Precambrian

Last updated
Precambrian
~4600 – 541.0 ± 1.0 Ma
Chronology
Proposed subdivisionsSee Proposed Precambrian timeline
Etymology
Synonym(s)Cryptozoic
Usage information
Celestial body Earth
Regional usageGlobal (ICS)
Time scale(s) usedICS Time Scale
Definition
Chronological unit Supereon
Stratigraphic unit Supereonthem
Time span formalityInformal
Lower boundary definitionFormation of the Earth
Lower boundary GSSPN/A
GSSP ratifiedN/A
Upper boundary definitionAppearance of the Ichnofossil Treptichnus pedum
Upper boundary GSSP Fortune Head section, Newfoundland, Canada
47°04′34″N55°49′52″W / 47.0762°N 55.8310°W / 47.0762; -55.8310
GSSP ratified1992

The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pꞒ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon. The Precambrian is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic Eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time.

Contents

The Precambrian (colored red in the timeline figure) is an informal unit of geologic time, [1] subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale. It spans from the formation of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago (Ga) to the beginning of the Cambrian Period, about 541 million years ago (Ma), when hard-shelled creatures first appeared in abundance.

Overview

Relatively little is known about the Precambrian, despite it making up roughly seven-eighths of the Earth's history, and what is known has largely been discovered from the 1960s onwards. The Precambrian fossil record is poorer than that of the succeeding Phanerozoic, and fossils from the Precambrian (e.g. stromatolites) are of limited biostratigraphic use. [2] This is because many Precambrian rocks have been heavily metamorphosed, obscuring their origins, while others have been destroyed by erosion, or remain deeply buried beneath Phanerozoic strata. [2] [3] [4]

It is thought that the Earth coalesced from material in orbit around the Sun at roughly 4,543 Ma, and may have been struck by another planet called Theia shortly after it formed, splitting off material that formed the Moon (see Giant impact hypothesis). A stable crust was apparently in place by 4,433 Ma, since zircon crystals from Western Australia have been dated at 4,404 ± 8 Ma. [5] [6]

The term "Precambrian" is used by geologists and paleontologists for general discussions not requiring a more specific eon name. However, both the United States Geological Survey [7] and the International Commission on Stratigraphy regard the term as informal. [8] Because the span of time falling under the Precambrian consists of three eons (the Hadean, the Archean, and the Proterozoic), it is sometimes described as a supereon, [9] [10] but this is also an informal term, not defined by the ICS in its chronostratigraphic guide. [11]

Eozoic (from eo- “earliest”) was a synonym for pre-Cambrian, [12] [13] or more specifically Archean . [14]

Life forms

A specific date for the origin of life has not been determined. Carbon found in 3.8 billion-year-old rocks (Archean Eon) from islands off western Greenland may be of organic origin. Well-preserved microscopic fossils of bacteria older than 3.46 billion years have been found in Western Australia. [15] Probable fossils 100 million years older have been found in the same area. However, there is evidence that life could have evolved over 4.280 billion years ago. [16] [17] [18] [19] There is a fairly solid record of bacterial life throughout the remainder (Proterozoic Eon) of the Precambrian.

Complex multicellular organisms may have appeared as early as 2100 Ma. [20] However, the interpretation of ancient fossils is problematic, and "... some definitions of multicellularity encompass everything from simple bacterial colonies to badgers." [21] Other possible early complex multicellular organisms include a possible 2450 Ma red alga from the Kola Peninsula, [22] 1650 Ma carbonaceous biosignatures in north China, [23] the 1600 Ma Rafatazmia , [24] and a possible 1047 Ma Bangiomorpha red alga from the Canadian Arctic. [25] The earliest fossils widely accepted as complex multicellular organisms date from the Ediacaran Period. [26] [27] A very diverse collection of soft-bodied forms is found in a variety of locations worldwide and date to between 635 and 542 Ma. These are referred to as Ediacaran or Vendian biota. Hard-shelled creatures appeared toward the end of that time span, marking the beginning of the Phanerozoic Eon. By the middle of the following Cambrian Period, a very diverse fauna is recorded in the Burgess Shale, including some which may represent stem groups of modern taxa. The increase in diversity of lifeforms during the early Cambrian is called the Cambrian explosion of life. [28] [29]

