President of Turkey

Last updated

President of the Republic of Turkey
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı
Emblem of the Presidency of Turkey.svg
Flag of the President of Turkey.svg
Presidential Standard
Recep Tayyip Erdogan 2018 (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

since 28 August 2014
Status Head of state
Head of government
Residence Presidential Palace
Appointer Direct popular vote
Term length Five years, renewable once
Inaugural holder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Formation29 October 1923;97 years ago (1923-10-29)
Deputy Vice President
Salary 1,056,000 annually [1]
Website www.tccb.gov.tr
Erdogan at the former Presidency Office, Cankaya Mansion, 2014 now moved to Presidential Palace. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.jpg
Erdoğan at the former Presidency Office, Çankaya Mansion, 2014 now moved to Presidential Palace.

The president of the Republic of Turkey (Turkish : Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Turkey.

Contents

The office of the president of Turkey was established with the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. [2] [3]

The president of Turkey is often referred to as the Cumhurbaşkanı, meaning President of the People. [4] [5] To insult the Turkish president is prohibited by Article 299 of the Turkish Penal Code. [6] [7]

Traditionally, the presidency was mostly a ceremonial position, with real executive authority being exercised by the Prime Minister of Turkey. However, constitutional amendments approved in the 2017 constitutional referendum abolished the office of Prime Minister, and vested the presidency with full executive powers, effective upon the 2018 general election. [8] [9]

The current office-holder is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who has held the office since 28 August 2014. Since 9 July 2018, Erdoğan has served as the first president under the new presidential system of government. The president is directly elected by eligible Turkish voters for a five-year term, renewable once. [10] [11]

Qualifications

In order to become the president of Turkey, the candidate must have completed higher education, and be of at least forty years of age. If they are a member of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, they must resign their seat. [12]

In the past, Turkish presidents were required to sever all relations, if any, with their political party. [13] This convention existed to ensure the president's impartiality in presiding over the Turkish constitutional system. However, the presidency's reorientation in 2017 into a chief executive office abolished this convention, given a president's assumption of office as winners of a partisan electoral contest.

Election

After the 2007 constitutional amendment

According to the constitutional amendments approved in the 2007 referendum, the president is elected by the public, among candidates who are at least forty years old, have completed higher education, and are eligible to be elected as a member of the Grand National Assembly. [14] The election of the president must begin at least 30 days before the term of office of the incumbent president expires or 10 days after the presidency falls vacant, and must be completed within 30 days of the beginning of the election.

Before the 2007 constitutional amendment

Before the constitutional amendments approved in the 2007 referendum, the Grand National Assembly would elect one of its members as the President. [15]

Term of office

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the first office holder Ataturk1930s.jpg
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the first office holder

The president is elected for a term of office of five years and is eligible for one re-election. An exception exists when a president's term ends with a parliamentary decision (i.e., impeachment and removal from office). In this case, the president may be re-elected for an additional term, with the incomplete term not counting against the two-term limit. [16] The term of the incumbent president continues until the President-elect takes office. Before the constitutional amendment approved in the 2007 referendum, the President used to be elected for a single seven-year term.

On assuming office, the president takes the following oath before the Grand National Assembly:

I swear upon my honor and integrity, before the great Turkish Nation, to safeguard the existence and independence of the state, the indivisible integrity of the country and the nation, and the absolute sovereignty of the nation; to remain loyal to the supremacy of law, to the democratic and secular republic, and to Atatürk’s principles and reforms; not to deviate from the ideal according to which everyone is entitled to enjoy human rights and fundamental freedoms under the notion of peace and prosperity in society, national solidarity and justice, and loyalty to the Constitution. [17]

The oath is broadcast live on TBMM-TV regardless of it is a regular business day of the Grand National Assembly.

Duties and responsibilities

The president performs also the duties of selection and appointment, and other duties conferred by the Constitution and statutes.

Accountability and non-accountability

After the 2017 constitutional amendment

2017 constitutional referendum extended the president's accountability beyond impeachment due to high treason. According to the constitutional amendments approved in the said referendum, the Grand National Assembly may initiate an investigation of the president, the vice president or any member of the Cabinet upon the proposal of simple majority of its total members, and within a period less than a month, the approval of three-fifths of the total members. [14] The investigation would be carried out by a commission of fifteen members of the Assembly, each nominated by the political parties in proportion to their representation therein. The Commission would submit its report indicating the outcome of the investigation to the speaker within two months. If the investigation is not completed within this period, the Commission's time renewed for another month. Within ten days of its submission to the speaker, the report would be distributed to all members of the Assembly, and ten days after its distribution, the report would be discussed on the floor. Upon the approval of two-thirds of the total number of the Assembly by secret vote, the person or persons, about whom the investigation was conducted, may be tried before the Constitutional Court. The trial would be finalized within three months, and if not, a one-time additional period of three months shall be granted.

A president about whom an investigation has been initiated may not call for an election. A president who is convicted by the Court would be removed from office.

The provision of this Article shall also apply to the offenses for which the president allegedly worked during his term of office.

