Prisoner</i>)

The Village is the fictional setting of the 1960s UK television series The Prisoner where the main character, Number Six, is held with other former spies and operatives from various countries. The theme of the series is his captors' attempts to find out why Number Six resigned from his job and his attempts to escape from the Village and learn the identity of Number One. Ostensibly, those running the Village -- thought by many to be countries around the world -- believe that once Number Six is coerced into explaining the motive(s) behind his resignation, all the state secrets he knows will come tumbling out. However, the ultimate use of these secrets is only intimated, but not overtly explored. Beyond its explicit physical setting, the Village is also viewed as an allegory for humanity and society during the Cold War era. Patrick McGoohan notes in various post-show interviews is that the Village is "within all of us...we all live in a little Village...Your village may be different from other people's villages but we are all prisoners."

Fall Out (<i>The Prisoner</i>) 17th episode of the first season of The Prisoner

"Fall Out" is the 17th and final episode of the allegorical British science fiction series The Prisoner. It was written and directed by Patrick McGoohan who also portrayed the incarcerated Number Six. The episode was first broadcast in the UK on ITV on Thursday 1 February 1968 and first aired in the United States on CBS on 21 September 1968.

Minffordd Human settlement in Wales

Minffordd is a village within the Welsh county of Gwynedd. It is situated on the A487 road between Porthmadog and Penrhyndeudraeth, and in the community of the latter.

Susan Williams-Ellis was an English-Welsh pottery designer, who was best known for co-founding Portmeirion Pottery. She was the eldest daughter of Clough Williams-Ellis.

The Girl Who Was Death 15th episode of the first season of The Prisoner

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Plas Brondanw

Plas Brondanw in Garreg, Llanfrothen, Gwynedd, North Wales, was the family home of Clough Williams-Ellis, creator of the Italianate village Portmeirion, and elements of similar architectural styles can be seen at both locations. It is a grade II* listed building. The gardens, in a series of garden rooms enclosed by yew hedges and open lawns, linked by carefully planned vistas, is one of only three Grade I listed gardens in Gwynedd.

Conwy Falls

Conwy Falls is a waterfall on the River Conwy at Bro Garmon in Conwy County Borough in Wales. The falls and surrounding area are a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The nearby cafe, adjacent to the A5, is an interesting example of the work of the Welsh architect Clough Williams-Ellis, of Portmeirion fame.

The Prisoner, a British television series that originally ran from 1967 to 1968, has been represented in several other media.

Opening and closing sequences of <i>The Prisoner</i>

The opening and closing sequences of the TV series The Prisoner are considered iconic. The music over the opening and closing credits, as broadcast, was composed by Ron Grainer, a composer whose other credits include the theme music for Doctor Who.

The Prisoner is a 17-episode British television series broadcast in the UK from 29 September 1967 to 1 February 1968. Starring and co-created by Patrick McGoohan, it combined spy fiction with elements of science fiction, allegory, and psychological drama. Since its debut, the series' enduring popularity has led to its influencing and being referenced in a range of other media, such as the film The Truman Show, and the television shows Lost and The X-Files. The producer of The X-Files called The Prisoner "the Gone with the Wind of its genre." The Guardian wrote that "Without The Prisoner, we'd never have had cryptic, mindbending TV series like Twin Peaks or Lost. It's the Citizen Kane of British TV – a programme that changed the landscape."

Festival N°6

Festival N°6 is an annual art and music festival held in and around Portmeirion, North Wales. The festival presents a wide range of music genres across multiple stages. It is advertised as a family-friendly festival, and as such various areas of the festival are targeted to families, such as "No.6's Mischief Meadow" for children and a designated family camping area. In 2013 one of the organizers stated that due to the size of the village the festival was not likely to grow beyond 10,000 attendees across the weekend.

Carmarthen Bridge

Carmarthen Bridge is the modern 1930s road bridge crossing the River Tywi in Carmarthen, Wales, carrying the A484 road.

Architecture of Wales

Architecture of Wales is an overview of architecture in Wales from the Medieval period to the present day, excluding castles and fortifications, ecclesiastical architecture and industrial architecture. It covers the history of domestic, commercial, and administrative architecture.

<i>In My Mind</i> (film) Documentary about Patrick McGoohan

In My Mind is a 2017 British documentary film about Patrick McGoohan and the making of The Prisoner, the late 1960s allegorical science-fiction TV series. The documentary was created and narrated by Chris Rodley for the 50th anniversary of the original airing of the TV series in the UK. The film follows the events surrounding Rodley's visit to interview McGoohan in 1983 for a 1984 documentary about the making of the original series.

Castell Deudraeth

Castell Deudraeth is a former manor house approximately 2 km NE of Portmeirion in Gwynedd, North Wales.

References

Notes

  1. Headley, Gwyn and Meulenkamp, Wim. Follies: a National Trust Guide Cape, 1986. p.156
  2. 1 2 "Portmeirion" a BBC Wales documentary, 2006
  3. "Be Seeing You: Portmeirion, The Village from ITV's "The Prisoner", in 3D". Brooklyn Stereography. 22 September 2019. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  4. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 August 2006. Retrieved 26 August 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. 1 2 Mumford, Lewis. "From Crochet Castle to Arthur's Seat" (1962) in The Highway and the City New York: New American Library, 1964
  6. "The Welsh Connection: 5 Factoids about the Doctor and Wales". BBC. 1 March 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  7. "Portmeirion hosts Cold Feet finale". BBC News. 11 March 2003. Retrieved 17 September 2007.
  8. "Llan-ar-goll-en".
  9. "Number's not up for The Prisoner". BBC News. 3 September 1998. Retrieved 12 October 2010.