President of Romania

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President of Romania
Președintele României
Flag of the President of Romania.svg
Klaus Iohannis at EPP Summit, March 2015, Brussels (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Klaus Iohannis

since 21 December 2014
Member of European Council
Residence Cotroceni Palace
Appointer Popular vote
Term length Five years, renewable once
Inaugural holder Nicolae Ceaușescu
Formation28 March 1974
Salary15,108 lei per month(~39,000 annual) [1]
Website Președintele României
Coat of arms of Romania.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Romania

The president of Romania is the head of state of Romania. The president is directly elected by a two-round system for a five-year term (since 2004, after the Constitution was modified in 2003). An individual may serve two terms. During his or her term in office, the president may not be a member of any political party.

A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system, such as India, the head of state usually has mostly ceremonial powers, with a separate head of government. However in some parliamentary systems, like South Africa, there is an executive president that is both head of state and head of government. Likewise, in some parliamentary systems the head of state is not the head of government, but still has significant powers, for example Morocco. In contrast, a semi-presidential system, such as France, has both heads of state and government as the de facto leaders of the nation. Meanwhile, in presidential systems such as the United States, the head of state is also the head of government.

Romania Sovereign state in Europe

Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi), Romania is the 12th largest country and also the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having almost 20 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, and other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, and Brașov.

Two-round system voting system used to elect a single winner where a second round of voting is used if no candidate wins an absolute majority in the first round

The two-round system is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate. However, if no candidate receives the required number of votes, then those candidates having less than a certain proportion of the votes, or all but the two candidates receiving the most votes, are eliminated, and a second round of voting is held.

Contents

The office of president was created in 1974, when Communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu elevated the presidency of the State Council to a full-fledged executive presidency. It gradually took its current form in stages after the Romanian Revolution, culminating with the adoption of Romania's current constitution in 1991.

Romanian Communist Party communist party in Romania (1921 - 1989)

The Romanian Communist Party was a communist party in Romania. Successor to the pro-Bolshevik wing of the Socialist Party of Romania, it gave ideological endorsement to a communist revolution to overthrow the Kingdom of Romania. The PCR was a minor and illegal grouping for much of the interwar period, and submitted to direct Comintern control. During the 1930s, most of its activists were imprisoned or took refuge in the Soviet Union, which led to the creation of separate and competing factions until the 1950s. The Communist Party emerged as a powerful actor on the Romanian political scene in August 1944, when it became involved in the royal coup that toppled the pro-Nazi government of Ion Antonescu. With support from Soviet occupational forces, the PCR was able to force King Michael I into exile, and establish undisguised Communist rule in 1948.

Nicolae Ceaușescu General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party

Nicolae Ceaușescu was a Romanian communist politician and dictator. He was the General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party from 1965 to 1989 and hence the second and last Communist leader of Romania. He was also the country's head of state from 1967, serving as President of the State Council and from 1974 concurrently as President of the Republic until his overthrow and execution in the Romanian Revolution in December 1989, part of a series of anti-Communist and anti-Soviet Union uprisings in Eastern Europe that year.

State Council of Romania

The State Council was the supreme executive authority of the Socialist Republic of Romania from 1961 to 1989.

The current president of Romania is Klaus Iohannis, since 21 December 2014.

Klaus Iohannis Romanian politician

Klaus Werner Iohannis is the current President of Romania. He became leader of the National Liberal Party (PNL) in 2014, after having served as leader of the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (DFDR/FDGR) from 2001 to 2013. Iohannis was a physics teacher and a school inspector before entering full-time politics.

Communist era

In the Communist era, the president was elected for a term of five years by the Great National Assembly on the recommendation of the Romanian Communist Party's Central Committee and the Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy, with no term limits. Ceaușescu was the only holder of the office under this system; he was elected by the GNA in 1974 and reelected in 1980 and 1985, each time unopposed. The president served as ex officio president of the State Council, and had the right to act on any matter that did not require a State Council plenum. He also appointed and dismissed ministers and heads of central agencies. When the GNA was not in session (in practice, for most of the year), the president could appoint and dismiss the president of the Supreme Court and the prosecutor general without State Council approval; indeed, he was not even required to consult his State Council colleagues when making such decisions. Ceaușescu created the office in order to make himself chief decision-maker in both name and fact. Previously, he had nominally been first among equals on the State Council, deriving his real power from his leadership of the Communist Party. In practice, he used his power to act on all matters that did not require a plenum to rule by decree. He also usurped many powers that constitutionally belonged to the State Council as a whole. [2]

Great National Assembly legislature of the Socialist Republic of Romania and the Romanian Peoples Republic

The Great National Assembly was the legislature of the Socialist Republic of Romania. After the overthrow of Communism in Romania in December 1989, the National Assembly was dissolved by decree of the National Salvation Front and eventually replaced by the bicameral parliament, made up of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.

Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy

The Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy was a political alliance in Romania during the communist era, dominated by the Romanian Communist Party (PCR).

Oath of office

After the Constitutional Court acknowledges the legality of the election, the Houses of Parliament meet in a joint session. The elected President takes the following oath of office, specified by article 82 of the Constitution:

The Constitutional Court of Romania is the institution which rules on whether the laws, decrees or other bills enacted by Romanian authorities are in conformity with the Constitution.

Parliament of Romania

The Parliament of Romania is the national legislature of Romania, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies, and the Senate (Senat). Its meeting place is at the Palace of the Parliament in Bucharest.

Constitution of Romania

The current Constitution of Romania is the seventh permanent constitution in modern Romania's history. It is the fundamental governing document of Romania that establishes the structure of its government, the rights and obligations of citizens, and its mode of passing laws. It stands as the basis of the legitimacy of the Romanian government. It was adopted on 21 November 1991 and approved on 8 December 1991 in a national referendum and promulgated on the same day.

Romanian : Jur să-mi dăruiesc toată puterea și priceperea pentru propășirea spirituală și materială a poporului român, să respect Constituția și legile țării, să apăr democrația, drepturile și libertățile fundamentale ale cetățenilor, suveranitatea, independența, unitatea și integritatea teritorială a României. Așa să-mi ajute Dumnezeu!

Romanian language Romance language

Romanian is an Eastern Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language. It is an official and national language of Romania and Moldova. In addition, it is also one of the official languages of the European Union.

I solemnly swear that I will dedicate all my strength and the best of my ability for the spiritual and material welfare of the Romanian people, to abide by the Constitution and laws of the country, to defend democracy, the fundamental rights and freedoms of my fellow-citizens, Romania's sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity. So help me God! [3]

Powers and duties

Under the 1991 Constitution (as amended in 2003), presidential powers were curtailed as opposed to those applicable in communist Romania, but the office continues to wield significant influence within a semi-presidential system of government.

The president's duties are set out in Title II, Chapter III of the Constitution. [4] These are not exclusive and are supplemented by other constitutional and legal provisions.

In home affairs:

In foreign affairs:

In defence issues:

Other duties:

In the exercise of his functions, the president issues decrees. Decrees issued under Article 91 (1) and (2), Article 92 (2) and (3), Article 93 (1), and Article 94 a), b) and d) of the Constitution must be countersigned by the Prime Minister in order to take effect.

Impeachment

An incumbent president who severely violates the Constitution may be suspended by the Parliament in joint session. If the suspension motion passes, there is a call for a referendum of impeachment within no more than 30 days from the suspension.

If the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, in joint session, accuse the president of high treason, the president is suspended from powers and duties by right. The accusations are judged by the High Court of Cassation and Justice. The incumbent president is dismissed by right if found guilty of high treason.

History

The suspension and impeachment procedure has been implemented three times. The first time regarded President Ion Iliescu, following a statement regarding the returning of the illegally confiscated properties during the years of the Socialist Republic of Romania to the original owners or their heirs. This first attempt in 1995 did not pass the vote in Parliament.

The second attempt was successful, with the person suspended being Traian Băsescu, in office as of April 2007. He became the first president to successfully be suspended and also the first to face an impeachment vote before the people, regarding issues with supposed unconstitutional acts. The impeachment plebiscite was held on 19 May 2007, and Băsescu survived the impeachment attempt. The result was the rejection of the proposal by 24.94% in favor to 75.06% opposed.

