Prathama is the Sanskrit word for "first", and is the first day in the lunar fortnight ( Paksha ) of the Hindu calendar. Prathama is also known as Pratipada in West Bengal, Odisha and western India (Maharashtra, Konkan, and Goa). Each month has two Prathama days, being the first day of the "bright" (Shukla) and of the "dark" (Krishna) fortnights respectively. Thus Prathama occurs on the first and the sixteenth day of each month. It is also known as Pratipad or Pratipada.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also simply called New Year or New Year's, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
The various lunisolar calendars traditionally used in the Indian subcontinent are collectively referred to as the Hindu calendar. They adopt a similar underlying concept for timekeeping, but differ in their relative emphasis to moon cycle or the sun cycle and the names of months and when they consider the New Year to start. Of the various regional calendars, the most studied and known Hindu calendars are the Shalivahana Shaka found in South India, Vikram Samvat (Bikrami) found in North and Central regions of India, Tamil calendar used in Tamil Nadu, and the Bengali calendar used in the Bengal – all of which emphasize the lunar cycle. Their new year starts in spring. In contrast, in regions such as Kerala, the solar cycle is emphasized and this is called the Malayalam calendar, their new year starts in autumn, and these have origins in the second half of the 1st millennium CE. A Hindu calendar is sometimes referred to as Panchanga (पञ्चाङ्ग).
Lunar New Year is the beginning of a calendar year whose months are coordinated by the cycles of the moon. The relevant calendar may be a purely lunar calendar or a lunisolar calendar.
Chaitra is a month of the Hindu calendar.
Vaisakha is a month of the Hindu calendar that corresponds to April/May/June in the Gregorian Calendar. In Indian national calendar, Vaisakha is the second month of the year. It is the first month of the Vikram Samvat calendar, Nepali calendar, Odia calendar, Punjabi calendar, Assamese calendar and the Bengali calendar. This month lies between the second half of April and the first half of May. Regional calendars used in the Indian subcontinent have two aspects: lunar and solar. Lunar months begin with Chaitra and solar months start with Vaisakha Sankranti. However, regional calendars mark when the official new year is celebrated. In regions such as Maharashtra which begin the official new year with the commencement of the lunar year, the solar year is marked by celebrating Vaisakha Sankranti. Conversely, regions starting the new year with Vaisakha Sankranti, give prominence to the start of the lunar year in Chaitra. In Vedic calendar, it is called Madhav, and in Vaishnav calendar, it is called Madhushudan month.
Jyeshtha or Jyēṣṭha is a month of the Hindu calendar. In India's national civil calendar, Jyestha is the third month of the year. Known as Joishtho in Bengali, it is the second month of the Bengali calendar.
Vikram Samvat, abbreviated V.S. and B.S. )
Gudhi Padwa and Konkani: संवसर पाडवो,Sanvsar Pādvo) is a spring-time festival that marks the traditional new year for Marathi and Konkani Hindus. It is celebrated in and near Maharashtra and Goa on the first day of the Chaitra month to mark the beginning of the New year according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar. The word पाडवा (pāḍavā) or पाडवो (pāḍavo) or पाड्ड्वा/पाड्ड्वो (pāḍḍvā/pāḍḍvo) comes from the Sanskrit word प्रतिपदा (pratipadā), which refers to the first day of a lunar fortnight. The festival is observed with colorful floor decorations called rangoli, a special Gudhi flag, street processions, dancing and festive foods.
There are numerous days throughout the year celebrated as New Year's Day in the different regions of India. Observance is determined by whether the lunar calendar is being following or the solar calendar. Those regions which follow the Solar calendar, the new year falls on Sankranti of the first month of the calendar, i.e., Vaishakha. Generally, this day falls during 14th or 15th of the month of April. Those following Lunar calendar consider the month of Chaitra as the first month of the year, so the new year is celebrated on the first day of this month. Similarly, few regions in India consider the period between consecutive Sankarantis as one month and few others take the period between consecutive Purnimas as a month.
Karthikai, Kartika, Karthika or Kartik or Kartika maasam is a month in Hindu calendar, that typically overlaps October and November. In the Bengali, Maithili, and Nepali calendar, it is the 7th month, in the Tamil calendar it is the 8th month.
Paksha refers to a fortnight or a lunar phase in a month of the Hindu lunar calendar.
Chetri Chandra is a festival which marks the beginning of the Hindu New Year for the Sindhi Hindus. The festival date is based on the lunar cycle of the lunisolar Hindu calendar, it being the first day of the year and the Sindhi month of Chet (Chaitra). It typically falls in late March or early April in the Gregorian calendar on or about the same day as Gudi Padwa in Maharashtra and Ugadi in other parts of the Deccan region of India.
This article lists the traditional festivals and other cultural events in the Odisha region of India.
Purushottam Maas or Adhik Maas is an extra month in the Hindu calendar that is inserted to keep the lunar and solar calendars aligned. "Purushottam" is an epithet of Vishnu, to whom the month is dedicated.
Purnima or Pournami is the word for full moon in Sanskrit and Tamil. The day of Purnima is the day (Tithi) in each month when the full moon occurs, and marks the division in each month between the two lunar fortnights (, and the Moon are aligned exactly in a straight line, called a syzygy of the Sun–Earth–Moon system. Full moon is considered the third of the four primary phases of the Moon; the other three phases are new moon, first quarter moon, and third quarter moon. The full moon shows 100% illumination, causes high tides, and can concur with lunar eclipses.
Dwitiya also referred to as Beej and Dooj is the Sanskrit word for "second", and is the second day in the lunar fortnight (Paksha) of the Hindu calendar. Each month has two Dwitiya days, being the second day of the "bright" (Shukla) and of the "dark" (Krishna) fortnights respectively. Thus Dwitiya occurs on the second and the seventeenth day of each month. Called as bidige in Kannada.
Here is a list of glossary of Culture of India in alphabetical order:
The Punjabi calendar is used by the Punjabi people of the Indian subcontinent, but varies by religions. Historically, the Punjabi Sikhs and Punjabi Hindus have used the Nanakshahi calendar and ancient Indian Bikrami (Vikrami) calendar respectively. Punjabi Muslims use the Arabic Hijri calendar. Some festivals in Punjab, Pakistan are determined by the Punjabi calendar, such as Muharram which is celebrated twice, once according to the Muslim year and again on the 10th of harh. The Nanakshahi and Bikrami calendar are the ones the rural (agrarian) population follows in Punjab, Pakistan.
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