Premier of the People's Republic of China

Last updated
Premier of the
State Council of the
People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国国务院总理
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
Guówùyuàn Zǒnglǐ
People's Republic of China National Emblem.svg
Dmitry Medvedev and Li Keqiang 20191101 (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Li Keqiang

since 15 March 2013
Style Mr. Premier (总理)
(formal)
His Excellency (阁下)
(in international correspondence)
Type Head of the State Council
Status Head of Government
Member of Party Central Committee
Politburo Standing Committee
National Security Commission
State Council (cabinet)
Plenary Meeting of the State Council  [ zh ]
Executive Meeting of the State Council  [ zh ]
Reports to National People's Congress and its Standing Committee
Residence Zhongnanhai
Seat Regent Palace, Zhongnanhai, Beijing
Nominator President (1982–present)
the Party Central Committee
(1975–1982, president abolished)
Appointer President, according to the decision of the National People's Congress
Term length Five years
renewable once
Constituting instrument Constitution of the People's Republic of China
PrecursorPremier of the Government Administration Council of the Central People's Government
Inaugural holder Zhou Enlai [note 1]
Formation27 September 1954 (State Council of the PRC)
1 October 1949 (Government Administration Council of the Central People's Government)
Unofficial namesPrime Minister of China
Deputy Vice Premier
State Councillor
Salary¥152,121 RMB ($22,000 USD) [1]
Website State Council
Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China
Simplified Chinese 中华人民共和国国务院总理
Traditional Chinese 中華人民共和國國務院總理
Literal meaningChinese People Republic State Affairs Court General Manager
Alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 国务院总理
Traditional Chinese 國務院總理
Literal meaningState Affairs Court General Manager

The premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, sometimes also referred to informally as the "prime minister", is the head of the central government of China and is the holder of the highest rank in the Civil Service. This position replaced the role of premier of the Government Administration Council of the Central People's Government (Chinese :中央人民政府政务院总理), which existed from 1949 to 1954.

Contents

The premier is formally approved by the National People's Congress upon the nomination of the president. In practice, the candidate is chosen within the Communist Party of China (CPC) through the same process that determines the composition of the CPC Central Politburo [ citation needed ]. Both the President and the Premier are selected once every five years. The premier is limited to two terms, but the president is not. The premier has always been a member of the powerful Politburo Standing Committee.

The current premier is Li Keqiang, who took office on 15 March 2013. He succeeded Wen Jiabao.

Powers and duties

The premier is the highest administrative position in the Government of China. The premier is responsible for organizing and administering the Chinese civil bureaucracy. For example, the premier is tasked with planning and implementing national economic, social development and the state budget. [2] This includes overseeing the various ministries, departments, commissions and statutory agencies and announcing their candidacies to the National People's Congress for vice-premiers, state councillors and ministerial offices. The premier's role and responsibilities are codified into the constitution unlike a prime minister's from the Westminster system as by convention or traditions. [2]

The premier does not have command authority over the People's Liberation Army, but is the head of the National Defense Mobilization Commission of China and deputy head of the National Security Commission which are departments of the armed forces. Since the 1980s, there has been a division of responsibilities between the premier and the general secretary of the Communist Party wherein the premier is responsible for the technical details of implementing government policy while the general secretary gathers the political support necessary for government policy.

In 1989, then Premier Li Peng, in cooperation with the then Central Military Commission chairman Deng Xiaoping, was able to use the office of the Premier to order the military crackdown of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.[ citation needed ]

The premier has been supported by four vice-premiers since Deng Xiaoping's reform in 1983. The first-ranked vice premier will act in the premier's capacity in their absence.

List of premiers

Li KeqiangWen JiabaoZhu RongjiLi PengZhao ZiyangHua GuofengZhou EnlaiPremier of the People's Republic of China

Living former premiers

As of April2021, there are two living former premiers:

PremierTerm of officeDate of birth
Zhu Rongji 1998–200323 October 1928 (age 92)
Wen Jiabao 2003–201315 September 1942 (age 78)

See also

Notes

  1. as the only Premier of the Government Administration Council (1949–1954) and also the first Premier (1954–1976) of the State Council.