While land seems to have been devoid of plants and animals, cyanobacteria and other microbes formed prokaryotic mats that covered terrestrial areas. [30]

Tracks from an animal with leg-like appendages have been found in what was mud 551 million years ago. [31] [32]

Planetary environment and the oxygen catastrophe

Weathered Precambrian pillow lava in the Temagami Greenstone Belt of the Canadian Shield Temagami greenstone belt pillow lava.jpg
Weathered Precambrian pillow lava in the Temagami Greenstone Belt of the Canadian Shield

Evidence of the details of plate motions and other tectonic activity in the Precambrian has been poorly preserved. It is generally believed that small proto-continents existed prior to 4280 Ma, and that most of the Earth's landmasses collected into a single supercontinent around 1130 Ma. The supercontinent, known as Rodinia, broke up around 750 Ma. A number of glacial periods have been identified going as far back as the Huronian epoch, roughly 2400–2100 Ma. One of the best studied is the Sturtian-Varangian glaciation, around 850–635 Ma, which may have brought glacial conditions all the way to the equator, resulting in a "Snowball Earth".

The atmosphere of the early Earth is not well understood. Most geologists believe it was composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and other relatively inert gases, and was lacking in free oxygen. There is, however, evidence that an oxygen-rich atmosphere existed since the early Archean. [33]

At present, it is still believed that molecular oxygen was not a significant fraction of Earth's atmosphere until after photosynthetic life forms evolved and began to produce it in large quantities as a byproduct of their metabolism. This radical shift from a chemically inert to an oxidizing atmosphere caused an ecological crisis, sometimes called the oxygen catastrophe. At first, oxygen would have quickly combined with other elements in Earth's crust, primarily iron, removing it from the atmosphere. After the supply of oxidizable surfaces ran out, oxygen would have begun to accumulate in the atmosphere, and the modern high-oxygen atmosphere would have developed. Evidence for this lies in older rocks that contain massive banded iron formations that were laid down as iron oxides.

Subdivisions

A terminology has evolved covering the early years of the Earth's existence, as radiometric dating has allowed absolute dates to be assigned to specific formations and features. [34] The Precambrian is divided into three eons: the Hadean (46004000 Ma), Archean (4000-2500 Ma) and Proterozoic (2500-541 Ma). See Timetable of the Precambrian.

It has been proposed that the Precambrian should be divided into eons and eras that reflect stages of planetary evolution, rather than the current scheme based upon numerical ages. Such a system could rely on events in the stratigraphic record and be demarcated by GSSPs. The Precambrian could be divided into five "natural" eons, characterized as follows: [37]

  1. Accretion and differentiation: a period of planetary formation until giant Moon-forming impact event.
  2. Hadean: dominated by heavy bombardment from about 4.51 Ga (possibly including a Cool Early Earth period) to the end of the Late Heavy Bombardment period.
  3. Archean: a period defined by the first crustal formations (the Isua greenstone belt) until the deposition of banded iron formations due to increasing atmospheric oxygen content.
  4. Transition: a period of continued iron banded formation until the first continental red beds.
  5. Proterozoic: a period of modern plate tectonics until the first animals.

