President of Moldova

Last updated
President of the Republic of Moldova
Președintele Republicii Moldova
Flag of the President of Moldova.svg
Presidential standard
Meeting of the President of Ukraine with the President of the Republic of Moldova in Kyiv (23) (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Maia Sandu
since 24 December 2020
Executive branch of the Government of Moldova
Office of the President of Moldova
Style Madam President (informal)
Her Excellency (diplomatic)
Status Head of state
Commander-in-chief
Member of Supreme Security Council
Residence Presidential Palace
Seat Chișinău
Appointer Popular vote
Term length Four years, renewable once
Constituting instrument Constitution of Moldova
Inaugural holder Mircea Snegur
Formation3 September 1990
Deputy President of the Moldovan Parliament
Salary155,520  lei annually [1]
Website presedinte.md

The president of the Republic of Moldova (Romanian : Președintele Republicii Moldova) is the head of state of Moldova. The current president is Maia Sandu, who assumed office on 24 December 2020.

Contents

Duties and functions

The office of the presidency in Moldova is largely ceremonial, with most of the formal political power exercised by parliament and the prime minister. [2] [3] However, because the president represents Moldova internationally, they have sway over the country's relationships with other countries. In addition, the president can influence public policy by using their high profile to initiate and participate in public discourse. [4]

A collection of organizational bodies collectively known as the Presidential Administration, whose members are appointed by the president, serves as the communication service between the government and the presidency. One office of the Administration, the Supreme Security Council, advises the president on foreign policy. [5]

Election

The president is elected in a two-round direct election, with a runoff taking place between the top two finishers if no candidate receives a majority in the first round. This system was put in place when the constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994.

In 2000, the Constitution was amended changing the process to an indirect election by the Parliament of Moldova, with a supermajority of 61 votes required. On March 4, 2016, the Constitutional Court ruled that the amendment was unconstitutional [6] and Moldova consequently returned to electing the president via popular vote.

One presidential term lasts for four years; presidents are limited to two terms. Before the 2000 amendments, the presidential term lasted for five years.

Constitutional position

According to the Article 77 of the Constitution of Moldova (1994), the president of Moldova is the head of the state and represents the state and is the guarantor of national sovereignty, independence, and the unity and territorial integrity of the nation.

Acting president

The acting president of Moldova (Romanian : Președinte interimar al Republicii Moldova) is a person who fulfils the duties of the president of Moldova when cases of incapacity and vacancy occur. It is a temporary post provided by the Constitution of Moldova.

According to Article 91 of the Constitution of Moldova (1994):

When the office of the President of the Republic of Moldova becomes vacant or the President has been suspended from office, or finds himself in the temporary impossibility of discharging his duties, the responsibility of the office shall devolve ad interim on the President of Parliament or the Prime Minister, in that priority order.

Suspension from office

According to Article 89 of the Constitution of Moldova (1994):

Vacancy

According to Article 90 of the Constitution of Moldova (1994):

Standard

The presidential standard (Romanian : Stindardul Preşedintelui) consists of the Coat of Arms of Moldova in front of a purple background and a border composed of squares of 1/9 in the national colors of the republic. The regulations of the Standard of the President is approved by the decree of the President with the opinion of the National Heraldic Commission. The original of the Standard of the President is handed over to the President at the inauguration ceremony and is kept in their office. Duplicates and copies of the standard are displayed at the Presidential Palace or at other presidential residences while they are on these premises. [7]

Band and music

The official march of the presidency is the Marș de Întîmpinare «La Mulți ani» (Slow March «To many years»), which is used during the arrival of the president at special occasions, similarly to Hail to the Chief for the President of the United States. [8] The Presidential Band of the Republic of Moldova is the main military band of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Moldova and specifically serves the president during all functions of state. The band performs at welcome ceremonies of foreign officials on state visits, military parades, and the accreditation of ambassadors. [9] [10]

Office of the President

List of presidents of Moldova

Moldavian Democratic Republic (1917–1918)

Party

   Bessarabian Peasants' Party

No.PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Took officeLeft officePolitical party
1 Ion C. Inculet (1884-1940).jpg Ion Inculeț
(1884–1940)
December 15 [ O.S. December 2] 1917April 9 [ O.S. March 27] 1918 Bessarabian Peasants' Party

Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (1940–1991)

First secretaries of the Moldavian Communist Party

No.PortraitName

(Birth–Death)

Office term
1 Pyotr Borodin

(1905–1986)

2 August 194011 February 1942
2 Nikita Salogor

(1901–1982)

13 February 19425 January 1946
3 Nicolae Coval

(1904–1970)

