Pound per square inch | |
---|---|

A pressure gauge reading in psi (red scale) and kPa (black scale) | |

General information | |

Unit system | Imperial units, US customary units |

Unit of | Pressure, Stress |

Symbol | psi or lbf/in^{2} |

Conversions | |

1 psi in ... | ... is equal to ... |

SI units | 6.894757 kPa |

The **pound per square inch** or, more accurately, **pound-force per square inch** (symbol: **lbf/in ^{2}**;

**Pounds per square inch absolute** (**psia**) is used to make it clear that the pressure is relative to a vacuum rather than the ambient atmospheric pressure. Since atmospheric pressure at sea level is around 14.7 psi (101 kilopascals ), this will be added to any pressure reading made in air at sea level. The converse is **pounds per square inch gauge** (**psig**), indicating that the pressure is relative to atmospheric pressure. For example, a bicycle tire pumped up to 65 psig in a local atmospheric pressure at sea level (14.7 psia) will have a pressure of 79.7 psia (14.7 psi + 65 psi).^{ [2] }^{ [3] } When gauge pressure is referenced to something other than ambient atmospheric pressure, then the units would be **pounds per square inch differential** (**psid**).

The **kilopound per square inch** (ksi) is a scaled unit derived from psi, equivalent to a thousand psi (1000 lbf/in^{2}).

ksi are not widely used for gas pressures. They are mostly used in materials science, where the tensile strength of a material is measured as a large number of psi.^{ [4] }

The conversion in SI units is 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa, or 1 MPa = 0.145 ksi.

The **megapound per square inch** (Mpsi) is another multiple equal to a million psi. It is used in mechanics for the elastic modulus of materials, especially for metals.^{ [5] }

The conversion in SI units is 1 Mpsi = 6.895 GPa, or 1 GPa = 0.145 Mpsi.

- Inch of water: 0.036 psid
- Blood pressure – clinically normal human blood pressure (120/80 mmHg): 2.32 psig/1.55 psig
- Natural gas residential piped in for consumer appliance; 4–6 psig.
- Boost pressure provided by an automotive turbocharger (common): 6–15 psig
- NFL football: 12.5–13.5 psig
- Atmospheric pressure at sea level (standard): 14.7 psia
- Automobile tire overpressure (common): 32 psig
- Bicycle tire overpressure (common): 65 psig
- Workshop or garage air tools: 90 psig
- Air brake (rail) or air brake (road vehicle) reservoir overpressure (common): 90–120 psig
- Road racing bicycle tire overpressure: 120 psig
- Steam locomotive fire tube boiler (UK, 20th century): 150–280 psig
- Union Pacific Big Boy steam locomotive boiler: 300 psig
- US Navy steam boiler pressure 800 psi
- Natural gas pipelines: 800–1000 psig
- Full SCBA (self-contained breathing apparatus) for IDLH (non-fire) atmospheres: 2216 psig
- Nuclear reactor primary loop 2300 psi
- Full SCUBA (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) tank overpressure (common): 3000 psig
- Full SCBA (self-contained breathing apparatus) for interior firefighting operations: 4500 psig
- Airbus A380 hydraulic system: 5000 psig
- Ultimate strength of ASTM A36 steel: 58,000 psi
- Water jet cutter: 40,000–100,000 psig

The conversions to and from SI are computed from exact definitions but result in an inexact number that must be rounded at some point. ^{ [6] }^{ [7] }

As the pascal is very small unit, relative to industrial pressures, the kilopascal is commonly used. 1000 kPa ≈ 145 lbf/in^{2}.

Approximate conversions (rounded to some arbitrary number of digits, except when denoted by "≡") are shown in the following table.