Precambrian supercontinents

Map of Kenorland supercontinent 2.5 billion years ago Kenorland.jpg
Map of Kenorland supercontinent 2.5 billion years ago
Map of Kenorland breaking up 2.3 billion years ago Kenorland breaking up.jpg
Map of Kenorland breaking up 2.3 billion years ago
The supercontinent Columbia about 1.6 billion years ago Paleoglobe NO 1590 mya-vector-colors.svg
The supercontinent Columbia about 1.6 billion years ago
Proposed reconstruction of Rodinia for 750 million years ago Rodinia reconstruction.jpg
Proposed reconstruction of Rodinia for 750 million years ago
Landmass positions near the end of the Precambrian Positions of ancient continents, 550 million years ago.jpg
Landmass positions near the end of the Precambrian

The movement of Earth's plates has caused the formation and break-up of continents over time, including occasional formation of a supercontinent containing most or all of the landmass. The earliest known supercontinent was Vaalbara. It formed from proto-continents and was a supercontinent 3.636 billion years ago. Vaalbara broke up c. 2.845–2.803 Ga ago. The supercontinent Kenorland was formed c. 2.72 Ga ago and then broke sometime after 2.45–2.1 Ga into the proto-continent cratons called Laurentia, Baltica, Yilgarn craton and Kalahari. The supercontinent Columbia, or Nuna, formed 2.1–1.8 billion years ago and broke up about 1.3–1.2 billion years ago. [38] [39] The supercontinent Rodinia is thought to have formed about 1300-900 Ma, to have embodied most or all of Earth's continents and to have broken up into eight continents around 750–600 million years ago. [40]

See also

Related Research Articles

Ediacaran Third and last period of the Neoproterozoic Era

The Ediacaran Period is a geological period that spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya. It marks the end of the Proterozoic Eon, and the beginning of the Phanerozoic Eon. It is named after the Ediacara Hills of South Australia.

Geologic time scale system that relates geological strata to time

The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontologists, and other Earth scientists to describe the timing and relationships of events in geologic history. The time scale was developed through the study and observation of layers of rock and relationships as well as the times when different organisms appeared, evolved and became extinct through the study of fossilized remains and imprints. The table of geologic time spans, presented here, agrees with the nomenclature, dates and standard color codes set forth by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).

The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from 1 billion to 541 million years ago.

The PaleozoicEra is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon. It is the longest of the Phanerozoic eras, lasting from 541 to 251.902 million years ago, and is subdivided into six geologic periods : the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian. The Paleozoic comes after the Neoproterozoic Era of the Proterozoic Eon and is followed by the Mesozoic Era.

Supercontinent Landmass comprising more than one continental core, or craton

In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass. However, some earth scientists use a different definition, "a grouping of formerly dispersed continents", which leaves room for interpretation and is easier to apply to Precambrian times although at least about 75% of the continental crust then in existence has been proposed as a limit to separate supercontinents from other groupings.

Rodinia Hypothetical neoproterozoic supercontinent from between about a billion to about three quarters of a billion years ago

Rodinia was a Neoproterozoic supercontinent that assembled 1.1–0.9 billion years ago and broke up 750–633 million years ago. Valentine & Moores 1970 were probably the first to recognise a Precambrian supercontinent, which they named 'Pangaea I'. It was renamed 'Rodinia' by McMenamin & McMenamin 1990 who also were the first to produce a reconstruction and propose a temporal framework for the supercontinent.

Hadean First eon of geological time, beginning with the formation of the Earth about 4.6 billion years ago

The Hadean is a geologic eon of Earth history preceding the Archean. It began with the formation of the Earth about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), 4 billion years ago. As of 2016, the ICS describes its status as "informal". The term was coined after the Greek mythical underworld Hades, by American geologist Preston Cloud, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term, the Priscoan Period, from priscus, the Latin word for 'ancient'. Other, older texts refer to the eon as the Pre-Archean.

Proterozoic Third eon of the geologic timescale, last eon of the Precambrian Supereon

The Proterozoic is a geological eon spanning the time interval from 2500 to 541 million years ago. It is the most recent part of the Precambrian "supereon." It is also the longest eon of the Earth's geologic time scale, and it is subdivided into three geologic eras : the Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, and Neoproterozoic.

Archean Second eon of the geologic timescale

The Archean Eon is the second of four geologic eons of Earth's history, representing the time from 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago. In this time, the Earth's crust had cooled enough for continents to form and for the earliest known life to start. Life was simple throughout the Archean, mostly represented by shallow-water microbial mats called stromatolites, and the atmosphere lacked free oxygen. The Archean was preceded by the Hadean Eon and followed by the Proterozoic.

