Porvoo

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Porvoo
PorvooBorgå
City
Porvoon kaupunki
Borgå stad
Porvoo in January.jpg
A view of buildings in the Porvoo Old Town, including the Porvoo Cathedral
Porvoo.vaakuna.svg
Porvoo sijainti Suomi.svg
Coordinates: 60°23′40″N25°39′50″E / 60.39444°N 25.66389°E / 60.39444; 25.66389 Coordinates: 60°23′40″N25°39′50″E / 60.39444°N 25.66389°E / 60.39444; 25.66389
CountryFlag of Finland.svg  Finland
Region Uusimaa.vaakuna.svg Uusimaa
Sub-region Porvoo sub-region
City rights 1347 [1] or c. 1380 [2]
Government
   City manager Jukka-Pekka Ujula
Area
 (2018-01-01) [3]
  Total2,139.81 km2 (826.19 sq mi)
  Land654.70 km2 (252.78 sq mi)
  Water1,484.49 km2 (573.16 sq mi)
Area rank 131st largest in Finland
Population
 (2021-03-31) [4]
  Total50,711
  Rank 21st largest in Finland
  Density77.46/km2 (200.6/sq mi)
Population by native language
[5]
   Finnish 64.9% (official)
   Swedish 31.6%
  Others3.5%
Population by age
[6]
  0 to 1416.7%
  15 to 6461.5%
  65 or older21.8%
Time zone UTC+02:00 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+03:00 (EEST)
Municipal tax rate [7] 19.75%
Climate Dfb
Website www.Porvoo.fi

Porvoo (Finnish pronunciation:  [ˈporʋoː] ; Swedish : Borgå [ˈborːɡo] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Latin : Borgoa) is a city and a municipality in the Uusimaa region, Finland, situated on the southern coast about 35 kilometres (22 mi) east of the city border of Helsinki and approximately 50 kilometres (30 mi) from the city centre. It is one of the six medieval towns in Finland (with Turku, Ulvila, Rauma, Naantali and Vyborg), first mentioned as a city in texts from the 14th century. Porvoo is the seat of the Swedish-speaking Diocese of Borgå of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. Porvoo was capital of the former Eastern Uusimaa region. [8]

Contents

The Porvoo Old Town (Finnish : Porvoon vanhakaupunki; Swedish : Borgås gamla stan) is a popular tourist destination, [9] known for its well-preserved 18th and 19th century buildings and 15th century cathedral, the Porvoo Cathedral. The Old Town together with Porvoonjoki River Valley is recognized as historically and culturally significant as one of the National landscapes of Finland. Porvoo is internationally considered to be one of the most beautiful towns in Finland. [10] Porvoo also enjoys the reputation of one of Finland's most popular summer towns, both in Finland and abroad. [9] [11]

The municipality's official languages are Finnish and Swedish. In 2014, 64.6% of the population spoke Finnish as their native language, while 30.1% were Swedish speakers. 5.4% had a different native language.

Porvoo's neighbouring municipalities are Askola, Loviisa, Myrskylä, Pornainen, and Sipoo; and the sub-region maintained by Porvoo includes Askola, Myrskylä and Pukkila.

Etymology

The town received its name from a Swedish medieval fortress near the river Porvoonjoki, which flows through the town. The name Porvoo is the Fennicised version of the Swedish name (Borgå) and its parts of borg, meaning 'castle', and å, 'river'. [12]

Heraldry

The explanation of the coat of arms of Porvoo reads "in a blue field, a silver, tulip-shaped letter C." The theme of the coat of arms is based on the medieval seal of the city, the theme of which has been interpreted as fire iron or the letter C according to the Latin word for castle (Latin : Castrum). The coat of arms was redrawn by Gustaf von Numers and approved by the Porvoo City Council at its meeting on March 23, 1960. The Ministry of the Interior confirmed the use of the coat of arms on June 1 of the same year. [13] [14]

History

The old Porvoo Town Hall, which is now a museum Porvoo Old Town Hall.jpg
The old Porvoo Town Hall, which is now a museum

The area of Porvoo has been inhabited since the Stone Age. [15] In pre-historic times, the river Porvoonjoki was a route of commerce for Finnish tribal Tavastians who primarily inhabited the inland regions. The Tavastians also had some permanent settlements in the area, such as the village of Hattula (later Strömsberg), which was named after an inland Tavastian village. The original name of the river Porvoonjoki was possibly Kukinjoki. The name derives from the name of the trade vessel cog which was a common merchant ship in the Baltic Sea in medieval times. The early center of the area was Saksala, meaning "the place of the Germans", and deriving from the merchants who were trading in Saksala. [16] [17]