Pascal | Bar | Technical atmosphere | Standard atmosphere | Torr | Pounds per square inch | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

(Pa) | (bar) | (at) | (atm) | (Torr) | (lbf/in^{2}) | |

1 Pa | ≡ 1 N/m^{2} | 10^{−5} | 1.0197×10^{−5} | 9.8692×10^{−6} | 7.5006×10^{−3} | 0.000 145 037 737 730 |

1 bar | 10^{5} | ≡ 100 kPa ≡ 10 | 1.0197 | 0.98692 | 750.06 | 14.503 773 773 022 |

1 at | 98066.5 | 0.980665 | ≡ 1 kgf/cm^{2} | 0.967 841 105 354 1 | 735.559 240 1 | 14.223 343 307 120 3 |

1 atm | ≡ 101325 | ≡ 1.01325 | 1.0332 | 1 | 760 | 14.695 948 775 514 2 |

1 Torr | 133.322 368 421 | 0.001 333 224 | 0.001 359 51 | 1/760 ≈ 0.001 315 789 | 1 Torr ≈ 1 mmHg | 0.019 336 775 |

1 lbf/in^{2} | 6894.757 293 168 | 0.068 947 573 | 0.070 306 958 | 0.068 045 964 | 51.714 932 572 | ≡ 1 lbf/in^{2} |

**Horsepower** (**hp**) is a unit of measurement of power, or the rate at which work is done, usually in reference to the output of engines or motors. There are many different standards and types of horsepower. Two common definitions being used today are the **mechanical horsepower**, which is about 745.7 watts, and the **metric horsepower**, which is approximately 735.5 watts.

**Pressure measurement** is the analysis of an applied force by a fluid on a surface. Pressure is typically measured in units of force per unit of surface area. Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of pressure and vacuum. Instruments used to measure and display pressure in an integral unit are called **pressure meters** or **pressure gauges** or **vacuum gauges**. A **manometer** is a good example, as it uses the surface area and weight of a column of liquid to both measure and indicate pressure. Likewise the widely used Bourdon gauge is a mechanical device, which both measures and indicates and is probably the best known type of gauge.

**Pressure** is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure.

The **torr** is a unit of pressure based on an absolute scale, defined as exactly 1/760 of a standard atmosphere. Thus one torr is exactly 101325/760 pascals (≈ 133.32 Pa).

**Atmospheric pressure**, also known as **barometric pressure**, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth. The standard atmosphere is a unit of pressure defined as 101,325 Pa, which is equivalent to 760 mm Hg, 29.9212 inches Hg, or 14.696 psi. The atm unit is roughly equivalent to the mean sea-level atmospheric pressure on Earth, that is, the Earth's atmospheric pressure at sea level is approximately 1 atm.

The **pascal** is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength. The unit, named after Blaise Pascal, is defined as one newton per square metre. The unit of measurement called standard atmosphere (atm) is defined as 101325 Pa.

The **newton** is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force. It is named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics, specifically Newton's second law of motion.

The **pound of force** or **pound-force** is a unit of force used in some systems of measurement including English Engineering units and the Foot–pound–second system. Pound-force should not be confused with foot-pound, a unit of energy, or pound-foot, a unit of torque, that may be written as "lbf⋅ft"; nor should these be confused with pound-mass, often simply called *pound,* which is a unit of mass.

**Ultimate tensile strength** (**UTS**), often shortened to **tensile strength** (**TS**), **ultimate strength**, or within equations, is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before breaking. In brittle materials the ultimate tensile strength is close to the yield point, whereas in ductile materials the ultimate tensile strength can be higher.

The **bar** is a metric unit of pressure, but not part of the International System of Units (SI). It is defined as exactly equal to 100,000 Pa (100 kPa), which is the atmospheric pressure on earth at an altitude of about 111 meters and a temperature of 15 °C or slightly less than the current average pressure at sea level.

The **standard atmosphere** is a unit of pressure defined as 101325 Pa. It is sometimes used as a *reference* or *standard pressure*. It is approximately equal to the atmospheric pressure at sea level.

In materials science and metallurgy, **toughness** is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing. One definition of material toughness is the amount of energy per unit volume that a material can absorb before rupturing. It is also defined as a material's resistance to fracture when stressed.

