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|President of the|
Republic of Haiti
Président de la
Prezidan peyi Repiblik Ayiti
|Member of||Council of Ministers|
|Term length||Five years|
Renewable once non-consecutively
|Inaugural holder||Alexandre Pétion|
|Formation||October 17, 1806|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The President of Haiti (French : Président d'Haïti, Haitian Creole : Prezidan peyi Ayiti), officially called the President of the Republic of Haiti (French : Président de la République d'Haïti, Haitian Creole : Prezidan peyi Repiblik Ayiti) is the head of state of Haiti. Executive power in Haiti is divided between the president and the government headed by the Prime Minister of Haiti. [A133] The current president is Jovenel Moïse, who took office on February 7, 2017.
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.
Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometers (10,714 sq mi) in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole.
The qualifications for the presidency are specified by Chapter III Section A (Articles 134 and 135) of the 1987 Constitution of Haiti.
The Constitution of Haiti was modeled after the constitutions of the United States and France. The document was approved by Parliament in March 2011 and came into effect on June 20, 2012.
The president is elected to a five-year term by popular vote. The president is not to be elected twice in a row: he may serve a second term only after an interval of five years, and must not run for a third term. [A134]
To be elected president, a candidate must: [A135]
Elections are held on the last Sunday in November in the fifth year of the current president's term. However, the election time is not fixed according to the election held in 2015. If no candidate receives a majority, a runoff election is held between the top two candidates. Runoff candidate who have not withdrawn before the runoff, who have the highest number of votes will become the next president. [A134]
Each presidential term in office begins and ends on the first February 7 after presidential elections are held. However this is also altered after Michel Martelly became the president on May 11 of 2011. [A134]
Michel Joseph Martelly is a Haitian singer and former politician who went on to serve as the President of Haiti from May 2011 until February 2016. He is from Côte-de-fer, a commune located in the South East region of Haiti. Martelly was one of Haiti's best-known musicians for over a decade, going by the stage name Sweet Micky. For business and musical reasons, Martelly has moved a number of times between the United States and Haiti. When travelling to the United States, Martelly mostly stays in Florida. After his presidency, Martelly returned to his former band and sung a carnival meringue entitled Bal Bannan nan, a message as a response to Liliane Pierre Paul, a famous Haitian female journalist in Port-au-prince.
The qualifications for the presidency are specified by Articles 136 to 147, part of Chapter III Section B of the 1987 Constitution of Haiti. The president has no powers except those accorded to him in the Constitution. [A150]
The Constitution mandates that the president see to: the respect for and enforcement of the Constitution and the stability of the institutions; regular operations of the public authorities; the continuity of the State; [A136] and the nation's independence and the integrity of its territory. [A138]
When there is a majority in Parliament, the president must choose a prime minister from the majority party; otherwise, he chooses one after consultation with the two houses of Parliament. In either case, the choice must then be ratified by Parliament. The president terminates the duties of the prime minister when the Government resigns. [A137]
The president declares war and negotiates and signs peace treaties with the approval of the National Assembly, [A140] and signs all international treaties, conventions and agreements, submitting them to the National Assembly for ratification. [A139] The president accredits ambassadors and special envoys to foreign powers; receives letters of accreditation from ambassadors of foreign powers; and issue exequaturs to recognize consuls. [A139-1]
With the approval of the senate, the president appoints the Commander-in-chief of Haitian armed forces, Haitian police forces, ambassadors and consuls to foreign states. [A141]
With the approval of the Council of Ministers, the president of the Republic appoints the directors general of the civil service, and delegates and vice delegates of Departments and Arrondissements. [A142]
The president is also the head of Haitian armed forces. [A143]
The president ratifies laws and has the right to choose between ratifying a law or not. [A144]
The president could perform or commune sentences in all res judica cases, except ones carried by Supreme Court judges. The president, however, cannot grant amnesty to non-political prisoners. [A146]
The National Palace in the capital Port-au-Prince served as the official residence of the President of Haiti, [A153] but it was severely damaged in the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and demolished in 2012.
^ [A___] citations are Article numbers of the 1987 Constitution of the Republic of Haiti. A government-issued but unofficial (and error-prone) English translation is available at http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b542c.html and http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Haiti/haiti1987.html and the French original is available at http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Haiti/haiti1987fr.html
The Politics of Haiti take place in the framework of a unitary semi-presidential republic, where the president is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. The politics of the country are considered historically unstable due to various coup d'états, regime changes, military juntas and internal conflicts. After the deposition of Jean-Bertrand Aristide, however, Haitian politics entered a period of relative democratic stability. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Haiti as "hybrid regime" in 2016.
Politics of Lithuania takes place in a framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Lithuania is the head of state and the Prime Minister of Lithuania is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.
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The government of Haiti is a semi-presidential republic, a multiparty system wherein the President of Haiti is head of state elected directly by popular elections. The Prime Minister acts as head of government and is appointed by the President, chosen from the majority party in the National Assembly. Executive power is exercised by the President and Prime Minister who together constitute the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the National Assembly of Haiti. The government is organized unitarily, thus the central government delegates powers to the departments without a constitutional need for consent. The current structure of Haiti's political system was set forth in the Constitution of March 29, 1987.
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