Kenorland Hypothetical Neoarchaean supercontinent from about 2.8 billion years ago

Kenorland was one of the earliest known supercontinents on Earth. It is thought to have formed during the Neoarchaean Era c. 2.72 billion years ago (2.72Ga) by the accretion of Neoarchaean cratons and the formation of new continental crust. It comprised what later became Laurentia, Baltica, Western Australia and Kalaharia.

Eoarchean geological era

The Eoarchean is the first era of the Archean Eon of the geologic record for which the Earth has a solid crust. It spans 400 million years from the end of the Hadean Eon 4 billion years ago to the start of the Paleoarchean Era 3600 Mya. The beginnings of life on Earth have been dated to this era and evidence of cyanobacteria date to 3500 Mya, just outside this era. At that time, the atmosphere was without oxygen and the pressure values ranged from 10 to 100 bar.

History of Earth Development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day

The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day. Nearly all branches of natural science have contributed to understanding of the main events of Earth's past, characterized by constant geological change and biological evolution.

North China Craton continental crustal block in northeast China, Inner Mongolia, the Yellow Sea, and North Korea

The North China Craton is a continental crustal block with one of Earth's most complete and complex records of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic processes. It is located in northeast China, Inner Mongolia, the Yellow Sea, and North Korea. The term craton designates this as a piece of continent that is stable, buoyant and rigid. Basic properties of the cratonic crust include being thick, relatively cold when compared to other regions, and low density. The North China Craton is an ancient craton, which experienced a long period of stability and fitted the definition of a craton well. However, the North China Craton later experienced destruction of some of its deeper parts (decratonization), which means that this piece of continent is no longer as stable.

Geological history of Earth The sequence of major geological events in Earths past

The geological history of Earth follows the major events in Earth's past based on the geological time scale, a system of chronological measurement based on the study of the planet's rock layers (stratigraphy). Earth formed about 4.54 billion years ago by accretion from the solar nebula, a disk-shaped mass of dust and gas left over from the formation of the Sun, which also created the rest of the Solar System.

Laurentia A large continental craton that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent

Laurentia or the North American Craton is a large continental craton that forms the ancient geological core of North America. Many times in its past, Laurentia has been a separate continent, as it is now in the form of North America, although originally it also included the cratonic areas of Greenland and also the northwestern part of Scotland, known as the Hebridean Terrane. During other times in its past, Laurentia has been part of larger continents and supercontinents and itself consists of many smaller terranes assembled on a network of Early Proterozoic orogenic belts. Small microcontinents and oceanic islands collided with and sutured onto the ever-growing Laurentia, and together formed the stable Precambrian craton seen today.

This timeline of natural history summarizes significant geological and biological events from the formation of the Earth to the arrival of modern humans. Times are listed in millions of years, or megaanni (Ma).

East Antarctic Shield Cratonic rock body which makes up most of the continent Antarctica

The East Antarctic Shield or Craton is a cratonic rock body that covers 10.2 million square kilometers or roughly 73% of the continent of Antarctica. The shield is almost entirely buried by the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that has an average thickness of 2200 meters but reaches up to 4700 meters in some locations. East Antarctica is separated from West Antarctica by the 100–300 kilometer wide Transantarctic Mountains, which span nearly 3,500 kilometers from the Weddell Sea to the Ross Sea. The East Antarctic Shield is then divided into an extensive central craton that occupies most of the continental interior and various other marginal cratons that are exposed along the coast.

Tectonic evolution of the Aravalli Mountains

The Aravalli Mountain Range is a northeast-southwest trending orogenic belt in the northwest part of India and is part of the Indian Shield that was formed from a series of cratonic collisions. The Aravalli Mountains consist of the Aravalli and Delhi fold belts, and are collectively known as the Aravalli-Delhi orogenic belt. The whole mountain range is about 700 km long. Unlike the much younger Himalayan section nearby, the Aravalli Mountains are much older that can be traced back to the Proterozoic Eon. The collision between the Bundelkhand craton and the Marwar craton is believed to be the primary mechanism for the development of the mountain range.