A **millimetre of mercury** is a manometric unit of pressure, formerly defined as the extra pressure generated by a column of mercury one millimetre high, and currently defined as exactly 133.322387415 pascals. It is denoted **mmHg** or **mm Hg**.

**Cold inflation pressure** is the inflation pressure of tires before the car is driven and the tires warmed up. Recommended cold inflation pressure is displayed on the owner's manual and on the placard attached to the vehicle door edge, pillar, glovebox door or fuel filler flap. 40% of passenger cars have at least one tires under-inflated by 6 psi or more. Drivers are encouraged to make sure their tires are adequately inflated, as suboptimal tire pressure can greatly reduce fuel economy, increase emissions, increased wear on the edges of the tire surface, and can lead to premature failure of the tire. Excessive pressure, on the other hand, may lead to impact-breaks, decrease braking performance, and cause uneven wear.

A **standard cubic foot** (scf) is a unit used both in the natural gas industry to represent an amount of natural gas and in other industries where other gases are used. It is the unit commonly used when following the US Customary System, a collection of standards set by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. Another unit used for the same purpose is the **standard cubic meter**, customary when using SI units.

The **foot–pound–second system** or **FPS system** is a system of units built on three fundamental units: the foot for length, the (avoirdupois) pound for either mass or force, and the second for time.

**Ground pressure** is the pressure exerted on the ground by the tires or tracks of a motorized vehicle, and is one measure of its potential mobility, especially over soft ground. It also applies to the feet of a walking person or machine. Ground pressure is measured in pascals (Pa) which corresponds to the United States customary units unit of pounds per square inch (psi). Average ground pressure can be calculated using the standard formula for average pressure: *P* = *F*/*A*. In an idealized case, i.e. a static, uniform net force normal to level ground, this is simply the object's weight divided by contact area. The ground pressure of motorized vehicles is often compared to the ground pressure of a human foot, which can be 60 – 80 kPa while walking or as much as 13 MPa for a person in spike heels.

**Inches of water**, **inches of water gauge (iwg or in.w.g.)**, **inches water column (inch wc or just wc)**, **inAq**, **Aq**, or **inH _{2}O** is a non-SI unit for pressure. The units are conventionally used for measurement of certain pressure differentials such as small pressure differences across an orifice, or in a pipeline or shaft.

**Sectional density** is the ratio of an object's mass to its cross sectional area with respect to a given axis. It conveys how well an object's mass is distributed to overcome resistance along that axis.

The **metre****sea water** (**msw**) is a unit of pressure used in underwater diving. It is defined as one tenth of a bar.

- ↑ IEEE Standard Letter Symbols for Units of Measurement (SI Units, Customary Inch-Pound Units, and Certain Other Units), IEEE Std 260.1™-2004 (Revision of IEEE Std 260.1-1993)
- ↑ "Glossary of Industrial Air Cleaning Technology".
*United Air Specialists, Inc*. Archived from the original on August 1, 2011. - ↑ "Gage v. Sealed v. Absolute pressure" (PDF).
*Dynisco*. - ↑ "Tensile Strength of Steel and Other Metals". All Metals & Forge Group. Retrieved 2016-07-26.
A metal’s yield strength and ultimate tensile strength values are expressed in tons per square inch, pounds per square inch or thousand pounds (KSI) per square inch. For example, a tensile strength of a steel that can withstand 40,000 pounds of force per square inch may be expressed as 40,000 PSI or 40 KSI (with K being the [multiplier] for thousands of pounds). The tensile strength of steel may also be shown in MPa, or megapascal.

- ↑ An example of the use of Mpsi in mechanics for the elastic moduli of several materials
- ↑
*BS 350: Part 1: 1974 – Conversion factors and tables*. British Standards Institution. 1974. p. 49. ISBN 0 580 08471 X. - ↑
*NIST Special Publication 811 – Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI)*(PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2008. p. 66.

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