Before the 2017 constitutional amendment

Before the 2017 constitutional referendum, the president was not accountable for its actions and orders, except for impeachment due to high treason. All presidential decrees, except those which the president is empowered to enact on his own, had to be signed by the prime minister and the minister concerned, in accordance with the provisions of the constitution and other laws. Thus, the prime minister and the concerned ministers were accountable for these decrees, not the president. The decisions and orders signed by the president on his own initiatives may not be appealed to any judicial authority, including the Constitutional Court. The only accountability the president had was impeachment for high treason on the proposal of at least one-third of the total number of the members of the parliament and by the decision of at least three-fourths of the total number of the members.

Acting President

The official Seal of the Presidency, used on documents. Seal of the Presidency (used on documents).jpg
The official Seal of the Presidency, used on documents.

After the 2017 constitutional referendum

According to the constitutional amendments approved in the 2017 referendum, in the event of a temporary absence of the president on account of illness, travel abroad or similar circumstances, the vice president of Turkey serves as Acting President, and exercises the powers of the president until the president comes back. [14] If the office of the presidency becomes vacant for any reason, the presidential election shall be held within forty-five days and in the meantime, the vice president shall act as and exercise the powers of the president until the next president is elected. If one year or less remains for the general election, the parliamentary election will be conducted at the same time. If more than a year remains, the newly elected president will continue to serve until the next general election.

Before the 2017 constitutional referendum

Before the constitutional amendments approved in the 2017 referendum, the speaker of the Grand National Assembly served as Acting President in cases where the presidency is temporarily or permanently vacant and exercises presidential powers until the president returns to duty or the new president is elected within 45 days.

Latest election

See also

Related Research Articles

Politics of Turkey Political system of Turkey

The politics of Turkey take place in the framework of a presidential republic as defined by the Constitution of Turkey. The President of Turkey is both the head of state and head of government.

President of South Korea Head of state and of government of the Republic of Korea

The president of the Republic of Korea is the head of state and head of government of South Korea. The President is the head of the executive branch of the Government of South Korea as well as being the commander-in-chief of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces.

President of Egypt Head of state of Egypt

The president of Egypt is the executive head of state of Egypt. Under the various iterations of the Constitution of Egypt following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the president is also the supreme commander of the Armed Forces, and head of the executive branch of the Egyptian government. The current president is Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, in office since 8 June 2014.

President of Kenya Head of state and head of government of Kenya

The president of the Republic of Kenya is the head of state and head of government of Kenya. The president leads the executive arm of the Government of Kenya and is the commander-in-chief of the Kenya Defence Forces. The official residence of the president is State House, Nairobi.

President of Tunisia Head of state of Tunisia.

The president of Tunisia, formally known as the president of the Republic of Tunisia, is the head of state of Tunisia. Tunisia is a semi-presidential republic, whereby the president is the head of state and the prime minister is head of government. Under Article 77 of the Constitution of Tunisia, the president is also the commander-in-chief of the Tunisian Armed Forces. The current president is Kais Saied who held this position since 23 October 2019 following the death of Beji Caid Essebsi on 25 July 2019.

Prime Minister of Turkey Head of government of the Republic of Turkey (1920–2018)

The Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey was the head of government of the Republic of Turkey from 1920 to 2018, who led a political coalition in the Turkish Parliament and presided over the cabinet. Throughout the political history of Turkey, functions and powers of the post have changed occasionally.

Grand National Assembly of Turkey Parliament of the Republic of Turkey

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey, usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament, is the unicameral Turkish legislature. It is the sole body given the legislative prerogatives by the Turkish Constitution. It was founded in Ankara on 23 April 1920 in the midst of the National Campaign. This constitution had founded its pre-government known as 1st Executive Ministers of Turkey in May 1920. The parliament was fundamental in the efforts of Mareşal Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, 1st President of the Republic of Turkey, and his colleagues to found a new state out of the remnants of the Ottoman Empire.

Egyptian Constitution of 1971

The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt was the former constitution of Egypt. It was adopted on 11 September 1971 through a public referendum. It was later amended in 1980, 2005, and 2007. It was proclaimed to update the democratic representative system in assertion of the rule of law, independence of the judiciary, and party plurality. On 13 February 2011, the Constitution was suspended following the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak as a result of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. On 30 March 2011, it was "effectively voided" after a new provisional constitution was passed by the country's ruling Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. It has since been superseded by the Egyptian Constitution of 2012 and the current Egyptian Constitution of 2014.

2007 Turkish presidential election

The 2007 Turkish presidential election refers to two attempts to elect the country's 11th president, to succeed Ahmet Necdet Sezer. The most likely candidate for president was Abdullah Gül. Turkey's presidential office is regarded as the guardian of the country's secular system; the fact that Gül's wife wears the Islamic headscarf, as well as his own history in political Islam, turned the elections into a political crisis.