Related Research Articles

Jiang Zemin Former General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (1989-2002)

Jiang Zemin is a Chinese politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party from 1989 to 2002, as Chair of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2004, and as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003. Jiang has been described as the "core of the third generation" of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) leaders since 1989.

Hua Guofeng Former Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party

Hua Guofeng was a Chinese politician who served as Chairman of the Communist Party of China and Premier of the People's Republic of China. The designated successor of Mao Zedong, Hua held the top offices of the government, party, and the military after the deaths of Mao and Premier Zhou Enlai, but was gradually forced out of supreme power by a coalition of party leaders between December 1978 and June 1981, and subsequently he retreated from the political limelight, though still remaining a member of the Central Committee until 2002.

Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party

The Standing Committee of the Central Political Bureau of the Chinese Communist Party, usually known as the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC), is a committee consisting of the top leadership of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Historically it has been composed of five to eleven members, and currently has seven members. Its officially mandated purpose is to conduct policy discussions and make decisions on major issues when the Politburo, a larger decision-making body, is not in session. According to the party's Constitution, the General Secretary of the Central Committee must also be a member of the Politburo Standing Committee.

The orders of precedence in China is the ranking of political leaders in China for the purposes of event protocol and to arrange the ordering of names in official news bulletins, both written and televised. It is also sometimes used to assess perceived level of political power. Although there is no formally published ranking, there is usually an established convention and protocol, and the relative positions of Chinese political figures can usually be deduced from the order in meetings and especially by the time and order in which figures are covered by the official media.

Since both the Communist Party of China and the People's Liberation Army promote according to seniority, it is possible to discern distinct generations of Chinese leadership. In official discourse, each group of leadership is identified with a distinct extension of the ideology of the party. Historians have studied various periods in the development of the government of the People's Republic of China by reference to these "generations".

Central Foreign Affairs Commission

The Central Foreign Affairs Commission, formerly known as the Central Foreign Affairs Leading (Small) Group is a commission of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) that exercises general oversight on matters related to foreign affairs. It is currently chaired by CCP General Secretary and President Xi Jinping, and Premier Li Keqiang is deputy leader. They are assisted by its office director, CCP Politburo member Yang Jiechi, Foreign minister Wang Yi, and its membership includes officials of minister-rank and above.

Li Xiannian Former President of the Peoples Republic of China

Li Xiannian was a Chinese Communist military and political leader, President of the People's Republic of China from 1983 to 1988 under Paramount Leader Deng Xiaoping and then Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference from 1988 until his death. He was a full member of the Politburo from 1956 to 1987, and of its Standing Committee from 1977 to 1987.

In the People's Republic of China, Deng Xiaoping formally retired after the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, to be succeeded by former Shanghai mayor Jiang Zemin. The crackdown in 1989 led to great woes in China's reputation globally, and sanctions resulted. The situation, however, would eventually stabilize. Deng's idea of checks and balances in the political system also saw its demise with Jiang consolidating power in the party, state and military. The 1990s saw healthy economic development, but the closing of state-owned enterprises and increasing levels of corruption and unemployment, along with environmental challenges continued to plague China, as the country saw the rise to consumerism, crime, and new-age spiritual-religious movements such as Falun Gong. The 1990s also saw the peaceful handover of Hong Kong and Macau to Chinese control under the formula of One Country, Two Systems. China also saw a new surge of nationalism when facing crises abroad.

The 17th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party was held in Beijing, China, at the Great Hall of the People from 15 to 21 October 2007. Congress marked a significant shift in the political direction of the country as CCP General Secretary Hu Jintao solidified his position of leadership. Hu's signature policy doctrine, the Scientific Development Concept, which aimed to create a "Socialist Harmonious Society" through egalitarian wealth distribution and concern for the country's less well-off, was enshrined into the Party Constitution. It was succeeded by the 18th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party.