5 January 194626 July 1950
4 Staatshoofden, portretten, Bestanddeelnr 925-6564 (cropped)(d).jpg Leonid Brezhnev

(1906–1982)

26 July 195025 October 1952
5 Dmitri Gladki

(1911–1959)

25 October 19528 February 1954
6 Zinovie Serdiuk

(1903–1982)

8 February 195429 May 1961
7 Ivan Bodiul, 1978.jpg Ivan Bodiul

(1918–2013)

29 May 196122 December 1980
8 Semion Grossu.jpg Semion Grossu

(born 1934)

22 December 198016 December 1989
9 Petru Lucinschi 2000.jpg Petru Lucinschi

(born 1940)

16 November 19895 February 1991
10 Grigore Eremei

(born 1935)

5 February 199123 August 1991

Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet of SSR Moldova

Party

   PCM

No.PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Took officeLeft officePolitical party
1 Mircea Snegur 2012.jpg Mircea Snegur
(1940–2023)
27 April 19903 September 1990 Communist Party of Moldova

Republic of Moldova (1991–present)

Parties

   PDAM    PCRM    PL    PLDM    PDM    PSRM    PAS    Independent

Status
  Acting President
No.PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Office termCabinetsElectionPrior officePolitical party
1 Mircea Snegur 2012.jpg Mircea Snegur
(1940–2023)
3 September 199015 January 1997 Druc (1990–91) 1991 Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR Independent
6 years, 134 days
(Lost re-election campaign)
Muravschi (1991–92)
Sangheli I (1992–94)
Sangheli II (1994–97)
2 Petru Lucinschi, March 2012-2.jpg Petru Lucinschi
(born 1940)
15 January 19977 April 2001 Ciubuc I (1997–98) 1996 President of the Parliament Democratic Agrarian Party
4 years, 82 days
(Opted out of second term in office)
Ciubuc II (1998–99)
Sturza (1999)
Braghiș (1999–2001)
3 Vladimir Voronin (12-06-2014).jpg Vladimir Voronin
(born 1941)
7 April 200111 September 2009 Tarlev I (2001–05) 2001
(indirect)
2005
(indirect)
Minister of Internal Affairs of the Moldavian SSR Party of Communists
8 years, 157 days
(Resigned)
Tarlev II (2005–08)
Greceanîi I (2008–09)
Greceanîi II (2009)
Mihai Ghimpu Imagine.jpg Mihai Ghimpu
(born 1951)
Acting
11 September 200928 December 2010 Filat I (2009–11) President of the Parliament Liberal Party
(Alliance for European Integration)
Vlad Filat 2010-09-15.jpg Vlad Filat
(born 1969)
Acting
28 December 201030 December 2010 Prime Minister of Moldova Liberal Democratic Party
(Alliance for European Integration)
Marian Lupu Senate of Poland.JPG Marian Lupu
(born 1966)
Acting
30 December 201023 March 2012 Filat II (2011–13) President of the Parliament Democratic Party
(Alliance for European Integration)
4 Nicolae Timofti 2013-03-11.jpg Nicolae Timofti
(born 1948)
23 March 201223 December 2016Filat II (2011–13) 2011–12
(indirect)
President of the Superior Council of Magistrates Independent
(Alliance for European Integration)
Leancă (2013–15)
4 years, 275 days

(Opted out of second

term in office)

Gaburici (2015)
Streleț (2015)
Filip (2016–19)
5 Igor' Dodon (29-10-2019).jpg Igor Dodon
(born 1975)
23 December 201624 December 2020 2016 First Deputy Prime Minister;

Minister of Economy and Trade

Party of Socialists
4 years, 1 day

(Lost re-election campaign)

Sandu (2019)
Chicu (2019–20)
6 Maia Sandu in October 2021.jpg Maia Sandu
(born 1972)
24 December 2020Incumbent 2020 Prime Minister of Moldova Party of Action and Solidarity
3 years, 73 days Gavrilița (2021–2023)
Recean (2023–)

Residence

Official residence on Stephen the Great Boulevard. Kishinev, Prezidentskii Dvorets Palatul Prezidential din Chisinau Presidential Palace in Chisinau, Moldova (48055425521).jpg
Official residence on Stephen the Great Boulevard.