Constitution of Kenya Supreme law of the Republic of Kenya

The Constitution of Kenya is the supreme law of the Republic of Kenya. There have been three significant versions of the constitution, with the most recent redraft being enabled in 2010. The 2010 edition replaced the 1963 independence constitution. The constitution was presented to the Attorney General of Kenya on 7 April 2010, officially published on 6 May 2010, and was subjected to a referendum on 4 August 2010. The new Constitution was approved by 67% of Kenyan voters. The constitution was promulgated on 27 August 2010.

2014 Turkish presidential election

Presidential elections were held in Turkey on 10 August 2014 in order to elect the 12th President. Incumbent Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was elected outright with an absolute majority of the vote in the first round, making a scheduled run-off for 24 August unnecessary.

2015 Armenian constitutional referendum Referendum in Armenia

A constitutional referendum was held in Armenia on 6 December 2015. Its amendments to the constitution put the country on a course from having a semi-presidential system to being a parliamentary republic, with the changes beginning to take place during the 2017–18 electoral cycle. The referendum passed with 66.2% of voters supporting it. Voter turnout was 50.8%, passing the 33% threshold to validate the results.

Constitution of the Comoros

The Constitution of the Comoros was adopted on 23 December 2001 and last amended in May 2009.

Turkish Constitutional Reform (2017)

The Turkish Constitutional Reform were amendments made to the Constitution of Turkey in 2017. The reform was backed by the governing Justice and Development Party and the Nationalist Movement Party. The reform altered the elections of the Supreme Board of Judges and Prosecutors, the Presidency, and the Parliament. It saw the transformation of Turkey's semi-presidential system into a presidential one with the abolition of the office of the Prime Minister of Turkey and the transfer of executive authority to the President of Turkey.

3rd Justice and Development Party Extraordinary Congress Election in Turkey

The 3rd Justice and Development Party Extraordinary Congress took place on 20 and 21 May 2017 in order to elect a party leader and members to the party congress of Turkey's ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP). The party's founder and first leader, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, was the only candidate for the post, having left the leadership upon his election as President in 2014. Having been initially required to sever his political party relations on grounds of impartiality, a constitutional referendum in 2017 turned Turkey into an executive presidency, allowing Erdoğan to return to the AKP and become its leader.

2018 Turkish parliamentary election

The 2018 Turkish parliamentary election took place on 24 June 2018 as part of the 2018 Turkish general election, with a presidential election taking place on the same day. Originally scheduled for 3 November 2019, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan called a snap election on 18 April after months of speculation. With the passage of a series of constitutional amendments in the 2017 referendum, the number of MPs will be increased from the previous 550 to 600. These representatives will be elected by the constituents of the 87 electoral districts of Turkey by party-list proportional representation.

Vice President of Turkey

The vice president of Turkey is the second-highest constitutional office in Turkey, after the president. The vice president is also a statutory member of the Cabinet, National Security Council and Supreme Military Council.

General elections are scheduled to occur on or before 18 June 2023 in Turkey. Voters will elect a new president, as well as 600 members of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, each for a term of five years.

Fuat Oktay Vice president of Turkey

Fuat Oktay is a Turkish politician, civil servant and academic serving as the first and current Vice President of Turkey since 10 July 2018. An Independent, he previously served as Undersecretary to the Prime Minister of Turkey from 2016 until his appointment to the vice presidency, following the creation of the office after the 2017 constitutional referendum.

References

  1. "Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan'ın maaşına zam! İşte önümüzdeki yıl alacağı ücret". haberler.com. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  2. https://cdn-acikogretim.istanbul.edu.tr/auzefcontent/19_20_Bahar/ataturk_ilkeleri_ve_inkilap_tarihi_2/3/index.html
  3. https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/cumhuriyetin-kurulusu-96660
  4. "reisicumhur". Nedir Ne Demek. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  5. "Sözlük". Türk Dil Kurumu – Dilimiz Kimliğimizdir (in Turkish). 25 March 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  6. "Turkey: End Prosecutions For 'Insulting President'". Human Rights Watch. 17 October 2018. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  7. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-32302697
  8. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-election-yildirim-idUSKBN1JF1SA
  9. https://www.voanews.com/europe/turkeys-ex-pm-made-parliament-speaker-after-office-abolished
  10. https://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b5be0.html
  11. https://www.dailysabah.com/politics/legislation/turkeys-new-constitution-to-allow-citizens-to-introduce-laws
  12. "Turkey's Constitution of 1982 with Amendments through 2017" (PDF). Constitute Project. p. 43. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  13. Shaheen, Kareem (2 May 2017). "Erdoğan rejoins Turkey's ruling party in wake of referendum on new powers". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 3 May 2017.
  14. 1 2 3 "Grand National Assembly of Turkey" (PDF). tbmmgov.tr. 2018.
  15. https://cdn.istanbul.edu.tr/statics/hukuk.istanbul.edu.tr/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Constitutional-Changes-of-Turkey-in-2001-Saadet-Yuksel.pdf
  16. KABOĞLU, İBRAHİM Ö. "Bir kimse en fazla iki defa cumhurbaşkanı seçilebilir". birgun.net (in Turkish). Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  17. "Constitution" (PDF). global.tbmm.gov.tr. Retrieved 4 April 2020.