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|President of the|
Republic of Korea
The Presidential Seal
| Executive branch of the Government of South Korea |
Presidential Secretariat (South Korea)
|Style|| Mr. President (대통령님)|
His Excellency (대통령 각하)
|Status|| Head of State |
Head of Government
|Member of|| State Council |
National Security Council
National Unification Advisory Council
|Seat||Seoul, South Korea|
|Appointer||Direct popular vote|
|Term length||Five years;|
Not eligible for re-election
|Constituting instrument||South Korean constitution|
|Inaugural holder||Syngman Rhee|
|Deputy||Prime Minister of South Korea|
|Website|| ‹See Tfd› (in English) english.president.go.kr |
‹See Tfd› (in Korean) president.go.kr
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
the Republic of Korea
The President of the Republic of Korea (Korean : 대한민국 대통령; Hanja : 大韓民國 大統領; RR : Daehan Minguk Daetongnyeong; informally referred to as POSK or POTROK) is according to the South Korean Constitution, the Head of State, the Head of Government, the Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, the Chairperson of the Cabinet, and the Chief Executive of the Government of South Korea. The Constitution and the amended Presidential Election Act of 1987 provide for election of the president by direct, secret ballot, ending sixteen years of indirect presidential elections under the preceding two governments. The president is directly elected to a five-year term, with no possibility of re-election. If a presidential vacancy should occur, a successor must be elected within sixty days, during which time presidential duties are to be performed by the prime minister or other senior cabinet members in the order of priority as determined by law. While in office, the chief executive lives in Cheong Wa Dae (the "Blue House"), and is exempt from criminal liability (except for insurrection or treason).
The Korean language is an East Asian language spoken by about 77 million people. It is a member of the Koreanic language family and is the official and national language of both Koreas: North Korea and South Korea, with different standardized official forms used in each country. It is also one of the two official languages in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County of Jilin province, China. It is also spoken in parts of Sakhalin, Ukraine, and Central Asia.
Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. More specifically, it refers to the Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation. Hanja-mal or Hanja-eo refers to words that can be written with Hanja, and hanmun refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "Hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because Hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters, though the stroke orders for some characters are slightly different. For example, the characters 教 and 研 are written as 敎 and 硏. Only a small number of Hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding Hanja characters.
The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. It was developed by the National Academy of the Korean Language from 1995 and was released to the public on 7 July 2000 by South Korea's Ministry of Culture and Tourism in Proclamation No. 2000-8.
Moon Jae-in, former human rights lawyer and chief of staff to then-President Roh Moo-hyun,assumed post of President of South Korea on 10 May 2017 immediately upon being elected with a plurality of 41.1%, in contrast to 24.0% and 21.4% won by his major opponents, conservative Hong Joon-pyo and centrist Ahn Cheol-soo, respectively.
Moon Jae-in is a South Korean politician serving as President of South Korea since 2017. He was elected after the impeachment of Park Geun-hye as the candidate of the Democratic Party of Korea.
The title chief of staff identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president, or a senior military officer, or leader of a large organization.
Roh Moo-hyunGOM was a South Korean politician who served as President of South Korea (2003–2008). Roh's pre-presidential political career was focused on human rights advocacy for student activists in South Korea. His electoral career later expanded to a focus on overcoming regionalism in South Korean politics, culminating in his election to the presidency. He achieved a large following among younger internet users, particularly at the website OhMyNews, which aided his success in the presidential election.
Chapter 3 of the South Korean constitution states the duties and the powers of the president. The president is required to:
The National Unification Advisory Council is the constitutional organization, established in accordance with the Article 92 of the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and the National Unification Advisory Council Act (Korea) to advise the President of South Korea on the formulation of peaceful unification policy. This had been organized in October 1980.
Also, the president is given the powers:
A Commander-in-Chief, sometimes also called Supreme Commander, is the person that exercises supreme command and control over an armed forces or a military branch. As a technical term, it refers to military competencies that reside in a country's executive leadership – a head of state or a head of government.
The Republic of Korea Armed Forces, also known as the ROK Armed Forces, are the armed forces of South Korea. Created in 1948 following the division of Korea, the ROK Armed Forces is one of the largest standing armed forces in the world with a reported personnel strength of 3,699,000 in 2018. South Korea's military forces are responsible for maintaining the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state, but often engage in humanitarian and disaster-relief efforts nationwide.
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another. The declaration is a performative speech act by an authorized party of a national government, in order to create a state of war between two or more states.
If the National Assembly votes against a presidential decision, it will be declared void immediately.