The Presidential Palace is located in the Buiucani sector of Chișinău. It was constructed between 1984 and 1987 to the design of architects A. Zalțman and V. Iavorski. The distinctive building was originally the meeting place of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mircea Snegur</span> President of Moldova from 1990 to 1997

Mircea Snegur was a Moldovan agronomist and politician who served as the first President of Moldova from 1990 to 1997. Prior to that, he served as the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR from 1989 to 1990 and chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 27 April to 3 September 1990.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aureliu Ciocoi</span> Moldovan diplomat and politician

Aureliu Ciocoi is a Moldovan diplomat and politician who served as Acting Prime Minister of Moldova from December 2020 to August 2021. He is currently the country's ambassador to Germany and Denmark. Prior positions that Ciocoi held include being the country's Minister of Foreign Affairs and former ambassador to the United States, China and Vietnam.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Igor Dodon</span> President of Moldova from 2016 to 2020

Igor Dodon is a Moldovan politician who previously served as the President of Moldova from 23 December 2016 to 24 December 2020. He currently serves as the leader of the Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova. He served as Minister of Economy and Trade in the governments of Vasile Tarlev and Zinaida Greceanîi from September 2006 to September 2009 and was a member of the Parliament of Moldova from 2009 to 2016. He lost his bid for re-election in 2020 to Maia Sandu, whom he had defeated four years earlier in the 2016 Moldovan presidential election.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maia Sandu</span> President of Moldova since 2020

Maia Sandu is a Moldovan politician who has been the President of Moldova since 24 December 2020. She is the founder and former leader of the Party of Action and Solidarity (PAS) and former Prime Minister of Moldova from 8 June 2019 until 14 November 2019, when the government collapsed after a vote of no-confidence. Sandu was Minister of Education from 2012 to 2015 and member of the Parliament of Moldova from 2014 to 2015, and again in 2019. Sandu was elected President of Moldova in a landslide victory during the 2020 Moldovan presidential election. The first female president of Moldova, Sandu is a strong supporter of the accession of Moldova to the European Union, overseeing Moldova's granting of candidate status, and is considered 'pro-Western'. She has criticised and opposed Russia's invasion of Ukraine and supported subsequent steps to reduce Moldova's economic dependence on Russia, frequently expressing sympathy and support for Ukraine in the conflict. Sandu has made anti-corruption, economic reform and liberalisation a central part of her political platform, as well as closer integration with Europe. In February 2023, she accused Russia of seeking to stage a coup of the Moldovan government and has continued to seek to reduce Russia's influence over the country.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Andrian Candu</span> President of the Moldovan Parliament from 2015 to 2019

Andrian Candu is a former Moldovan politician, who served as President of the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova between 2015 and 2019. He left political life and went back to consultancy business, being focused on advisory and business project development, where previously he has built a successful career. Candu served as Vice President of the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova from 30 May 2013 to 11 July 2014, Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Economy of the Republic of Moldova from 2 July 2014 – 23 January 2015, President of the Parliament Of the Republic of Moldova between 23 January 2015 – 24 February 2019, deputy of the PDM faction in the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova in 3 consecutive legislatures: 24 December 2010 – 11 July 2014, 9 December 2014 - 9 March 2019, 9 March 2019 – 19 February 2020. On 20 February 2020, together with five Members of the Parliament, Andrian Candu formed the "PRO MOLDOVA" Parliamentary Group, which was later registered as a political party, which he chaired for 1.5 years.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2016 Moldovan presidential election</span>

Presidential elections were held in Moldova on 30 October 2016. They were the first direct presidential elections since 1996 and followed a declaration by the Constitutional Court on 4 March 2016 that the 2000 constitutional revision that led to the president being indirectly elected by Parliament was unconstitutional. The elections were won by Igor Dodon of the Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova (PSRM).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Party of Action and Solidarity</span> Centre-right political party in Moldova

The Party of Action and Solidarity is a liberal political party in Moldova. The PAS was founded by Maia Sandu, the former Minister of Education and the incumbent president of Moldova. A pro-European party, it is an observer of the European People's Party (EPP) and the International Democrat Union (IDU).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Presidential Palace, Chișinău</span> Residence of the President of Moldova

The Presidential Palace is the official residence of the President of Moldova.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Presidential Band of the Republic of Moldova</span> Ceremonial unit in Moldova

The Presidential Band of the Republic of Moldova is an artist collective and the senior most military band of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Moldova, specifically serving the President of Moldova in his/her position as commander in chief. The band plays at welcome ceremonies of foreign officials on state visits, ceremonies of national importance, military parades, the accreditation ceremonies for ambassadors to Moldova, and various community events. The current commander of the band is Lieutenant Colonel Leonid Vozniuc, who is the director of all the military bands in the armed forces. The band, which currently consists of 110 musicians, has performed in international festivals and military tattoos in Germany, Russia, Belgium and Romania.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Victor Gaiciuc</span> Moldovan military general and politician