Porvoo was colonised by Swedes in the 13th and 14th centuries after the so-called Second Crusade against Tavastians in 1249–1250. The colonisation was led by the Catholic Church and the kingdom of Sweden. The colonists originated from Svealand, and were provided with seeds, cattle and, tax exemption for four years. [17]

The oldest known written mentions of Porvoo are from the early 14th century. In circa 1380, Porvoo became the third town in Finland to be granted official town rights, after Turku in 1229 and Ulvila in 1365. [2] However, it is also claimed to have been founded as early as 1347, which would make it the second oldest after Turku. [1] Due to land rise and loss of shipping access, Ulvila lost town rights to nearby Pori in 1558. [2]

When Sweden lost the city of Vyborg to Russia in 1721, the episcopal see was moved to Porvoo in 1723. [18] [19] At this time, Porvoo was the second largest city in Finland.

In 1760, roughly two-thirds of all buildings in Porvoo burned to the ground in a conflagration. During rebuilding, the city planning wasn't altered, instead new buildings were built upon the existing medieval foundations.

After the conquest of Finland by Russian armies in 1808, Sweden had to cede Finland to Russia in 1809 (the Treaty of Fredrikshamn). The Diet of Porvoo in 1809 was a landmark in the History of Finland. The Tsar Alexander I confirmed the new Finnish constitution (which was essentially the Swedish constitution from 1772), and made Finland an autonomous Grand Duchy. In 1923, six years after Finland's independence, the former Diocese of Vyborg, which operated in Porvoo, was replaced by a current Swedish-speaking diocese of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Diocese of Porvoo. [19]

The Porvoo Common Statement is a report issued at the conclusion of theological conversations by official representatives of four Anglican churches and eight Nordic and Baltic Lutheran churches in 1989–1992. It established the Porvoo Communion, so named after the Porvoo Cathedral where the Eucharist was celebrated on the final Sunday of the conversations leading to the Statement.

The old city of Porvoo was formally disestablished and the new city of Porvoo founded in 1997, when the city of Porvoo and the rural municipality of Porvoo were consolidated. [20]

Urban development

Old Town

The Porvoo Cathedral prior to the fire in May 2006 Porvoon Tuomiokirkko.jpg
The Porvoo Cathedral prior to the fire in May 2006
Old wooden warehouses alongside the Porvoo River is one of the famous sights of town. Barns on the shore of the river.jpg
Old wooden warehouses alongside the Porvoo River is one of the famous sights of town.

The town is famed for its "Old Town" (Vanhakaupunki in Finnish, Gamla Stan in Swedish), a dense medieval street pattern with predominantly wooden houses from the 17th and 18th centuries. The Old Town came close to being demolished in the 19th century by a new urban plan for the city, but the plan was canceled due to a popular resistance headed by Count Louis Sparre. With the need for growth, a plan was envisioned for a new town built adjacent to the Old Town, following a grid plan, but with houses also built of wood. Jokikatu (located eastside of the Porvoonjoki River) is one of Porvoo's pedestrian streets, and like the other similar streets of the Old Town, it also includes a variety of restaurants, coffeehouses, antique shops and other stores. [23]

The central point of the old town is the medieval, stone and brick Porvoo Cathedral. The cathedral gave its name to the Porvoo Communion, an inter-church agreement between a number of Anglican and Lutheran denominations. The cathedral is reminiscent of similarly aged churches across Finland, such as the Church of St. Lawrence, Vantaa, as they were designed by the same person, the anonymous German architect Pernajan mestari. The cathedral has burned down 5 times. [24] The latest fire happened on 29 May 2006; the roof was totally destroyed but the interior is largely intact. A drunken youth had started a fire at the church, unaware of recent tar work and nearby tar containers, accidentally causing a large conflagration. He was later sentenced to a short prison term and restitutions of 4.3 million euro. [25]

The red-coloured wooden storage buildings on the riverside are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Old Town is a significant source of tourism in the area. Visitors to the capital Helsinki can embark on day trips to visit the older city. The Old Town also hosts various events, such as an annual Christmas market.

Later developments

A modern city look of Porvoo View from Nasi glacial erratic 2.jpg
A modern city look of Porvoo
New housing designed to match older storage buildings across the river Porvoo new housing.jpg
New housing designed to match older storage buildings across the river

By the end of the 20th century, there was pressure to develop the essentially untouched western side of the river. There was concern that growth would necessitate the construction of a second bridge across the river into the town, thus putting further strain on the aging wooden town. An architectural competition was held in 1990, the winning entry of which proposed building the second bridge. Plans for the western side of the river have progressed under the direction of architect Tuomas Siitonen, and both a vehicle bridge and a pedestrian bridge have been built. The design for new housing is based on a typology derived from the old storehouses on the opposite side of the river. Yet another new development entails the construction of a large business park called King's Gate (Finnish : Kuninkaanportti, Swedish : Kungsporten), which is under construction.

