|President of Romania |
|Member of||European Council|
|Term length||Five years, renewable once|
|Inaugural holder||Nicolae Ceaușescu|
|Formation||28 March 1974|
|Salary||15,108 lei per month(~€39,000 annual)|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The president of Romania is the head of state of Romania. The president is directly elected by a two-round system for a five-year term (since 2004, after the Constitution was modified in 2003). An individual may serve two terms. During his or her term in office, the president may not be a member of any political party.
A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system, such as India, the head of state usually has mostly ceremonial powers, with a separate head of government. However in some parliamentary systems, like South Africa, there is an executive president that is both head of state and head of government. Likewise, in some parliamentary systems the head of state is not the head of government, but still has significant powers, for example Morocco. In contrast, a semi-presidential system, such as France, has both heads of state and government as the de facto leaders of the nation. Meanwhile, in presidential systems such as the United States, the head of state is also the head of government.
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi), Romania is the 12th largest country and also the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having almost 20 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, and other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, and Brașov.
The two-round system is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate. However, if no candidate receives the required number of votes, then those candidates having less than a certain proportion of the votes, or all but the two candidates receiving the most votes, are eliminated, and a second round of voting is held.
The office of president was created in 1974, when Communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu elevated the presidency of the State Council to a full-fledged executive presidency. It gradually took its current form in stages after the Romanian Revolution, culminating with the adoption of Romania's current constitution in 1991.
The Romanian Communist Party was a communist party in Romania. Successor to the pro-Bolshevik wing of the Socialist Party of Romania, it gave ideological endorsement to a communist revolution to overthrow the Kingdom of Romania. The PCR was a minor and illegal grouping for much of the interwar period, and submitted to direct Comintern control. During the 1930s, most of its activists were imprisoned or took refuge in the Soviet Union, which led to the creation of separate and competing factions until the 1950s. The Communist Party emerged as a powerful actor on the Romanian political scene in August 1944, when it became involved in the royal coup that toppled the pro-Nazi government of Ion Antonescu. With support from Soviet occupational forces, the PCR was able to force King Michael I into exile, and establish undisguised Communist rule in 1948.
Nicolae Ceaușescu was a Romanian communist politician and dictator. He was the General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party from 1965 to 1989 and hence the second and last Communist leader of Romania. He was also the country's head of state from 1967, serving as President of the State Council and from 1974 concurrently as President of the Republic until his overthrow and execution in the Romanian Revolution in December 1989, part of a series of anti-Communist and anti-Soviet Union uprisings in Eastern Europe that year.
The State Council was the supreme executive authority of the Socialist Republic of Romania from 1961 to 1989.
The current president of Romania is Klaus Iohannis, since 21 December 2014.
Klaus Werner Iohannis is the current President of Romania. He became leader of the National Liberal Party (PNL) in 2014, after having served as leader of the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (DFDR/FDGR) from 2001 to 2013. Iohannis was a physics teacher and a school inspector before entering full-time politics.
In the Communist era, the president was elected for a term of five years by the Great National Assembly on the recommendation of the Romanian Communist Party's Central Committee and the Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy, with no term limits. Ceaușescu was the only holder of the office under this system; he was elected by the GNA in 1974 and reelected in 1980 and 1985, each time unopposed. The president served as ex officio president of the State Council, and had the right to act on any matter that did not require a State Council plenum. He also appointed and dismissed ministers and heads of central agencies. When the GNA was not in session (in practice, for most of the year), the president could appoint and dismiss the president of the Supreme Court and the prosecutor general without State Council approval; indeed, he was not even required to consult his State Council colleagues when making such decisions. Ceaușescu created the office in order to make himself chief decision-maker in both name and fact. Previously, he had nominally been first among equals on the State Council, deriving his real power from his leadership of the Communist Party. In practice, he used his power to act on all matters that did not require a plenum to rule by decree. He also usurped many powers that constitutionally belonged to the State Council as a whole.