The president may refer important policy matters to a national referendum, declare war, conclude peace and other treaties, appoint senior public officials, and grant amnesty (with the concurrence of the National Assembly). In times of serious internal or external turmoil or threat, or economic or financial crises, the president may assume emergency powers "for the maintenance of national security or public peace and order." Emergency measures may be taken only when the National Assembly is not in session and when there is no time for it to convene. The measures are limited to the "minimum necessary."
The 1987 Constitution removed the 1980 Constitution's explicit provisions that empowered the government to temporarily suspend the freedoms and rights of the people. However, the president is permitted to take other measures that could amend or abolish existing laws for the duration of a crisis. It is unclear whether such emergency measures could temporarily suspend portions of the Constitution itself. Emergency measures must be referred to the National Assembly for concurrence. If not endorsed by the assembly, the emergency measures can be revoked; any laws that had been overridden by presidential order regain their original effect. In this respect, the power of the legislature is more vigorously asserted than in cases of ratification of treaties or declarations of war, in which the Constitution simply states that the National Assembly "has the right to consent" to the president's actions. In a change from the 1980 Constitution, the 1987 Constitution stated that the president is not permitted to dissolve the National Assembly.
The official residence of the president is Cheong Wa Dae . It means 'the House of the Blue Roof Tiles', so it is also called the "Blue House" in English. The president is assisted by the staff of the Presidential Secretariat, headed by a cabinet-rank secretary general. Apart from the State Council, or cabinet, the chief executive relies on several constitutional organs.
The Presidential Secretariat assists the President of South Korea. Chief Presidential Secretary Im Jong-seok is head of the Presidential Secretariat and is a ministerial-level official. Cheong Wa Dae is sometimes used as a metonym for the Presidential Secretariat because of its location there. The Presidential Secretariat is an important part of the executive branch of the South Korean government.
These constitutional organs included the National Security Council, which provided advice concerning the foreign, military, and domestic policies bearing on national security. Chaired by the president, the council in 1990 had as its statutory members the prime minister, the deputy prime minister, the ministers for foreign affairs, home affairs, finance, and national defense, the director of the Agency for National Security Planning (ANSP) which was known as the Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) until December 1980, and others designated by the president. Another important body is the National Unification Advisory Council, inaugurated in June 1981 under the chairpersonship of the president. From its inception, this body had no policy role, but rather appeared to serve as a government sounding board and as a means to disburse political rewards by providing large numbers of dignitaries and others with titles and opportunities to meet periodically with the president and other senior officials.
The president also was assisted in 1990 by the Audit and Inspection Board. In addition to auditing the accounts of all public institutions, the board scrutinized the administrative performance of government agencies and public officials. Its findings were reported to the president and the National Assembly, which itself had broad powers to inspect the work of the bureaucracy under the provisions of the Constitution. Board members were appointed by the president.
One controversial constitutional organ was the Advisory Council of Elder Statesmen, which replaced a smaller body in February 1988, just before Roh Tae Woo was sworn in as president. This body was supposed to be chaired by the immediate former president; its expansion to eighty members, broadened functions, and elevation to cabinet rank made it appear to have been designed, as one Seoul newspaper said, to "preserve the status and position of a certain individual." The government announced plans to reduce the size and functions of this body immediately after Roh's inauguration. Public suspicions that the council might provide former President Chun with a power base within the Sixth Republic were rendered moot when Chun withdrew to an isolated Buddhist temple in self-imposed exile in November 1988.
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Article 71 of the Constitution of South Korea states, 'In the event of the president not being able to discharge the duties of his/her office, the Prime Minister and ministers in line of the order of succession shall be the acting president.' Article 68 of the Constitution requires the acting president to hold new elections within 60 days.
According to article 12, section 2 and article 22, section 1 of the Government Organization Act, order of succession follows:
As of July 2019, four former presidents are alive:
|Image||Name||Term of office||Age|
|Chun Doo-hwan||1980–1988||88 years, 178 days|
|Roh Tae-woo||1988–1993||86 years, 223 days|
|Lee Myung-bak||2008–2013||77 years, 208 days|
|Park Geun-hye||2013–2017||67 years, 163 days|
The longest-lived President was Yun Bo-seon, who died on 18 July 1990 (at the age of 92 years, 326 days).
The most recent President to die was Kim Young-sam, who died on 22 November 2015 (at the age of 87 years, 337 days).
The history of South Korea formally begins with its establishment on 15 August 1948.
