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|President of the|
Republic of Korea
The Presidential Seal
| Executive branch of the Government of the Republic of Korea |
Office of the President
|Style||Mr. President (대통령님)|
|Status|| Head of State |
Head of Government
|Member of|| State Council |
National Security Council
National Unification Advisory Council
|Seat||Seoul, South Korea|
|Appointer||Direct popular vote|
|Term length||Five years;|
Not eligible for re-election
|Constituting instrument||Constitution of the Republic of Korea|
|Inaugural holder||Syngman Rhee|
|Deputy||Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea|
|Salary||₩225,000,000 ($211,000) annually|
|Website||(in English) english.president.go.kr |
(in Korean) president.go.kr
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
the Republic of Korea
The President of the Republic of Korea (Korean : 대한민국 대통령; Hanja : 大韓民國 大統領; RR : Daehanminguk Daetongnyeong; informally referred to as POTROK or POSK) is the chief executive of the Republic of Korea as the head of state and head of government, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces.
The Constitution and the amended Presidential Election Act of 1987 provide for election of the president by direct, secret ballot, ending sixteen years of indirect presidential elections under the preceding two governments. The president is directly elected to a five-year term, with no possibility of re-election.If a presidential vacancy should occur, a successor must be elected within sixty days, during which time presidential duties are to be performed by the South Korean prime minister or other senior cabinet members in the order of priority as determined by law. While in office, the chief executive lives in Cheongwadae (the "Blue House"), and is exempt from criminal liability (except for insurrection or treason).
Moon Jae-in, former human rights lawyer and chief of staff to then-President Roh Moo-hyun,assumed post of President of South Korea on 10 May 2017 immediately upon being elected with a plurality of 41.1%, in contrast to 24.0% and 21.4% won by his major opponents, conservative Hong Joon-pyo and centrist Ahn Cheol-soo, respectively.
Chapter 3 of the South Korean constitution states the duties and the powers of the president. The president is required to:
Also, the president is given the powers:
If the National Assembly votes against a presidential decision, it will be declared void immediately.
The president may refer important policy matters to a national referendum, declare war, conclude peace and other treaties, appoint senior public officials, and grant amnesty (with the concurrence of the National Assembly). In times of serious internal or external turmoil or threat, or economic or financial crises, the president may assume emergency powers "for the maintenance of national security or public peace and order." Emergency measures may be taken only when the National Assembly is not in session and when there is no time for it to convene. The measures are limited to the "minimum necessary."
The 1987 Constitution removed the 1980 Constitution's explicit provisions that empowered the government to temporarily suspend the freedoms and rights of the people. However, the president is permitted to take other measures that could amend or abolish existing laws for the duration of a crisis. It is unclear whether such emergency measures could temporarily suspend portions of the Constitution itself. Emergency measures must be referred to the National Assembly for concurrence. If not endorsed by the assembly, the emergency measures can be revoked; any laws that had been overridden by presidential order regain their original effect. In this respect, the power of the legislature is more vigorously asserted than in cases of ratification of treaties or declarations of war, in which the Constitution simply states that the National Assembly "has the right to consent" to the president's actions. In a change from the 1980 Constitution, the 1987 Constitution stated that the president is not permitted to dissolve the National Assembly.
The official residence of the president is Cheong Wa Dae . It means 'the House of the Blue Roof Tiles', so it is also called the "Blue House" in English. The president is assisted by the staff of the Presidential Secretariat, headed by a cabinet-rank secretary general. Apart from the State Council, or cabinet, the chief executive relies on several constitutional organs.
These constitutional organs included the National Security Council, which provided advice concerning the foreign, military, and domestic policies bearing on national security. Chaired by the president, the council in 1990 had as its statutory members the prime minister, the deputy prime minister, the ministers for foreign affairs, home affairs, finance, and national defense, the director of the Agency for National Security Planning (ANSP) which was known as the Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) until December 1980, and others designated by the president. Another important body is the National Unification Advisory Council, inaugurated in June 1981 under the chairpersonship of the president. From its inception, this body had no policy role, but rather appeared to serve as a government sounding board and as a means to disburse political rewards by providing large numbers of dignitaries and others with titles and opportunities to meet periodically with the president and other senior officials.
The president also was assisted in 1990 by the Audit and Inspection Board. In addition to auditing the accounts of all public institutions, the board scrutinized the administrative performance of government agencies and public officials. Its findings were reported to the president and the National Assembly, which itself had broad powers to inspect the work of the bureaucracy under the provisions of the Constitution. Board members were appointed by the president.
One controversial constitutional organ was the Advisory Council of Elder Statesmen, which replaced a smaller body in February 1988, just before Roh Tae Woo was sworn in as president. This body was supposed to be chaired by the immediate former president; its expansion to eighty members, broadened functions, and elevation to cabinet rank made it appear to have been designed, as one Seoul newspaper said, to "preserve the status and position of a certain individual." The government announced plans to reduce the size and functions of this body immediately after Roh's inauguration. Public suspicions that the council might provide former President Chun with a power base within the Sixth Republic were rendered moot when Chun withdrew to an isolated Buddhist temple in self-imposed exile in November 1988.