The Porvoo railway station does not have a regular train service, but special museum trains from Kerava (either with steam locomotives or former VR diesel railcars from the 1950s) operate on summer weekends. [26]

The new hotel called Runo Hotel was opened in the old town of Porvoo on May 31, 2021. [27] [28]

Subdivisions

Districts

Hornhattula, Joonaanmäki (Jonasbacken), Jernböle, Kaupunginhaka (Stadshagen), Keskusta (Centrum), Etelä-Kevätkumpu (Södra Vårberga), Pohjois-Kevätkumpu (Norra Vårberga), Myllymäki (Kvarnbacken), Näsi (Näse), Pappilanmäki (Prästgårdsbacken), Skaftkärr, Suistola, Vanha Porvoo (Gamla Borgå).

Suburbs

Hamari (Hammars), Aunela (Ånäs), Eestinmäki (Estbacka), Gammelbacka, Huhtinen (Huktis), Katajamäki (Ensbacka), Kevätkumpu (Vårberga), Kokonniemi (Uddas), Kuninkaanportti (Kungsporten), Pappilanpelto, Peippola (Pepot), Tarkkinen (Tarkis), Tarmola (Östermalm).

Villages

Jackarby Manor in the Jakari village Jackarby Manor, Borga, Finland.jpg
Jackarby Manor in the Jakari village

Suomenkylä

Suomenkylä (Swedish : Finnby) is a village north of the centre of Porvoo and beside the Porvoo river. Suomenkylä has an old school founded by Johannes Linnankoski in 1898. The village of Suomenkylä also has two burial places from the Bronze Age.

Kerkkoo

Kerkkoo (Swedish : Kerko) is a village north of the centre of Porvoo and beside the Porvoo river. It has an active school that is over 100 years old. In the village of Kerkkoo, archeologists and townspeople found a stone axe from the Bronze Age.

Other

Ali-Vekkoski (Söderveckoski), Anttila (Andersböle), Baggböle, Bengtsby (Pentinkylä), Bjurböle, Boe (Häihä), Bosgård, Brattnäs, Eerola (Eriksdal), Eestinmäki (Estbacka), Emäsalo (Emsalö), Epoo (Ebbo), Fagersta, Gammelbacka, Grännäs, Gäddrag, Haikkoo (Haiko), Henttala, Hinthaara (Hindhår), Hommanäs, Huhtinen, Hummelsund, Ilola (Illby), Jakari (Jackarby), Järnböle, Kaarenkylä (Karsby), Kalax (Kaalahti), Kallola, Kardrag, Karleby (Kaarlenkylä), Kiiala (Kiala), Kilpilahti (Sköldvik), Klemetti (Klemetsby), Kortisbacka, Kreppelby, Kroksnäs, Kråkö, Kulloo (Kullo), Kurböle, Kuris, Londböle, Mickelsböle, Munkkala (Munkby), Mustijoki (Svartså), Myllykylä (Molnby), Norike, Nygård, Onas, Orrby (Orrenkylä), Pappilanmäki (Prästgårdsbacken), Peippola (Pepot), Pellinki (Pellinge), Piirlahti (Pirlax), Ramsholmen, Renum, Saksala (Saxby), Sannainen (Sannäs), Seitlahti (Seitlax), Sikilä (Siggböle), Skavarböle, Sondby, Stensböle, Sundö (Suni)), Svartbäck, Tamminiemi (Eknäs), Tarkkinen (Tarkis), Teissala (Teisala), Tolkkinen (Tolkis), Tirmo (Tirmoo), Treksilä (Drägsby), Tuorila (Torasbacka), Tyysteri (Tjusterby), Vaarlahti (Varlax), Vanhamoisio (Gammelgård), Veckjärvi (Vekjärvi), Virtaala (Strömsberg), Virvik, Voolahti (Vålax), Västermunkby, Ylike, Yli-Vekkoski (Norrveckoski), Åby, Åminsby.