The 17th Central Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party was elected by the 17th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party on October 22, 2007. Eventually, four members of this Politburo were expelled from the Communist Party for not adhering to the leading party thought. They were, in order of the time of expulsion, Bo Xilai, Xu Caihou, Zhou Yongkang, and Guo Boxiong. This politburo was preceded by the 16th Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party and succeeded by the 18th Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party.

18th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party National legislature roster in China

The 18th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party began on November 8, 2012 at the Great Hall of the People. It was preceded by the 17th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party. Due to term and age limits restrictions, seven of the nine members of the powerful Politburo Standing Committee (PSC) retired during the Congress, including Hu Jintao, who was replaced by Xi Jinping as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party. The Congress elected the 18th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, and saw the number of Politburo Standing Committee seats reduced from nine to seven. It was succeeded by the 19th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party.

Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress

The Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, officially styled the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, is the presiding officer of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, which is considered China's top legislative body. The current Chairman is Li Zhanshu.

Xi–Li Administration

The Xi–Li Administration of the People's Republic of China began in 2013, when Xi Jinping and Li Keqiang succeeded Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao following the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party. It is speculated that Xi will solidify the political power of the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, for the absolute command of the Communist ideology over pragmatic approach, and on the economic front there will be no liberalization but socialist entrenchment.

The succession of power in China takes place in the context of a single party system. Despite the guarantee of universal franchise in the constitution, the appointment of the Paramount Leader lies largely in the hands of his predecessor and the powerful factions that control the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. The appointment of the leader occurs after two five year terms in accordance with the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. But this was changed to three of four five year terms during the first plenary session of the 19th national Congress of the Communist Policy of China.

Central Financial and Economic Affairs Commission

The Central Financial and Economic Affairs Commission, formerly known as the Central Leading Group for Financial and Economic Affairs from 1989–2018, is a commission of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China at the dependence of the CPC Politburo in charge of leading and supervising economic work of both the CPC Central Committee and the State Council. The Commission is headed by CPC General Secretary or Premier of the State Council.

The 18th Central Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party was elected by the 18th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party on 15 November 2012, which was formally elected by the 18th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party. It was nominally preceded by the 17th Politburo. It was succeeded by the 19th Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party.

Central Comprehensively Deepening Reforms Commission

The Central Comprehensively Deepening Reforms Commission, formerly known as the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms is a policy formulation and implementation body set up under the Politburo of the Communist Party of China in charge of "Comprehensively Deepening Reforms". These reforms are intended to be even more far-reaching than the previous round of comprehensive Chinese economic reforms initiated by Deng Xiaoping.

Li Keqiang Government

The Li Keqiang Government is the Central People's Government of China from 2013. Premier Li Keqiang took office on 15 March 2013. It succeeded the Wen Jiabao government. Premier Li is ranked only second to Party general secretary Xi Jinping among 7 members of the 18th and 19th Politburo Standing Committee, top decision-making body of the Communist Party of China.

President of the Peoples Republic of China Ceremonial office and nominal de jure Head of State of China

The President of the People's Republic of China, is the ceremonial head of state of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Under the current PRC Constitution, the presidency is a largely ceremonial office with very limited power. However, since 1993, as a matter of convention, the presidency has been held simultaneously by the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, the top leader of this one-party state. The presidency is officially regarded as an institution of the state rather than an administrative post; theoretically, the president serves at the pleasure of the National People's Congress (NPC), the legislature, and is not legally vested to take executive action on his own prerogative.

The 35th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China took place on 1 October 1984. A military parade was held in Tiananmen Square in Beijing and various celebrations were conducted all over the country. China's paramount leader Deng Xiaoping inspected the troops along Chang'an Avenue in Beijing. This parade was immediately followed by a civilian parade.

References

  1. "Public employees get salary increase - China - Chinadaily.com.cn". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on 2019-06-05. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  2. 1 2 http://english.people.com.cn/constitution/constitution.html Archived 2009-07-06 at the Wayback Machine , Section 3, Article 88 and Article 89.