Eastern Block of the North China Craton

The Eastern Block of the North China Craton is one of the Earth's oldest pieces of continent. It is separated from the Western Block by the Trans-North China Orogen. It is situated in northeastern China and North Korea. The Block contains rock exposures older than 2.5 billion years. It serves as an ideal place to study how the crust was formed in the past and the related tectonic settings.

South China Craton

The South China Craton or South China Block is one of the Precambrian continental blocks in China. It is traditionally divided into the Yangtze Block in the NW and the Cathaysia Block in the SE. The Jiangshan–Shaoxing Fault represents the suture boundary between the two sub-blocks. Recent study suggests that the South China Block possibly has one more sub-block which is named the Tolo Terrane. The oldest rocks in the South China Block occur within the Kongling Complex, which yields zircon U–Pb ages of 3.3–2.9 Ga.

References

  1. Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G.; Schmitz, M.D.; Ogg, G.M., eds. (2012). The Geologic Timescale 2012. 1. Elsevier. p. 301. ISBN   978-0-44-459390-0.
  2. 1 2 Monroe, James S.; Wicander, Reed (1997). The Changing Earth: Exploring Geology and Evolution (2nd ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company. p. 492. ISBN   9781285981383.
  3. Levin, Harold L. (2010). The earth through time (9th ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: J. Wiley. pp. 230–233. ISBN   978-0470387740. Outlined in Gore, Pamela J.W. (25 October 2005). "The Earliest Earth: 2,100,000,000 years of the Archean Eon".
  4. Davis, C.M. (1964). "The Precambrian Era". Readings in the Geography of Michigan. Michigan State University.
  5. "Zircons are Forever". Department of Geoscience. 2005. Retrieved 28 April 2007.
  6. Cavosie, Aaron J.; Valley, John W.; Wilde, Simon A. (2007). "Chapter 2.5 The Oldest Terrestrial Mineral Record: A Review of 4400 to 4000 Ma Detrital Zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia". Developments in Precambrian Geology. 15: 91–111. doi:10.1016/S0166-2635(07)15025-8. ISBN   9780444528100.
  7. U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Names Committee (2010), "Divisions of geologic time – major chronostratigraphic and geochronologic units", U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2010–3059, United States Geological Survey, p. 2, retrieved 20 June 2018
  8. Fan, Junxuan; Hou, Xudong (February 2017). "Chart". International Commission on Stratigraphy . International Chronostratigraphic Chart . Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  9. Senter, Phil (1 April 2013). "The Age of the Earth & Its Importance to Biology". The American Biology Teacher. 75 (4): 251–256. doi:10.1525/abt.2013.75.4.5. S2CID   85652369.
  10. Kamp, Ulrich (6 March 2017). "Glaciations". International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment and Technology: 1–8. doi:10.1002/9781118786352.wbieg0612. ISBN   9780470659632.
  11. "Stratigraphic Guide". International Commission on Stratigraphy. Table 3. Retrieved 9 December 2020.CS1 maint: location (link)
  12. Hitchcock, C. H. (1874). The Geology of New Hampshire. p. 511. The name Eozoic seems to have been proposed by Dr. J.W. Dawson, of Montreal, in 1865. He did not fully define the limits of its application at that time; but it seems to have been generally understood by geologists to embrace all the obscurely fossiliferous rocks older than the Cambrian.
  13. Bulletin. 767. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1925. p. 3. [1888] Sir J. W. Dawson prefers the term “Eozoic” [to Archean], and would have it include all the Pre-Cambrian strata.
