President of Turkey

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President of the Republic of Turkey
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı
Emblem of the President of Turkey.svg
Flag of the President of Turkey.svg
Presidential Standard
Recep Tayyip Erdogan 2017.jpg
Incumbent
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

since 28 August 2014
Status Head of state
Head of government (both since 2018)
Residence Presidential Complex
Term length Five years, renewable once
Inaugural holder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Formation29 October 1923
Deputy Vice President of Turkey
Salary~150,000, annual [1] [2]
Website https://www.tccb.gov.tr/
Emblem of Turkey.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Turkey
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The President of the Republic of Turkey (Turkish : Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Turkey. Following the 2018 general election, the incumbent office-holder assumed the role of an Executive President and holds both ceremonial and executive status. In this capacity, the President represents the Republic of Turkey, and the unity of the Turkish nation, as well as ensuring the implementation of the Constitution of Turkey and the organized and harmonious functioning of the organs of state. The articles from 101 to 106 of the Constitution establish all the requirements, election, duties, and responsibilities for the office of the President. The office of the President of Turkey was established with the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. The President of Turkey is often referred to as the Cumhurbaşkanı, meaning 'President of the People'. [3] [4]

Turkish language Turkic language (possibly Altaic)

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.

A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.

The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. "Head of government" is often differentiated from "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.

Contents

Often since 1950, the presidency has been a mostly ceremonial office. However, in a 2017 referendum, the Turkish people narrowly voted to make the presidency an executive post, effective with the 2018 general election.

The current office-holder is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who has held the office since 28 August 2014. Since 9 July 2018, Erdoğan has served as the first Executive President, with increased legislative and judicial powers.

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan 12th President of Turkey from 2014

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is a Turkish politician serving as the 12th and current President of Turkey since 2014. He previously served as Prime Minister from 2003 to 2014 and as Mayor of Istanbul from 1994 to 1998. He founded the Justice and Development Party (AKP) in 2001, leading it to general election victories in 2002, 2007 and 2011 before standing down upon his election as President in 2014. Coming from an Islamist political background and as a self-described conservative democrat, he has promoted socially conservative and liberal economic policies in his administration.

Qualifications

In order to become the President of Turkey, the candidate must have completed higher education, and be of at least forty years of age. If they are a member of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, they must resign their seat.

In the past, Turkish presidents were required to sever all relations, if any, with their political party. [5]

Election

The election of the President must begin at least 30 days before the term of office of the incumbent president expires or 10 days after the presidency falls vacant, and must be completed within 30 days of the beginning of the election. Candidates must be declared to the bureau of the parliament within the first 10 days of this period, and elections must be completed within the remaining 20 days.

Formerly, the President was elected by the members of the Turkish Parliament. According to an amendment that was drafted in 2007, the future Presidents shall be elected by the citizens through a public vote. The candidates must be at least forty years old and must have completed higher education. They can either be members of the Turkish Parliament, or members of the public who fulfill these requirements and who are eligible to become members of parliament.

Term of office

President Recep Tayyip Erdogan during a meeting, with the presidential seal and Turkish flag President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.jpg
President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan during a meeting, with the presidential seal and Turkish flag

The President is selected for a term of office of five years, and is eligible for re-election .

The term of office of the incumbent president continues until the President-elect takes office.

On assuming office, the president takes the following oath before the parliament:

I swear upon my honour and integrity, before the great Turkish Nation, to safeguard the existence and independence of the state, the indivisible integrity of the country and the nation, and the absolute sovereignty of the nation; to remain loyal to the supremacy of law, to the democratic and secular republic, and to Atatürk’s principles and reforms; not to deviate from the ideal according to which everyone is entitled to enjoy human rights and fundamental freedoms under the notion of peace and prosperity in society, national solidarity and justice, and loyalty to the Constitution. [6]

The oath is broadcast live on TBMM-TV regardless of it is a regular business day of TBMM.

Duties and responsibilities

Legislative functions

Executive functions

Turkish Armed Forces Combined military forces of Turkey

The Turkish Armed Forces are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey. They consist of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. The Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard, both of which have law enforcement and military functions, operate as components of the internal security forces in peacetime, and are subordinate to the Ministry of Interior. In wartime, they are subordinate to the Army and Navy. The President of Turkey is the military's overall head.

National Security Council (Turkey) security council in Turkey

The National Security Council comprises the Chief of Staff, select members of the Council of Ministers, and the President of the Republic. Like the national security councils of other countries, the MGK develops the national security policy.

Judiciary functions

The president performs also the duties of selection and appointment, and other duties conferred by the constitution and laws.

Accountability and non-accountability

All presidential decrees, except those which the president is empowered to enact on his own, must be signed by the prime minister and the minister concerned, in accordance with the provisions of the constitution and other laws. Thus the prime minister and the concerned ministers are accountable for these decrees. The decisions and orders signed by the president on his own initiatives may not be appealed against to any judicial authority, including the Constitutional Court. The president may be impeached for high treason on the proposal of at least one-third of the total number of the members of the parliament, and by the decision of at least three-fourths of the total number of the members.

On 9 July 2018, as President Recep Tayyip Erdogan was inaugurated for a second term, Turkey exchanged its 95-year-old parliamentary system for one in which virtually all political power is concentrated in the office of the presidency. Over the days that followed, Erdogan issued a series of presidential decrees, abolishing or amending a host of laws, regulations and institutions, radically reshaping the apparatus of state.

Acting President

The official Seal of the Presidency, used on documents. Seal of the Presidency (used on documents).jpg
The official Seal of the Presidency, used on documents.

In the event of a temporary absence of the President on account of illness, travel abroad or similar circumstances, the Vice President of Turkey serves as Acting President, and exercises the powers of the President until the Presidents comes back. If the Presidents resigns or dies, the TBMM Speaker serves as Acting President, and exercises the powers of the President until the new election happens in 45 days.

Living former Presidents

There are two living former Turkish Presidents:

See also

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References

  1. https://www.egypttoday.com/Article/1/39081/Erdoğan’s-salary-11K-Turkish-foreign-debt-438B
  2. https://xe.com/currencyconverter/convert/?Amount=780000&From=TRY&To=EUR
  3. http://www.nedirnedemek.com/reisicumhur-nedir-reisicumhur-ne-demek
  4. http://www.tdk.gov.tr/index.php?option=com_gts&arama=gts&kelime=cumhurbaşkanı&guid=TDK.GTS.511fbdf0949d06.48464753
  5. Shaheen, Kareem (2 May 2017). "Erdoğan rejoins Turkey's ruling party in wake of referendum on new powers". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 3 May 2017.
  6. https://global.tbmm.gov.tr/docs/constitution_en.pdf