The politics of the Republic of Korea takes place in the framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the head of state, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature and comprises a Supreme Court, appellate courts and a Constitutional Court. Since 1948, the constitution has undergone five major revisions, each signifying a new republic. The current Sixth Republic began with the last major constitutional revision in 1987.
Roh Tae-woo (Korean:노태우;Hanja:盧泰愚);Korean pronunciation: [no.tʰɛ̝.u]; born 4 December 1932) is a former South Korean politician and ROK Army general who served as President of South Korea from 1988 to 1993.
Han Seung-soo is a South Korean politician and diplomat. He was Prime Minister of South Korea from 29 February 2008 to 28 September 2009, and was the President of the 56th session of the General Assembly of the United Nations, in 2001 and 2002.
The Fifth Republic of South Korea was the government of South Korea from March 1981 to December 1987.
The Constitution of the Republic of Korea is the basic law of South Korea. It was promulgated on July 17, 1948, and was last revised on October 29, 1987.
The Executive and Legislative branches operate primarily at the national level, although various ministries in the executive branch also carry out local functions. Local governments are semi-autonomous and contain executive and legislative bodies of their own. The judicial branch operates at both the national and local levels. The South Korean government's structure is determined by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea. This document has been revised several times since its first promulgation in 1948. However, it has retained many broad characteristics; with the exception of the short-lived Second Republic of South Korea, the country has always had a presidential system with a relatively independent chief executive.
Pesidential elections were held in South Korea on 16 December 1987. They led to the democratization of the country and the establishment of the Sixth Republic under Roh Tae-woo, ending the military dictatorship that had ruled the country since 1961. The elections took place following a series of protests and before the 1988 Summer Olympics, which would be held in Seoul. Roh won the elections with 37% of the vote; voter turnout was 89.2%.
Lee Soo-sung is a South Korean politician and legal scholar. He was the 27th Prime Minister of South Korea from December 18, 1995 to March 4, 1997. Prior to becoming prime minister, he was president of Seoul National University.
Kim Young-sam was a South Korean politician and democratic activist, who served as President of South Korea from 1993 to 1998. From 1961, he spent almost 30 years as one of the leaders of the South Korean opposition, and one of the most powerful rivals to the authoritarian regimes of Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan.
The State Council of the Republic of Korea is the chief executive body and national cabinet of the Republic of Korea involved in discussing "important policies that fall within the power of the Executive" as specified by the Constitution. The most influential part of the executive branch of the South Korean government are the ministries.
The Democratic Party, also known as the Minjoo Party of Korea, formerly the New Politics Alliance for Democracy (NPAD), is a centrist, liberal political party in South Korea.
Chun Doo-hwan is a South Korean politician and former South Korean army general who served as the President of South Korea from 1980 to 1988, ruling as an unelected coup leader from December 1979 to September 1980 and as elected president from 1980 to 1988. Chun was sentenced to death in 1996 for his role in the Gwangju Massacre but was later pardoned by President Kim Young-sam, with the advice of then President-elect Kim Dae-jung, whom Chun's administration had sentenced to death some 20 years earlier.
Hwang Kyo-ahn is a South Korean politician and prosecutor. was the 40th Prime Minister of South Korea from 18 June 2015 to 11 May 2017, having previously served as Justice Minister.
Kim Han-jung is a South Korean politician affiliated with the liberal Minjoo Party of Korea. He is a member of the Korean National Assembly representing the Namyanjgju constituency.
Chung-in Moon is a Special Advisor to President Moon Jae-in of South Korea for Foreign Affairs and National Security. He is also a Distinguished University Professor of Yonsei University, Krause Distinguished Fellow, School of Policy and Global Strategy, University of California, San Diego, and co-Convener of the Asia-Pacific Leadership Network for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament (APLN). He is currently serving as the editor-in-chief of Global Asia. On 21 May 2017 Dr. Moon Chung-in was nominated by President Moon Jae-in as a special advisor on unification, diplomacy and national security affairs.
Senior Presidential Secretary is a title used by high-ranking assistants to the President of South Korea. Senior presidential secretaries are senior members of the Presidential Secretariat and wield significant power through their role in policy coordination. These positions can be created by the president without legislation and appointed without the need for confirmation.
The National Order of Precedence in the Republic of Korea is a list of the symbolic hierarchy of officials incumbent and former, and other important figures used to direct protocol at state events. Unlike many countries, South Korean order of precedence is not formally regulated by single law or decree, but derived by convention and customary practices; the Ministry of Interior and Safety maintains codified version, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Military, and the National Police have their respective versions in practice for their respective purposes.
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