  14. Salop, L.J. (2012). Geological Evolution of the Earth During the Precambrian. Springer. p. 9. ISBN   978-3-642-68684-9. a possibility of dividing the Precambrian history into two eons: the Eozoic, embracing the Archean Era only, and the Protozoic, comprising all the remaining Precambrian Eras.
  15. Brun, Yves; Shimkets, Lawrence J. (January 2000). Prokaryotic development. ASM Press. p. 114. ISBN   978-1-55581-158-7.
  16. Dodd, Matthew S.; Papineau, Dominic; Grenne, Tor; slack, John F.; Rittner, Martin; Pirajno, Franco; O'Neil, Jonathan; Little, Crispin T. S. (2 March 2017). "Evidence for early life in Earth's oldest hydrothermal vent precipitates". Nature. 543 (7643): 60–64. Bibcode:2017Natur.543...60D. doi: 10.1038/nature21377 . PMID   28252057.
  17. Zimmer, Carl (1 March 2017). "Scientists Say Canadian Bacteria Fossils May Be Earth's Oldest". The New York Times . Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  18. Ghosh, Pallab (1 March 2017). "Earliest evidence of life on Earth 'found'". BBC News . Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  19. Dunham, Will (1 March 2017). "Canadian bacteria-like fossils called oldest evidence of life". Reuters . Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  20. Albani, Abderrazak El; Bengtson, Stefan; Canfield, Donald E.; Bekker, Andrey; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Mazurier, Arnaud; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Boulvais, Philippe; Dupuy, Jean-Jacques; Fontaine, Claude; Fürsich, Franz T.; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Janvier, Philippe; Javaux, Emmanuelle; Ossa, Frantz Ossa; Pierson-Wickmann, Anne-Catherine; Riboulleau, Armelle; Sardini, Paul; Vachard, Daniel; Whitehouse, Martin; Meunier, Alain (July 2010). "Large colonial organisms with coordinated growth in oxygenated environments 2.1 Gyr ago". Nature. 466 (7302): 100–104. Bibcode:2010Natur.466..100A. doi:10.1038/nature09166. PMID   20596019. S2CID   4331375.
  21. Donoghue, Philip C. J.; Antcliffe, Jonathan B. (July 2010). "Origins of multicellularity". Nature. 466 (7302): 41–42. doi:10.1038/466041a. PMID   20596008. S2CID   4396466.
  22. Rozanov, A. Yu.; Astafieva, M. M. (1 March 2013). "A unique find of the earliest multicellular algae in the Lower Proterozoic (2.45 Ga) of the Kola Peninsula". Doklady Biological Sciences. 449 (1): 96–98. doi:10.1134/S0012496613020051. PMID   23652437. S2CID   15774804.
  23. Qu, Yuangao; Zhu, Shixing; Whitehouse, Martin; Engdahl, Anders; McLoughlin, Nicola (1 January 2018). "Carbonaceous biosignatures of the earliest putative macroscopic multicellular eukaryotes from 1630 Ma Tuanshanzi Formation, north China". Precambrian Research. 304: 99–109. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2017.11.004.
  24. Bengtson, Stefan; Sallstedt, Therese; Belivanova, Veneta; Whitehouse, Martin (14 March 2017). "Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggests 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae". PLOS Biology. 15 (3): e2000735. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.2000735. PMC   5349422 . PMID   28291791.
  25. Gibson, Timothy M; Shih, Patrick M; Cumming, Vivien M; Fischer, Woodward W; Crockford, Peter W; Hodgskiss, Malcolm S.W; Wörndle, Sarah; Creaser, Robert A; Rainbird, Robert H; Skulski, Thomas M; Halverson, Galen P (2017). "Precise age of Bangiomorpha pubescens dates the origin of eukaryotic photosynthesis" (PDF). Geology. 46 (2): 135–138. doi:10.1130/G39829.1.
  26. Laflamme, M. (9 September 2014). "Modeling morphological diversity in the oldest large multicellular organisms". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111 (36): 12962–12963. Bibcode:2014PNAS..11112962L. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1412523111 . PMC   4246935 . PMID   25114212.