The Great National Assembly was the legislature of the Socialist Republic of Romania. After the overthrow of Communism in Romania in December 1989, the National Assembly was dissolved by decree of the National Salvation Front and eventually replaced by the bicameral parliament, made up of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
The Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy was a political alliance in Romania during the communist era, dominated by the Romanian Communist Party (PCR).
After the Constitutional Court acknowledges the legality of the election, the Houses of Parliament meet in a joint session. The elected President takes the following oath of office, specified by article 82 of the Constitution:
The Constitutional Court of Romania is the institution which rules on whether the laws, decrees or other bills enacted by Romanian authorities are in conformity with the Constitution.
The Parliament of Romania is the national legislature of Romania, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies, and the Senate (Senat). Its meeting place is at the Palace of the Parliament in Bucharest.
The current Constitution of Romania is the seventh permanent constitution in modern Romania's history. It is the fundamental governing document of Romania that establishes the structure of its government, the rights and obligations of citizens, and its mode of passing laws. It stands as the basis of the legitimacy of the Romanian government. It was adopted on 21 November 1991 and approved on 8 December 1991 in a national referendum and promulgated on the same day.
Romanian : Jur să-mi dăruiesc toată puterea și priceperea pentru propășirea spirituală și materială a poporului român, să respect Constituția și legile țării, să apăr democrația, drepturile și libertățile fundamentale ale cetățenilor, suveranitatea, independența, unitatea și integritatea teritorială a României. Așa să-mi ajute Dumnezeu!
Romanian is an Eastern Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language. It is an official and national language of Romania and Moldova. In addition, it is also one of the official languages of the European Union.
I solemnly swear that I will dedicate all my strength and the best of my ability for the spiritual and material welfare of the Romanian people, to abide by the Constitution and laws of the country, to defend democracy, the fundamental rights and freedoms of my fellow-citizens, Romania's sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity. So help me God!
Under the 1991 Constitution (as amended in 2003), presidential powers were curtailed as opposed to those applicable in communist Romania, but the office continues to wield significant influence within a semi-presidential system of government.
The president's duties are set out in Title II, Chapter III of the Constitution.These are not exclusive and are supplemented by other constitutional and legal provisions.
In home affairs:
In foreign affairs:
In defence issues:
In the exercise of his functions, the president issues decrees. Decrees issued under Article 91 (1) and (2), Article 92 (2) and (3), Article 93 (1), and Article 94 a), b) and d) of the Constitution must be countersigned by the Prime Minister in order to take effect.
An incumbent president who severely violates the Constitution may be suspended by the Parliament in joint session. If the suspension motion passes, there is a call for a referendum of impeachment within no more than 30 days from the suspension.
If the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, in joint session, accuse the president of high treason, the president is suspended from powers and duties by right. The accusations are judged by the High Court of Cassation and Justice. The incumbent president is dismissed by right if found guilty of high treason.
The suspension and impeachment procedure has been implemented three times. The first time regarded President Ion Iliescu, following a statement regarding the returning of the illegally confiscated properties during the years of the Socialist Republic of Romania to the original owners or their heirs. This first attempt in 1995 did not pass the vote in Parliament.
The second attempt was successful, with the person suspended being Traian Băsescu, in office as of April 2007. He became the first president to successfully be suspended and also the first to face an impeachment vote before the people, regarding issues with supposed unconstitutional acts. The impeachment plebiscite was held on 19 May 2007, and Băsescu survived the impeachment attempt. The result was the rejection of the proposal by 24.94% in favor to 75.06% opposed.
