Premier of the Soviet Union

Last updated
Premier of the Soviet Union
Глава Правительства СССР
State Emblem of the Soviet Union.svg
Residence Kremlin Senate, Moscow
Formation6 July 1923
First holder Vladimir Lenin
Final holder Ivan Silayev
Abolished26 December 1991
Succession Prime Minister of the Russian Federation

The Premier of the Soviet Union (Russian : Глава Правительства СССР) was the head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The office had three different names throughout its existence: Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1923–1946), Chairman of the Council of Ministers (1946–1991) and Prime Minister of the Soviet Union (1991). The term premier was used by outside commentators to describe the office of head of government.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. "Head of government" is often differentiated from "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.

Contents

The first Soviet government was established on 6 July 1923. The government was empowered to initiate decrees and legislation that were binding throughout the USSR. [1] After the ousting of Khrushchev in 1964, Kosygin was appointed head of government. However, Kosygin's prestige was weakened when he proposed the economic reform of 1965. [2] Upon Valentin Pavlov's ascension to the premiership, the Council of Ministers was abolished and replaced with the Cabinet of Ministers. After the failed August coup of 1991 and the revelation that the majority of the cabinet members endorsed the coup, the Cabinet of Ministers was dissolved and replaced by the Committee on the Operational Management of the Soviet economy in 1991. The government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic began seizing Soviet ministries in the aftermath of the coup, and by December 1991 the Soviet government had lost control. [3]

1965 Soviet economic reform

The 1965 Soviet economic reform, sometimes called the Kosygin reform or Liberman reform, were a set of planned changes in the economy of the USSR. A centerpiece of these changes was the introduction of profitability and sales as the two key indicators of enterprise success. Some of an enterprise's profits would go to three funds, used to reward workers and expand operations; most would go to the central budget.

Valentin Pavlov Soviet official and a Russian banker

Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov was a Soviet official who became a Russian banker following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Born in the city of Moscow, then part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Pavlov began his political career in the Ministry of Finance in 1959. Later, during the Brezhnev Era, he became head of the Financial Department of the State Planning Committee. Pavlov was appointed to the post of Chairman of the State Committee on Prices during the Gorbachev Era, and later became Minister of Finance in Nikolai Ryzhkov's second government. He went on to succeed Ryzhkov as head of government in the newly established post of Prime Minister of the Soviet Union.

1991 Soviet coup détat attempt attempted coup détat against Mikhail Gorbachevs government

The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup, was an attempt made by members of the government of the USSR to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev. The coup leaders were hard-line members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) who were opposed to Gorbachev's reform program and the new union treaty that he had negotiated which decentralized much of the central government's power to the republics. They were opposed, mainly in Moscow, by a short but effective campaign of civil resistance led by Russian president Boris Yeltsin, who had been both an ally and critic of Gorbachev. Although the coup collapsed in only two days and Gorbachev returned to power, the event destabilized the USSR and is widely considered to have contributed to both the demise of the CPSU and the dissolution of the USSR.

Under the 1977 Soviet Constitution, the head of government was the leader of the highest executive and administrative organ of state. It functioned as the most influential office of government until the establishment of the Office of the President of the Soviet Union in 1990. The head of government was responsible and accountable to the Supreme Soviet (and its Presidium). [4] The head of government was tasked with resolving all state administrative duties within the jurisdiction of the USSR to the degree which were not the responsibility of the Supreme Soviet or its Presidium. The head of government managed the national economy, formulated the five-year plans and ensured socio-cultural development. [5]

President of the Soviet Union Head of State of the Soviet Union between 1990 and 1991

The President of the Soviet Union, officially called President of the USSR or President of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was the head of state of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from 15 March 1990 to 25 December 1991. Mikhail Gorbachev was the only person to occupy the office. Gorbachev was also General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union between March 1985 and August 1991. He derived an increasingly greater share of his power from his position as president until he finally resigned as General Secretary after the 1991 coup d'état attempt.

Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union

The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union was the most authoritative legislative body of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) beginning 1936, and the only one with the power to approve constitutional amendments. It elected the Presidium, served as the collective head of state of the USSR, and appointed the Council of Ministers, the Supreme Court, and the Procurator General of the USSR.

Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Soviet governmental institution

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet was a Soviet governmental institution – a permanent body of the Supreme Soviets (parliaments). This body was of the all-Union level, as well as in all Soviet republics and autonomous republics. Structure and functions of the presidiums in these republics were virtually identical. The presidiums were elected by the Supreme Soviet to act on its behalf while the Supreme Soviet was not in session. By the 1936 and 1977 Soviet Constitution the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet served as the collective head of state of the USSR.

Twelve individuals became head of government. Of these, two died in office of natural causes (Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin), three resigned (Alexei Kosygin, Nikolai Tikhonov and Ivan Silayev) and three held the offices of party secretary and head of government concurrently (Stalin and Nikita Khrushchev). Lenin was elected the first head of government on 6 July 1923 by a decision of the Central Executive Committee. Ivan Silayev spent the briefest time in office at 126 days. At more than 16 years, Kosygin spent the longest time in office.

Vladimir Lenin Russian politician, communist theorist, and founder of the Soviet Union

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by his alias Lenin, was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as head of government of Soviet Russia from 1917 to 1924 and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration, Russia and then the wider Soviet Union became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a communist, he developed a variant of Marxism known as Leninism; his ideas were posthumously codified as Marxism–Leninism.

Joseph Stalin Soviet leader

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was a Georgian revolutionary and Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from the mid–1920s until 1953 as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952) and Premier (1941–1953). Initially presiding over a collective leadership as first among equals, by the 1930s he was the country's de facto dictator. A communist ideologically committed to the Leninist interpretation of Marxism, Stalin formalised these ideas as Marxism–Leninism, while his own policies are known as Stalinism.

Alexei Kosygin Soviet politician

Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War. Kosygin was born in the city of Saint Petersburg in 1904 to a Russian working-class family. He was conscripted into the labour army during the Russian Civil War, and after the Red Army's demobilisation in 1921, he worked in Siberia as an industrial manager. Kosygin returned to Leningrad in the early 1930s and worked his way up the Soviet hierarchy. During the Great Patriotic War, Kosygin was a member of the State Defence Committee and was tasked with moving Soviet industry out of territories soon to be overrun by the German Army. He served as Minister of Finance for a year before becoming Minister of Light Industry. Stalin removed Kosygin from the Politburo one year before his own death in 1953, intentionally weakening Kosygin's position within the Soviet hierarchy.

Officeholders

[lower-alpha 1] PortraitName
(Born-Died)
TermElectorate Cabinets Ref.
Took officeLeft officeDuration
1
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-71043-0003, Wladimir Iljitsch Lenin.jpg
Vladimir Lenin
(1870–1924)
6 July 192321 January 1924 199 days Lenin III [6]
2
Alexejrykov.jpg
Alexei Rykov
(1881–1938)
2 February 192419 December 19306 years, 320 days 1924
1925
1927
1929
Rykov IIIIIIIVV [7]
3
Molotov.bra.jpg
Vyacheslav Molotov
(1890–1986)
19 December 19306 May 194110 years, 138 days 1931
1935
1936
1937
Molotov IIIIIIIV [8]
4
JStalin Secretary general CCCP 1942.jpg
Joseph Stalin
(1878–1953)
6 May 19415 March 1953 11 years, 303 days 1946
1950
Stalin IIIIII [9]
5
Georgy Malenkov 1964.jpg
Georgy Malenkov
(1902–1988)
6 March 19538 February 19551 year, 339 days 1954 Malenkov III [10]
6
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-29921-0001, Bulganin, Nikolai Alexandrowitsch.jpg
Nikolai Bulganin
(1895–1975)
8 February 195527 March 19583 years, 47 days 1958 Bulganin [11]
7
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B0628-0015-035, Nikita S. Chruchstschow.jpg
Nikita Khrushchev
(1894–1971)
27 March 195814 October 19646 years, 201 days 1962 Khrushchev III [10]
8
A. Kosygin 1967.jpg
Alexei Kosygin
(1904–1980)
15 October 196423 October 198016 years, 8 days 1966
1970
1974
1979
Kosygin IIIIIIIVV [12]
9
Placeholder no text.svg
Nikolai Tikhonov
(1905–1997)
23 October 198027 September 19854 years, 339 days 1984 Tikhonov III [13]
10
Nikolai Ryzhkov.jpg
Nikolai Ryzhkov
(born 1929)
27 September 198514 January 19915 years, 109 days 1989 Ryzhkov III [13]
11
Placeholder no text.svg
Valentin Pavlov
(1937–2003)
14 January 199122 August 1991220 days Pavlov [14]
12
Placeholder no text.svg
Ivan Silayev
(born 1930)
6 September 199126 December 1991111 days Silayev [15]

