|President of Serbia and Montenegro|
|Председник Србије и Црне Горе|
Predsednik Srbije i Crne Gore
|Residence||White Palace, Belgrade|
|Precursor||President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia|
|Formation||15 June 1992|
|First holder||Dobrica Ćosić|
|Final holder||Svetozar Marović|
|Abolished||3 June 2006|
|Superseded by|| President of Serbia |
President of Montenegro
The President of Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian : Председник Србије и Црне Горе, romanized: Predsednik Srbije i Crne Gore) was the head of state of Serbia and Montenegro. From its establishment in 1992 until 2003, when the country was reconstituted as a confederacy (state union) via constitutional reform, the head of state was known as the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbian : Председник Савезне Републике Југославије, romanized: Predsednik Savezne Republike Jugoslavije). With the constitutional reforms of 2003 and the merging of the offices of head of government and head of state, the full title of the president was President of Serbia and Montenegro and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian : Председник Србије и Црне Горе / Председник Савета министара Србије и Црне Горе). In 2006 the office was abolished as the state union was dissolved, with Serbia and Montenegro becoming independent countries and was followed by Kosovo in 2008 although it received limited international recognition.
As head of state, the president had the power to
In 2003, the powers of the president were extended to include the right to chair the Council of Ministers and propose the composition of the Council of Ministers to the parliament, effectively merging the powers of the head of government into the office. However, although the president became de jure both head of state and head of government, his role was largely limited because all the institutions were indirectly elected by confederal parliament, which was itself elected by parliaments of member states.
Under the 1992 constitution, the president was elected by the Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia for a four-year term. After the constitutional amendments of 2000, direct elections for the office of President were introduced. Under the 2003 constitution, the president was elected at the proposal of the president and vice president of the Parliament of Serbia and Montenegro for a four-year term. The president of Serbia and Montenegro was a member of the Supreme Defence Council together with the president of Serbia and the president of Montenegro.
The results of the direct presidential elections of 2000 were as follows:
|Candidate||Party||28 September figures||10 October figures|
|Vojislav Koštunica||Democratic Opposition of Serbia||2,474,392||50.38||2,470,304||51.71|
|Tomislav Nikolić||Serbian Radical Party||292,759||5.96||289,013||6.05|
|Vojislav Mihailović||Serbian Renewal Movement||146,585||2.98||145,019||3.04|
|Miodrag Vidojković||Affirmative Party||46,421||0.95||45,964||0.96|
|Source: CESID, IFES|
There were six presidents of FR Yugoslavia (two acting) after its assertion of independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) in 1992 up until its dissolution in 2003. Svetozar Marović of the Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro was the only President of the FR Yugoslavia after its constitutional reforms and reconstitution as a confederacy. He was inaugurated on March 7, 2003. After the declaration of independence of Montenegro, on June 3, 2006, the president announced on June 4, 2006 the termination of his office.
|Representing||Term of office||Political party||Note|
|Took office||Left office||Time in office|
|Presidents of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia|
|1|| Dobrica Ćosić |
|Serbia||15 June 1992||1 June 1993||351 days||Independent||–|
|–|| Miloš Radulović |
|Montenegro||1 June 1993||25 June 1993||24 days||DPS||–|
|2|| Zoran Lilić |
|Serbia||25 June 1993||25 June 1997||4 years, 0 days||SPS||–|
|Montenegro||25 June 1997||23 July 1997||28 days||DPS||–|
|3|| Slobodan Milošević |
|Serbia||23 July 1997||7 October 2000||3 years, 76 days||SPS||Forced to step down in the Bulldozer Revolution.|
|4|| Vojislav Koštunica |
|Serbia||7 October 2000||7 March 2003||2 years, 151 days||DSS||The only president elected in direct election.|
|President of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro|
|5|| Svetozar Marović |
|Montenegro||7 March 2003||3 June 2006||3 years, 88 days||DPS||Also head of government as Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Serbia and Montenegro (offices merged).|
As of December 14, 2022, there were three living former presidents of Serbia and Montenegro (until 2003 Yugoslavia). The most recent death of a former president was that of Dobrica Ćosić (1992–1993), on May 18 2014. The living former presidents, in order of service, are:
The Politics of Serbia and Montenegro, known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, later renamed as Serbia and Montenegro, took place in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic with a multi-party system, and after 2003, in the context of a confederation. The president was head of state and, following constitutional reforms in 2003, simultaneously head of government. Executive power was exercised by the Council of Ministers. Federal legislative power was vested in the Serbia-Montenegro Parliament.
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