The third attempt lead to a second successful suspension in July 2012, again against Traian Băsescu. The referendum was held on 29 July 2012, and the results were 88.7% in favor and 11.3% opposed, with voter turnout calculated to be 46.24%; below the 50% + one vote threshold required at the time the referendum was held. The Constitutional Court did not give a verdict on the validation of the referendum at the time, citing irregularities in the permanent electoral lists. On 21 August, the Court deemed the referendum invalid, and again Băsescu prevailed from being ousted.
|Part of a series on|
Orders of succession
Should the office of the president become vacant due to resignation, impeachment, permanent inability to perform the duties of office, or death, : Președinte Interimar al României). Neither relinquish their position as president of their respective Legislative House for the duration of the ad interim term. An ad interim president cannot address the Parliament, dissolve the Parliament, nor call for a referendum (the impeachment referendum after a motion of suspension is called by Parliament). The vacancy of the office cannot be longer than three months. While the president is suspended, the office is not considered vacant.the president of the Senate or the president of the Chamber of Deputies, in that order, step in as Ad Interim President of Romania (Romanian
|Candidate||Sustaining alliance or party||Votes||%||Votes||%|
|Klaus Iohannis||Christian Liberal Alliance (PNL–PDL)||2,881,406||30.37%||6,288,769||54.43%|
|Victor Ponta||PSD–UNPR–PC Alliance [a]||3,836,093||40.44%||5,264,383||45.56%|
|Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu||Independent [b]||508,572||5.36%|
|Elena Udrea||PMP–PNȚCD Alliance||493,376||5.20%|
|Dan Diaconescu||People's Party – Dan Diaconescu||382,526||4.03%|
|Corneliu Vadim Tudor||Greater Romania Party||349,416||3.68%|
|Hunor Kelemen||Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania||329,727||3.47%|
|Zsolt Szilágyi||Hungarian People's Party of Transylvania||53,146||0.56%|
|William Brînză||Romanian Ecologist Party||43,194||0.45%|
|Constantin Rotaru||Socialist Alternative Party||28,805||0.30%|
|Mirel Mircea Amariței||PRODEMO Party||7,895||0.08%|
|Total valid votes||9,485,340||100.00%||11,553,152||100.00%|
|Registered voters||18,284,066 [c]||18,280,994 [c]|
|Source: Biroul Electoral Central [ dead link ]; Biroul Electoral Central [ dead link ]; Biroul Electoral Central [ dead link ]|
There are three living former Romanian Presidents:
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body levels charges against a government official. It does not mean removal from office; it is only a statement of charges, akin to an indictment in criminal law. Once an individual is impeached, he or she must then face the possibility of conviction by a legislative vote, which judgment entails removal from office.
Romania's political framework is a semi-presidential representative democratic republic where the Prime Minister is the head of government while the President represents the country internationally, signs some decrees, approves laws promulgated by parliament and nominations as head of state. Romania has a multi-party system, with legislative power vested in the government and the two chambers of Parliament: the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. From 1948 until 1989, the communist rule political structure took place in the framework of a one-party socialist republic governed by the Romanian Communist Party as its only legal party.
After the Communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu was executed in the Romanian Revolution of December 1989, the National Salvation Front (FSN) took power, led by Ion Iliescu. The FSN transformed itself into a political party and overwhelmingly won the general election of May 1990, with Iliescu as president. These first months were marked by violent protests and counter-protests, involving among others the coal miners of the Jiu Valley.
Traian Băsescu is a Romanian politician who served as President of Romania from 2004 to 2014.
Călin Constantin Anton Popescu-Tăriceanu is a Romanian politician who was Prime Minister of Romania from 29 December 2004 to 22 December 2008. He was also president of the National Liberal Party (PNL) and the vice-president of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (ELDR), two positions he assumed in 2004. He currently serves as the President of the Senate, second position in the Romanian state, being elected on 10 March 2014, having previously resigned from the PNL party, becoming an independent senator. In July 2014, he established the Liberal Reformist Party.
Dan Voiculescu is a Romanian politician and businessman. He is the founder and former president of the Romanian Humanist Party, later renamed the Conservative Party (PC). He was a senator from 2004 until his resignation in 2012.