See also

This is a list of all Deputy Premiers of the Soviet Union.

The First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union was the deputy head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); despite the title, the office was not necessarily held by a single individual. The office had three different names throughout its existence: First Deputy Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1923–1946), First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers (1946–1991) and First Deputy Prime Minister of the Soviet Union (1991). The term first deputy premier was used by outside commentators to describe the office of first deputy head of government.

Notes

  1. These numbers are not official.

Related Research Articles

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a federal sovereign state in northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centers were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometers (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometers (4,500 mi) north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

Articles related to the former nation known as the Soviet Union include:

Ivan Stepanovich Silayev is a former Soviet and Russian politician. He served as Prime Minister of the Soviet Union through the offices of chairman of the Interstate Economic Committee and chairman of the Committee on the Operational Management of the Soviet economy from 6 September to 26 December 1991. Responsible for overseeing the economy of the Soviet Union during the late Gorbachev Era, he was the last head of government of the Soviet Union.

Gury Marchuk Russian mathematician

Gury Ivanovich Marchuk was a prominent Soviet and Russian scientist in the fields of computational mathematics, and physics of atmosphere. Academician ; the President of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1986–1991. Among his notable prizes are the USSR State Prize (1979), Demidov Prize (2004), Lomonosov Gold Medal (2004).

Ministry of Finance (Soviet Union) Soviet Union government department

The Ministry of Finance of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), formed on 15 March 1946, was one of the most important government offices in the Soviet Union. Until 1946 it was known as the People's Commissariat for Finance. Narkomfin, at the all-Union level, was established on 6 July 1923 after the signing of the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, and was based upon the People's Commissariat for Finance of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) formed in 1917. The Ministry was led by the Minister of Finance, prior to 1946 a Commissar, who was nominated by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers and then confirmed by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. The minister was a member of the Council of Ministers.

The Government of the Soviet Union, formally the All-Union Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, commonly abbreviated to Soviet Government, was the executive and administrative organ of state in the former Soviet Union. It had three different names throughout its existence; Council of People's Commissars (1923–1946) and the Council of Ministers (1946–1991).

The Administrator of Affairs of the Soviet Union, or Secretary to the Premier, was a high-standing officer within the Soviet Government whose main task was to co-sign, with the Premier of the Soviet Union, decrees and resolutions made by the All-Union government. The government apparatus prepared items of policy, which the office holder would check systematically against decrees of the Party-Government. This function consisted of several departments and other structural units. The Soviet Government apparatus was headed by the Administrator of Affairs who, in accordance with the established order, was a member of the federal government body.

Ministry of Justice (Soviet Union) justice ministry of the USSR

The Ministry of Justice of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), formed on 15 March 1946, was one of the most important government offices in the Soviet Union. It was formerly known as the People's Commissariat for Justice abbreviated as Наркомюст (Narkomiust). The Ministry, at the All-Union (USSR-wide) level, was established on 6 July 1923, after the signing of the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, and was in turn based upon the People's Commissariat for Justice of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) formed in 1917. The Ministry was led by the Minister of Justice, prior to 1946 a Commissar, who was nominated by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers and confirmed by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, and was a member of the Council of Ministers.