The procedure for impeachment is set out in the 10th Constitution of South Korea in 1987. And according to Article 65 Clause 1, if the President, Prime Minister, or other state council members violate the Constitution or other laws of official duty, the National Assembly can impeach them.
Clause 2 states the impeachment bill must be proposed by one third, and approved by the majority of members of the National Assembly for passage. In the case of the President, the motion must be proposed by a majority and approved by two thirds or more of the total members of the National Assembly, meaning that 200 of 300 members of the parliament must approve the bill. This article also states that any person against whom a motion for impeachment has been passed shall be suspended from exercising his/her power until the impeachment has been adjudicated, and a decision on impeachment shall not extend further than removal from public office. However, impeachment shall not exempt the person impeached from civil or criminal liability for such violations.
By the Constitutional Court Act of 1988, the Constitutional Court must make a final decision within 180 days after it receives any case for adjudication, including impeachment cases. If the respondent has already left office before the pronouncement of the decision, the case is dismissed.
|Presidential styles of|
|Spoken style||대통령 각하|
As of 2018, the president receives a salary of $211,000 along with an undisclosed expense account to cover Travel, Goods and Services while in office.
The Blue House in Seoul is the official workplace and residence of the President and he or she is entitled to use its staff and facilities. The president also has a retreat named Cheong Hae Dae on the island of Geoje which is similar to the US Presidents Camp David although rarely used.
In addition, the presidency of the republic also maintains the Chongri Gonggwan and the Prime Ministers Office in Seoul for use by the Prime Minister of the Republic as his or her official residence and official workplace along with all other official government offices and residences.
The president also has many regional offices especially in the major cities ready to receive the president at any time. Although not residences they are owned by the federal government and are used by the president when he or she is in the region or city.
For ground travel the president uses a highly modified Hyundai Nexo SUV to serve as the Presidential State Vehicle. For air travel the president uses a highly modified plane which is a military version of the Boeing 747-400 with the callsign Code One and a highly modified helicopter which is a military version of the Sikorsky S-92 that serves as the Presidential Helicopter.
All former presidents receive a lifelong pension and Presidential Security Service detail; unlike the Prime Minister, he or she cannot decline PSS protection. All former presidents are given a state funeral after death, and a presidential library as a memorial.
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Article 71 of the Constitution of South Korea states, 'In the event of the president not being able to discharge the duties of his/her office, the Prime Minister and ministers in line of the order of succession shall be the acting president.' Article 68 of the Constitution requires the acting president to hold new elections within 60 days.
According to article 12, section 2 and article 22, section 1 of the Government Organization Act, order of succession follows:
As of 2020 [update] , four former presidents are still living (two are imprisoned):
The longest-lived president was Yun Po-seon, who died on 18 July 1990 (at the age of 92 years, 326 days).
The most recent president to die was Kim Young-sam, who died on 22 November 2015 (at the age of 87 years, 337 days).
Myung-bak and Geun-hye, two of the living formers, have been jailed for allegedly misconducting the government's financial with the corruption. Myung-bak was charged with corruption and grant a bribery to pardoning Samsung chairman, Lee Kun-hee. Geun-hye charged with corruption, corecion and abuse of power, which leads to her impeachment. She and her aide, Choi Soon-sil was jailed for 25 years in April 2018.
The history of South Korea formally begins with its establishment on 15 August 1948.
The politics of the Republic of Korea takes in place in the framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the head of state, and of a multi-party system. The government exercises Executive power and Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature and comprises a Supreme Court, appellate courts and a Constitutional Court. Since 1948, the constitution has undergone five major revisions, each signifying a new republic. The current Sixth Republic began with the last major constitutional revision in 1987.
The Liberty Korea Party was a conservative political party in South Korea that was described variously as right-wing, right-wing populist, or far-right. Until February 2017, it was known as the Saenuri Party (Korean: 새누리당), and before that as the Hannara Party from 1997 to 2012, both of which are still colloquially used to refer to the party. The party formerly held a plurality of seats in the 20th Assembly before its ruling status was transferred to the Democratic Party of Korea on December 27, 2016, following the creation of the splinter Bareun Party by former Saenuri members who distanced themselves from President Park Geun-hye in the 2016 South Korean political scandal.
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea is the head of government of South Korea who is appointed by the President of South Korea, with the National Assembly's approval. The officeholder is not required to be a member of the National Assembly. The Prime Minister serves in a role similar to that of a vice president.
Chung Dong-young is a politician and was the United New Democratic Party nominee for President of South Korea in 2007.
Park Geun-hye is a South Korean former politician who served as President of South Korea from 2013 to 2017. Park was the first woman to be President of South Korea and also the first female president popularly elected as head of state in East Asia. She was also the first South Korean president to be born after the founding of First Republic of Korea; her predecessors were born either during the Joseon dynasty, Japanese rule or during the post-World War II American occupation. Her father, Park Chung-hee, was the President of South Korea from 1963 to 1979, serving five consecutive terms after he seized power in 1961.
The Fifth Republic of South Korea was the government of South Korea from March 1981 to December 1987.