The third attempt lead to a second successful suspension in July 2012, again against Traian Băsescu. The referendum was held on 29 July 2012, and the results were 88.7% in favor and 11.3% opposed, with voter turnout calculated to be 46.24%; below the 50% + one vote threshold required at the time the referendum was held. The Constitutional Court did not give a verdict on the validation of the referendum at the time, citing irregularities in the permanent electoral lists. On 21 August, the Court deemed the referendum invalid, and again Băsescu prevailed from being ousted. [8]

Succession

Should the office of the president become vacant due to resignation, impeachment, permanent inability to perform the duties of office, or death, [9] the president of the Senate or the president of the Chamber of Deputies, in that order, step in as Ad Interim President of Romania [10] (Romanian : Președinte Interimar al României). Neither relinquish their position as president of their respective Legislative House for the duration of the ad interim term. An ad interim president cannot address the Parliament, dissolve the Parliament, nor call for a referendum (the impeachment referendum after a motion of suspension is called by Parliament). The vacancy of the office cannot be longer than three months. [11] While the president is suspended, the office is not considered vacant.

List

Latest election

e    d  Summary of the 2 November and 16 November 2014 Romanian presidential election results
CandidatesFirst roundRunoff
CandidateSustaining alliance or partyVotes%Votes%
Klaus Iohannis Christian Liberal Alliance (PNLPDL)2,881,40630.37%6,288,76954.43%
Victor Ponta PSDUNPRPC Alliance [a] 3,836,09340.44%5,264,38345.56%
Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu Independent [b] 508,5725.36%
Elena Udrea PMPPNȚCD Alliance493,3765.20%
Monica Macovei Independent 421,6484.44%
Dan Diaconescu People's Party – Dan Diaconescu 382,5264.03%
Corneliu Vadim Tudor Greater Romania Party 349,4163.68%
Hunor Kelemen Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 329,7273.47%
Teodor Meleșcanu Independent 104,1311.09%
Zsolt Szilágyi Hungarian People's Party of Transylvania 53,1460.56%
Gheorghe Funar Independent 45,4050.47%
William Brînză Romanian Ecologist Party 43,1940.45%
Constantin Rotaru Socialist Alternative Party 28,8050.30%
Mirel Mircea AmarițeiPRODEMO Party7,8950.08%
Total valid votes9,485,340100.00%11,553,152100.00%
Invalid/blank votes237,7612.44%166,1111.41%
Turnout9,723,23253.17%11,719,34464.10%
Registered voters18,284,066 [c] 18,280,994 [c]
Notes
  1. ^ Alternatively it is known as Social Democratic Union (USD). Legally this alliance could not use this name, as it belonged to an alliance between Democratic Party and Romanian Social Democratic Party.
  2. ^ The legal requirements for the registration of the Liberal Reformist Party were not fulfilled in due time for this election. As a result, Tăriceanu ran as an independent.
  3. ^ According to the Central Electoral Bureau. [12] [13]
Source: Biroul Electoral Central [ dead link ]; Biroul Electoral Central [ dead link ]; Biroul Electoral Central [ dead link ]

Living former Presidents

There are three living former Romanian Presidents:

See also

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After the Communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu was executed in the Romanian Revolution of December 1989, the National Salvation Front (FSN) took power, led by Ion Iliescu. The FSN transformed itself into a political party and overwhelmingly won the general election of May 1990, with Iliescu as president. These first months were marked by violent protests and counter-protests, involving among others the coal miners of the Jiu Valley.

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References

  1. "Cat vor castiga Iohannis si Ponta dupa majorarea salariilor demnitarilor". Ziare.com (in Romanian). 8 July 2015.
  2. Sergiu Verona. "Government and Politics". PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. Constitution of 1991, as revised in 2003 "Article 82: Validation of mandate and oath-taking", retrieved on 7 July 2012
  4. "CONSTITUTION OF ROMANIA". www.cdep.ro.
  5. Art. 63, (3) of the Constitution
  6. Art. 66, (2) of the Constitution
  7. Constitutional Court Decision No. 682 (27/06/2012) https://www.ccr.ro/files/products/D0682_12.pdf
  8. "Curtea Constitutionala a invalidat referendumul cu scorul 6-3. Traian Basescu revine la Cotroceni" . Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  9. Constitution of 1991, as revised in 2003 "Article 97: Vacancy of office", retrieved on 11 April 2010
  10. Constitution of 1991, as revised in 2003 "Article 98: Interim of office", retrieved on 11 April 2010
  11. Constitution of 1991, as revised in 2003 "Article 97: Vacancy of office; paragraph (2)", retrieved on 22 August 2012
  12. http://www.bec2014.ro/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/proces_verbal_PR.pdf%5B%5D
  13. http://www.bec2014.ro/rezultate-finale-16-noiembrie%5B%5D