  27. Kolesnikov, Anton V.; Rogov, Vladimir I.; Bykova, Natalia V.; Danelian, Taniel; Clausen, Sébastien; Maslov, Andrey V.; Grazhdankin, Dmitriy V. (October 2018). "The oldest skeletal macroscopic organism Palaeopascichnus linearis". Precambrian Research. 316: 24–37. Bibcode:2018PreR..316...24K. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2018.07.017.
  28. Fedonkin, Mikhail A.; Gehling, James G.; Grey, Kathleen; Narbonne, Guy M.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia (2007). The Rise of Animals: Evolution and Diversification of the Kingdom Animalia. JHU Press. p. 326. doi:10.1086/598305. ISBN   9780801886799.
  29. Dawkins, Richard; Wong, Yan (2005). The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution . Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp.  673. ISBN   9780618619160.
  30. Selden, Paul A. (2005). "Terrestrialization (Precambrian–Devonian)" (PDF). Encyclopedia of Life Sciences . John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1038/npg.els.0004145. ISBN   978-0470016176.
  31. Scientists discover 'oldest footprints on Earth' in southern China dating back 550 million years The Independent
  32. Chen, Zhe; Chen, Xiang; Zhou, Chuanming; Yuan, Xunlai; Xiao, Shuhai (June 2018). "Late Ediacaran trackways produced by bilaterian animals with paired appendages". Science Advances. 4 (6): eaao6691. Bibcode:2018SciA....4.6691C. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aao6691. PMC   5990303 . PMID   29881773.
  33. Clemmey, Harry; Badham, Nick (1982). "Oxygen in the Precambrian Atmosphere". Geology . 10 (3): 141–146. Bibcode:1982Geo....10..141C. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<141:OITPAA>2.0.CO;2.
  34. Geological Society of America's "2009 GSA Geologic Time Scale."
  35. Harrison, T. Mark (27 April 2009). "The Hadean Crust: Evidence from >4 Ga Zircons". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 37 (1): 479–505. Bibcode:2009AREPS..37..479H. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.031208.100151.
  36. Abramov, Oleg; Kring, David A.; Mojzsis, Stephen J. (October 2013). "The impact environment of the Hadean Earth". Geochemistry. 73 (3): 227–248. Bibcode:2013ChEG...73..227A. doi:10.1016/j.chemer.2013.08.004.
  37. Bleeker, W. (2004) [2004]. "Toward a "natural" Precambrian time scale". In Felix M. Gradstein; James G. Ogg; Alan G. Smith (eds.). A Geologic Time Scale 2004. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-78673-7. also available at Stratigraphy.org: Precambrian subcommission
  38. Zhao, Guochun; Cawood, Peter A.; Wilde, Simon A.; Sun, M. (2002). "Review of global 2.1–1.8 Ga orogens: implications for a pre-Rodinia super-continent". Earth-Science Reviews. 59 (1): 125–162. Bibcode:2002ESRv...59..125Z. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00073-9.
  39. Zhao, Guochun; Sun, M.; Wilde, Simon A.; Li, S.Z. (2004). "A Paleo-Mesoproterozoic super-continent: assembly, growth and breakup". Earth-Science Reviews (Submitted manuscript). 67 (1): 91–123. Bibcode:2004ESRv...67...91Z. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2004.02.003.
  40. Li, Z. X.; Bogdanova, S. V.; Collins, A. S.; Davidson, A.; De Waele, B.; Ernst, R. E.; Fitzsimons, I. C. W.; Fuck, R. A.; Gladkochub, D. P.; Jacobs, J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Lul, S.; Natapov, L. M.; Pease, V.; Pisarevsky, S. A.; Thrane, K.; Vernikovsky, V. (2008). "Assembly, configuration, and break-up history of Rodinia: A synthesis" (PDF). Precambrian Research. 160 (1–2): 179–210. Bibcode:2008PreR..160..179L. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2007.04.021 . Retrieved 6 February 2016.

Further reading