Economy

Neste Oil Porvoo refinery Neste Oil Porvoo refinery.jpg
Neste Oil Porvoo refinery

In 2011, there were 20,312 jobs in Porvoo, distributed as follows: primary production 1.6 per cent, processing 32.5 per cent and services 64.7 per cent. In December 2012, the unemployment rate in Porvoo was 8.4 per cent, compared to an average of 10.7 per cent in the rest of the country. At that time, there were 3,389 business locations in the city. [29] According to Statistics Finland, more companies were established in Porvoo in 2009–2013 than closed down, and the number of companies has increased by about 140 each year. [30] According to the Eastern Uusimaa Viability Survey, in 2013 there were a few large companies and a few medium-sized companies in the Porvoo region, but the majority (86 per cent) were companies with less than five employees. [30]

In 2014, the largest employers in Porvoo were Neste (2,000 jobs in Porvoo), Borealis Polymers (962), Ensto (430), Viessman Refrigeration Systems (414), Varuboden-Osla (300) and Bilfinger Industrial Services Finland (299). [30]

The Satakuntaliitto's Satamittari measures the competitiveness of Finnish regions annually. In 2012, the Porvoo region ranked number one. In 2013, there were 70 sub-regions involved, which were assessed using six factors: labor productivity, employment rate, innovation, level of education, business dynamics and industrial dominance. The Porvoo region ranked fourth after Vaasa, Helsinki and Tampere. The region's labor productivity and industrial intensity were the highest in Finland, but the employment rate and level of education were also at the highest level. [31]

Sports

The local team Borgå Akilles plays the sport of bandy, in the highest division, Bandyliiga, and has become Finnish champions twice.

Sami Hyypiä, a former football player for Liverpool and the Finnish national team, originated from Porvoo.

Lauri Happonen, better known as Cyanide, a retired League of Legends professional player, is from Porvoo.

Culture

Food

A well-known Porvoo delicacy, a Runeberg torte, was developed by a local pastry master, and it is said that J. L. Runeberg ate them for breakfast. Fredrika Runeberg, the wife of the national poet also made tortes for her husband using the substances that happened to be found in the cupboards: wheat and breadcrumbs, biscuit crumbs, almonds, apple jam and sugar. [32]

In addition to Runeberg torte, the second parish dish in Porvoo was grilled herring with onion rings and dill in the 1980s. Pellinki's fish soup and nettle soup were chosen as the main dishes of the Porvoo countryside. [33]

Porvoo is also known for its local confectionery and ice cream factories, the most notable being the Brunberg Chocolate Factory [34] and the Old Porvoo Ice Cream Factory (Vanhan Porvoon Jäätelötehdas). [35]

Transport

A ferry connection from Porvoo to the Pellinki Island Pellinki ferry.jpg
A ferry connection from Porvoo to the Pellinki Island

Porvoo is on the route of the E18 road from Helsinki to Saint Petersburg, and the Porvoo Highway (part of the Finnish national road 7) along that route is one of the most important transport connections to Helsinki. Other important road connections are the Finnish Regional road 170 going via Sipoo to Helsinki, which continues from the East Helsinki area to the capital under the name Itäväylä, and the main road 55 leading northwest, via Monninkylä of Askola, to the Mäntsälä municipality.

It is currently the largest Finnish municipality without scheduled railway services, since passenger rail services to Porvoo ended in 1981 and freight services in 1990, however proposals exist to link Porvoo to the rail network as part of a new rail line from Helsinki to Kouvola via a tunnel between Pasila and Helsinki Airport. [36] There is no airport at all in Porvoo, but another airport in the Greater Helsinki region is planned for the Backas area, which would serve the traffic of cargo and small airlines. [37]

Finland's biggest port by total cargo tonnage is the Port of Kilpilahti (Sköldvik) located on the outskirts of Porvoo. [38] In Porvoo River, on the eastern bank of the river right in the city center, there is a guest marina. In the village of Hamari, there is also an opportunity for visiting boats to anchor in the breakwater. [39] Also, the ferry connection favored by tourism runs between Helsinki and Porvoo on the MS J. L. Runeberg ferry. [40]

Politics

Results of the 2015 Finnish parliamentary election in Porvoo:

Distribution of the city council seats following the 2012 Finnish municipal elections:

Notable people

Boys Swimming in the Porvoo River by Albert Edelfelt in 1886 Albert Edelfelt - Porvoonjoessa Uivia Poikia.jpg
Boys Swimming in the Porvoo River by Albert Edelfelt in 1886
River Bank Scene from Porvoo by Edelfelt, 1886-1887 Albert Edelfelt - River Bank Scene from Porvoo.jpg
River Bank Scene from Porvoo by Edelfelt, 1886–1887

In media

In the 1967 British-American espionage film Billion Dollar Brain , a small part of the plot takes place in Riga, the capital of Latvia, which is actually filmed in Porvoo. [41] Also the 1997 American film The Jackal features scenes depicting Russia, which are partly shot in Porvoo. [42] [43]

In the 2021 Disney+ series Loki , Porvoo is listed as a location to which a time reset device was sent. [44]

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Porvoo is twinned with the following cities: [45]

See also

Related Research Articles

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