The first round of 2009 Romanian presidential elections was held in Romania on 22 November and a run-off round between Traian Băsescu and Mircea Geoană was held on 6 December 2009. Although most exit polls favored Geoană in the runoff, the authorities declared Băsescu the narrow victor with 50.33% of the votes. It is to date the closest election in Romanian history. However, the opposition contests the results, citing a "high number of void ballots, modified voting protocols, and massive electoral tourism", vowing to challenge the result in the constitutional court. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) declared that the election "was held generally in line with OSCE commitments", but also urged the authorities to investigate claims of fraud.
The Romanian Cultural Institute is a state-funded institution that promotes Romanian culture and civilization in Romania and abroad. The ICR was formerly set up through reorganization of the Romanian Cultural Foundation and Romanian Cultural Publishing Foundation.
The Romanian presidential impeachment referendum of 2007 was conducted in order to determine whether the president of Romania Traian Băsescu should be forced to step down.
A referendum on changing the electoral system to a two-round system was held in Romania on 25 November 2007, on the same date as the election to the European Parliament. The referendum was called by President Traian Băsescu on 23 October 2007 when the Parliament of Romania failed to meet a deadline set by him to pass these changes.
Victor Viorel Ponta is a Romanian jurist and politician, who served as Prime Minister of Romania between his appointment by President Traian Băsescu in May 2012 and his resignation in November 2015. A former member of the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and its leader from 2010 to 2015, he was also joint leader (2012–2014) of the then-governing Social Liberal Union (USL), an alliance with the National Liberal Party (PNL). Ponta has been a member of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies for Gorj County since 2004. In the Emil Boc cabinet, he was Minister-Delegate for Relations with Parliament from 2008 to 2009.
Norica Nicolai is a Romanian lawyer and politician. An independent who previously belonged to the National Liberal Party (PNL) and before that the Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party (PNŢ-CD), she was a member of the Romanian Senate for Cluj County from 2000 to 2008, and has been a Member of the European Parliament since 2009. She was at the centre of a conflict between Prime Minister Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu and President Traian Băsescu in early 2008, with the latter rejecting, ultimately successfully, the former's nomination of Nicolai to be Justice Minister.
Legislative elections were held in Romania on 9 December 2012. The Social Liberal Union of Prime Minister Victor Ponta won an absolute majority in both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. Despite the severe weather in parts of the country, the turnout was at 41.7%, higher than the last legislative elections held in 2008 which saw a presence of 39.20%.
Events from the year 2012 in Romania.
The 2012 Romanian constitutional crisis was a major political and constitutional conflict between President Traian Băsescu and Prime Minister Victor Ponta of Romania. A dispute arose between the two regarding the representation of Romania to the European Council reunion of June 28, 2012. The dispute degenerated in civil disobedience and conflicting views between political parties. On 12 December 2012, Băsescu and Ponta signed an agreement on institutional cohabitation, effectively ending the crisis.
A referendum on impeaching President Traian Băsescu was held in Romania on 29 July 2012. The referendum was required after Parliament voted in favour of impeaching Băsescu on 6 July, and had to take place within a month. It was the second referendum on impeaching Băsescu, the first having been held in May 2007, in which 74% of voters chose to keep him in office. Băsescu was later narrowly re-elected in 2009.
A constitutional referendum was scheduled to take place in Romania at the end of 2015. The Constitution amended by USL lawmakers received some criticism, mostly from the opposition party PDL backed by outgoing President Traian Băsescu, who expressed his discontent with some articles that reduce the powers he enjoyed while in office and eliminate the President from the executive power system.
The 2012–15 unrest in Romania refers to a prolonged period of civil unrest and political scandals in Romania, which took magnitude after the second half of the 2000s. The wave of civil demonstrations started in January 2012, once with the introduction of a new health reform legislation. The protests were fueled by the austerity measures applied in May 2010, but also by the unpopularity of Băsescu-backed Boc government. The demonstrations were characterized by widespread rioting and acts of vandalism. The political situation precipitated, so Prime Minister Emil Boc decided to step down on 6 February 2012.