Presidential elections were held in South Korea on 19 December 2007. The election was won by Lee Myung-bak of the Grand National Party, returning conservatives to the Blue House for the first time in ten years. Lee defeated United New Democratic nominee Chung Dong-young and independent Lee Hoi-chang by a nearly 2-to-1 margin, the largest since direct elections were reintroduced in 1987. It also marked the first time a president-elect in Korea was under investigation by a prosecutor. Voter turnout was 63.0%, an all-time low according to the National Election Commission.
A candlelight vigil or candlelit vigil is an outdoor assembly of people carrying candles, held after sunset in order to show support for a specific cause. Such events are typically held either to protest the suffering of some marginalized group of people, or in memory of the dead. In the latter case, the event is often called a candlelight memorial. A large candlelight vigil will usually have invited speakers with a public address system and may be covered by local or national media. Speakers give their speech at the beginning of the vigil to explain why they are holding a vigil and what it represents. Vigils may also have a religious or spiritual purpose. On Christmas Eve many churches hold a candlelight vigil.
The relationship between the Republic of Korea and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland spans from the 19th century to the present day. Although the Republic of Korea gives 18 January 1949 as the date of the establishment of formal relations with the United Kingdom, diplomatic ties go back to 1883. British military participation in the Korean War during the 1950s was significant, but relations between the two countries at the time were described as "tenuous", with relatively little known about each other. Commercial and trade relationships grew rapidly during the 1970s. During the Asian Financial Crisis in the late 1990s, Queen Elizabeth II made a state visit to South Korea, which was well received at a time of crisis in the country. Today, there are strong economic and diplomatic links between the two countries.
Presidential elections were held in South Korea on 19 December 2012. They were the sixth presidential elections since democratization and the establishment of the Sixth Republic, and was held under a first-past-the-post system, in which there was a single round of voting and the candidate receiving the highest number of votes was elected. Under the South Korean constitution, presidents are restricted to a single five-year term in office. The term of incumbent president Lee Myung-bak ended on 24 February 2013. According to the Korea Times, 30.7 million people voted with turnout at 75.8%. Park Geun-hye of the Saenuri party was elected the first female South Korean president with 51.6% of the vote opposed to 48.0% for her opponent Moon Jae-in. Park's share of the vote was the highest won by any candidate since the beginning of free and fair direct elections in 1987.
Moon Jae-in is a South Korean politician and human rights lawyer serving as President of South Korea since 2017. Prior to this, he served as chief of staff to then-president Roh Moo-hyun (2007–2008), leader of the Democratic Party of Korea (2015–2016) and a member of the 19th National Assembly (2012–2016).
Lee Sang-don is a South Korean legal scholar and a conservative political activist. He currently works as a professor at Chung-Ang University. He is a conservative pundit well known for expressing criticisms towards the Lee Myung-bak government. He received criticisms from a group of pro-Lee Myung-bak lawmakers for participating in the restructure of the Saenuri Party in the past due to his distance with Lee Myung-bak. He is currently the political reformer for the Saenuri Party under Park Geun-hye.
A presidential election was held in South Korea on 9 May 2017, after the impeachment and dismissal of Park Geun-hye. The election was conducted in a single round, on a first-past-the-post basis, and had originally been scheduled for 20 December 2017. However, it was brought forward after the decision of the Constitutional Court on 10 March 2017 to uphold the National Assembly's impeachment of Park. Following procedures set out in the Constitution of South Korea, Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn succeeded Park as the acting president. After Park was removed from office by the Constitutional Court's ruling, acting president Hwang announced he would not run for a term in his own right.
Hwang Kyo-ahn is a South Korean politician and prosecutor who served as the 40th Prime Minister of South Korea from 18 June 2015 to 11 May 2017, having previously served as Justice Minister.
The 2016 South Korean political scandal involves the influence of Choi Soon-sil, the daughter of a shaman-esque cult leader Choi Tae-min, over President Park Geun-hye of South Korea.
The impeachment of Park Geun-hye, President of South Korea, was the culmination of a political scandal involving interventions to the presidency from her aide. The impeachment vote took place on 9 December 2016, with 234 members of the 300-member National Assembly voting in favour of the impeachment and temporary suspension of Park Geun-hye's presidential powers and duties. Thus, Hwang Kyo-ahn, then Prime Minister of South Korea, became Acting President while the Constitutional Court of Korea was due to determine whether to accept the impeachment. The court upheld the impeachment in a unanimous 8–0 decision on 10 March 2017, removing Park from office. The regularly scheduled presidential election was advanced to 9 May 2017, and Moon Jae-in, former leader of the Democratic Party, was elected as Park's permanent successor.
Suh Chung-won is a South Korean politician who is a member of the National Assembly since 2013. He was previously in the National Assembly from 1981 to 1985 and 1988 to 2004. Suh has been in the National Assembly for the longest time. He is currently the Floor Leader of the Our Republican Party.
A presidential election is scheduled to be held in South Korea in 2022. It will be the eighth presidential election since democratization and the establishment of the Sixth Republic. Under the South Korean constitution, the president is restricted to a single five-year term in office, meaning the incumbent president Moon Jae-in is ineligible to run for a second term.
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