Victor Gaiciuc is a Moldovan military general, who served as Moldovan Minister of Defense from 2001 until 2004, 2019 until 2020 and 2020 until 2021. He was also the National Security Advisor to former president Igor Dodon. He is currently the chairman of the Union of Officers of Moldova and was also the secretary of the Supreme Security Council.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sandu Cabinet</span> Government of Moldova

The Sandu Cabinet was a six-month Cabinet of Moldova in later 2019, led by Maia Sandu of the Party of Action and Solidarity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2021 Moldovan parliamentary election</span>

Snap parliamentary elections were held in Moldova on 11 July 2021. Following the resignation of Ion Chicu, the position of Prime Minister became vacant, with the Parliament being obligated to form a new government within three months. After the expiration of the constitutionally mandated period and two failed attempts to win parliamentary approval for the proposed cabinets, the Constitutional Court ruled on 15 April that the circumstances justifying a dissolution of the parliament were met. President Maia Sandu signed the decree dissolving the Parliament on 28 April and snap parliamentary elections were called on.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2019 Moldovan constitutional crisis</span>

In mid-2019, a sequence of events following the 2019 Moldovan parliamentary election – and the subsequent attempts to form and install a new government, culminated in the positions of Prime Minister and Speaker of the Parliament, as well as the powers and duties of the President, being claimed by competing individuals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pavel Voicu</span> Moldovan politician (born 1973)

Pavel Voicu is a Moldovan politician who was the Minister of Defence of Moldova in the Sandu Cabinet and the Interior Minister under President Igor Dodon and Prime Minister Ion Chicu. He was also a personal advisor to Dodon. He has prior experience in Moldovan law enforcement.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Palace of the Republic, Chișinău</span>

The Palace of the Republic is an official multi-purpose building as well as a concert and theatre hall in Moldova. It is located at the Buiucani sector in the commune of Condrița in Chișinău.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ion Chicu</span> Prime Minister of Moldova from 2019 to 2020

Ion Chicu is a Moldovan economist and politician who served as Prime Minister of Moldova between 2019 until his resignation in 2020.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Supreme Security Council of Moldova</span> Advisory body to the President of Moldova

The Supreme Security Council (SSC) (Romanian: Consiliul Suprem de Securitate, CSS) is an advisory body to the President of Moldova (concurrently the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Moldovan Armed Forces) which aides and assists the President in the implementation of military policy and national security decisions. Its authority is vested in the Constitution of Moldova. The President is one of many permanent members of the council and chairs all of its meetings. Permanent members of the council since October 2009 have included the following:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2020 Moldovan presidential election</span>

Presidential elections were held in Moldova on 1 November. The fourth direct elections since independence in 1991, voters had the possibility to either elect a new president or re-elect the incumbent Igor Dodon. Because no candidate received a majority of votes in the first round, a run-off between the top two candidates, Maia Sandu and Dodon, was held on 15 November. Maia Sandu won the second round with 57.72% of the vote, becoming the first female President of the country and the first winner from the Party of Action and Solidarity (PAS).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2024 Moldovan presidential election</span>

Presidential elections are scheduled to be held in Moldova in autumn 2024.

References

  1. Maxim, Pulber (20 March 2017). "Salariu de președinte: Cât primește Dodon de la stat – - Independent". Independent.md.
  2. "Moldova elects pro-Russian Igor Dodon as president". POLITICO. 2016-11-14. Retrieved 2020-11-20.
  3. "Maia Sandu, a reformist ex-prime minister, becomes president". The Economist. 2020-11-19. ISSN   0013-0613 . Retrieved 2020-11-20.
  4. Ivan, Paul (2016). "What to expect from the new president of Moldova" (PDF). Archive of European Integration (University of Pittsburgh). Retrieved November 20, 2020.
  5. Аппарат президента — Президентура Республики Молдова Archived 2014-11-29 at the Wayback Machine
  6. "DECIS: Şeful statului va fi ales de popor; Modificarea din 2000 a Constituţiei privind alegerea preşedintelui de Parlament, NECONSTITUŢIONALĂ". Jurnal.md (in Romanian). 4 March 2016.
  7. "Însemnele vexilare derivate din drapelul de Stat".
  8. http://m.moldovenii.md/en/people/537/play-audio/id/4219 [ bare URL ]
  9. "accompanies welcome ceremonies of foreign officials and delegations, participates at the accreditation ceremonies of ambassadors, military parades and other solemn events. The band performs within festivals, charity concerts, inauguration of monuments, military exercises, saluting, ceremonies on laying wreaths at monuments and tombs of the fallen soldiers".
  10. Moldovenii.md. "Orchestre – Orchestra Prezidențială a Republicii Moldova". m.moldovenii.md. Retrieved 2017-11-11.