State Council of the Soviet Union

Following the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, the State Council of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), but also known as the State Soviet, was formed on 5 September 1991 and was designed to be one of the most important government offices in Mikhail Gorbachev's Soviet Union. The members of the council consisted of the President of the Soviet Union, and highest officials from the Soviet Union Republics. During the period of transition it was the highest organ of state power, having the power to elect a premier, or a person who would take Gorbachev's place if absent; the office of Vice President of the Soviet Union had been abolished following the failed August Coup that very same year.

History of the Soviet Union Aspect of history

The history of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union reflects a period of change for both Russia and the world. Though the terms "Soviet Russia" and "Soviet Union" often are synonymous in everyday speech, when referring to the foundations of the Soviet Union, "Soviet Russia" properly refers to the few years between the October Revolution of 1917 and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.

Collective leadership or Collectivity of leadership, was considered an ideal form of governance in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and other socialist states espousing communism. Its main task was to distribute powers and functions among the Politburo, the Central Committee, and the Council of Ministers to hinder any attempts to create a one-man dominance over the Soviet political system by a Soviet leader, such as that seen under Joseph Stalin's rule. On the national level, the heart of the collective leadership was officially the Central Committee of the Communist Party. Collective leadership is characterised by limiting the powers of the General Secretary and the Chairman of the Council of Ministers as related to other offices by enhancing the powers of collective bodies, such as the Politburo.

Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union highest executive and administrative body of the Soviet Union

The Council of Ministers of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was the de jure government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), comprising the main executive and administrative agency of the USSR from 1946 until 1991.

Council of Peoples Commissars Soviet government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution in 1917; replaced in 1946 by the Council of Ministers

The Council of People's Commissars was a government institution formed soon after the October Revolution during 1917. Created in the Russian Republic, the council began forming the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). It evolved to become the greatest executive authority of the government of the USSR. The premier of this council was thus the head of government.

The Ministry of the Maritime Fleet was a government ministry in the Soviet Union.

References

Citations

  1. Центральный Исполнительный Комитет съезда Советов. Статья №38 от Декабрь 1977 «Суверенные права союзных республик». ( Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets . Article #38 of December 1924 Sovereign Rights of the Member Republics . ).
  2. Brown 2009, p. 403.
  3. Ferdinand 1993, p. 133.
  4. Верховный Совет СССР. Федеральный конституционный закон №130 от 7 октября 1977 «Совета Министров СССР». ( Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union . Article #130 of 7 October 1977 The Council of Ministers of the USSR . ).
  5. Верховный Совет СССР. Федеральный конституционный закон №131 от 7 октября 1977 «Совета Министров СССР». ( Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union . Article #131 of 7 October 1977 The Council of Ministers of the USSR . ).
  6. Cull, Culbert & Welch 2003, p. 182.
  7. Phillips 2000, p. 82.
  8. Phillips 2000, p. 89.
  9. Totten & Bartrop 2008, p. 76.
  10. 1 2 Duiker & Spielvogel 2006, p. 572.
  11. Trahair & Miller 2004, p. 69.
  12. Trahair & Miller 2004, p. 37.
  13. 1 2 Ploss 2010, p. 219.
  14. Валентин Сергеевич Павлов [Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov] (in Russian). RU: Hrono. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
  15. Иван Степанович Силаев [Ivan Stepanovich Silayev] (in Russian). RU: Hrono. Retrieved 6 December 2010.

Sources

Archibald Haworth Brown,, commonly known as Archie Brown, is a British political scientist and historian. In 2005, he became an emeritus professor of politics at the University of Oxford and an emeritus fellow of St Antony's College, Oxford, where he served as a professor of politics and director of St Antony's Russian and East European Centre. He has written widely on Soviet and Russian politics, on communist politics more generally, on the Cold War, and on political leadership.

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.