President of Turkey

Last updated

President of the Republic of Turkey
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı (Turkish)
Emblem of the Presidency of Turkey (white).svg
Flag of the President of Turkey.svg
Presidential Standard
Recep Tayyip Erdogan in Ukraine.jpg
Incumbent
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

since 28 August 2014
Style
Status Head of state
Head of government
Residence Çankaya Mansion
(1923–2014)
Presidential Complex (2014–)
Appointer Direct popular vote
Term length Five years, renewable once
Constituting instrument Constitution of Turkey
Inaugural holder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Formation29 October 1923
Deputy Speaker of the Grand National Assembly (1921–1961, 1982–2018)
Chairman of the Senate (1961–1980)
Vice President (2018–present)
Salary 100,750 (5,472) (2022) [1]
Website www.tccb.gov.tr

The president of Turkey, officially the president of the Republic of Turkey (Turkish : Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı), is the head of state and head of government of Turkey. The president directs the executive branch of the national government and is the commander-in-chief of the Turkish military. The president also heads the National Security Council.

Contents

The office of the president of Turkey was established with the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923, with the first president and founder being Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. [2] [3]

The president of Turkey is referred to as Cumhurbaşkanı ("Republic leader"), and previously archaically as Cumhurreisi or Reis-i Cumhur, also meaning "head of the republic/people". [4] [5] Insulting the Turkish president is prohibited by Article 299 of the Turkish Penal Code, including founder Atatürk which has its own separate law. [6] [7]

Traditionally, the presidency was mostly a ceremonial position, with real executive authority being exercised by the Prime Minister of Turkey. However, constitutional amendments approved in the 2017 constitutional referendum abolished the office of Prime Minister, and vested the presidency with full executive powers, effective upon the 2018 general election. [8] [9]

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is the 12th and current president of Turkey, who has held the office since 28 August 2014. Since 9 July 2018, Erdoğan has served as the first president under the new executive system of government. The president is directly elected by eligible Turkish voters for a five-year term, renewable once. [10] [11]

Qualifications

In order to become the president of Turkey, the candidate must have completed higher education, and be of at least forty years of age. If they are a member of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, they must resign their seat. [12]

In the past, Turkish presidents were required to sever all relations, if any, with their political party. [13] This convention existed to ensure the president's impartiality in presiding over the Turkish constitutional system. However, the presidency's reorientation in 2017 into a chief executive office abolished this convention, given a president's assumption of office as winners of a partisan electoral contest.

Election

After the 2007 constitutional amendment

According to the constitutional amendments approved in the 2007 referendum, the president is elected by the public, among candidates who are at least forty years old, have completed higher education, and are eligible to be elected as a member of the Grand National Assembly. [14] The election of the president must begin at least 30 days before the term of office of the incumbent president expires or 10 days after the presidency falls vacant, and must be completed within 30 days of the beginning of the election.

Before the 2007 constitutional amendment

Before the constitutional amendments approved in the 2007 referendum, the Grand National Assembly would elect one of its members as the President. [15]

Term of office

The president is elected for a term of office of five years and is eligible for one re-election. An exception exists when a president's term ends with a parliamentary decision (i.e., impeachment and removal from office). In this case, the president may be re-elected for an additional term, with the incomplete term not counting against the two-term limit. [16] The term of the incumbent president continues until the President-elect takes office. Before the constitutional amendment approved in the 2007 referendum, the President used to be elected for a single seven-year term.

On assuming office, the president takes the following oath before the Grand National Assembly:

I swear upon my honor and integrity, before the great Turkish Nation, to safeguard the existence and independence of the state, the indivisible integrity of the country and the nation, and the absolute sovereignty of the nation; to remain loyal to the supremacy of law, to the democratic and secular republic, and to Atatürk’s principles and reforms; not to deviate from the ideal according to which everyone is entitled to enjoy human rights and fundamental freedoms under the notion of peace and prosperity in society, national solidarity and justice, and loyalty to the Constitution. [17]

The oath is broadcast live on TBMM-TV regardless of it is a regular business day of the Grand National Assembly. [18]

Duties and responsibilities

Presidential Palace is located in Ankara Presidential Palace Main.jpg
Presidential Palace is located in Ankara

The president performs also the duties of selection and appointment, and other duties conferred by the Constitution and statutes.

Accountability and non-accountability

After the 2017 constitutional amendment

2017 constitutional referendum extended the president's accountability beyond impeachment due to high treason. According to the constitutional amendments approved in the referendum, the Grand National Assembly may initiate an investigation of the president, the vice president or any member of the Cabinet upon the proposal of simple majority of its total members, and within a period less than a month, the approval of three-fifths of the total members. [14] The investigation would be carried out by a commission of fifteen members of the Assembly, each nominated by the political parties in proportion to their representation therein. The commission would submit its report indicating the outcome of the investigation to the speaker within two months. If the investigation is not completed within this period, the commission's time renewed for another month. Within ten days of its submission to the speaker, the report would be distributed to all members of the Assembly, and ten days after its distribution, the report would be discussed on the floor. Upon the approval of two-thirds of the total number of the Assembly by secret vote, the person or persons, about whom the investigation was conducted, may be tried before the Constitutional Court. The trial would be finalized within three months, and if not, a one-time additional period of three months shall be granted.

A president about whom an investigation has been initiated may not call for an election. A president who is convicted by the Court would be removed from office.

The provision of this Article shall also apply to the offenses for which the president allegedly worked during his term of office.

Before the 2017 constitutional amendment

Before the 2017 constitutional referendum, the president was not accountable for its actions and orders, except for impeachment due to high treason. All presidential decrees, except those which the president is empowered to enact on his own, had to be signed by the prime minister and the minister concerned, in accordance with the provisions of the constitution and other laws. Thus, the prime minister and the concerned ministers were accountable for these decrees, not the president. The decisions and orders signed by the president on his own initiatives may not be appealed to any judicial authority, including the Constitutional Court. The only accountability the president had was impeachment for high treason on the proposal of at least one-third of the total number of the members of the parliament and by the decision of at least three-fourths of the total number of the members. [19]

Acting President

The official Seal of the Presidency, used on documents. Seal of the Presidency (used on documents).jpg
The official Seal of the Presidency, used on documents.

After the 2017 constitutional referendum

According to the constitutional amendments approved in the 2017 referendum, in the event of a temporary absence of the president on account of illness, travel abroad or similar circumstances, the vice president of Turkey serves as Acting President, and exercises the powers of the president until the president comes back. [14] If the office of the presidency becomes vacant for any reason, the presidential election shall be held within forty-five days and in the meantime, the vice president shall act as and exercise the powers of the president until the next president is elected. If one year or less remains for the general election, the parliamentary election will be conducted at the same time. If more than a year remains, the newly elected president will continue to serve until the next general election. [20] [21]

Before the 2017 constitutional referendum

Before the constitutional amendments approved in the 2017 referendum, the speaker of the Grand National Assembly served as Acting President in cases where the presidency is temporarily or permanently vacant and exercises presidential powers until the president returns to duty or the new president is elected within 45 days. [22]

Latest election

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Politics of Turkey</span> Political system of Turkey

The politics of Turkey take place in the framework of a constitutional republic and presidential system, with various levels and branches of power.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">President of South Korea</span> Head of state and of government of the Republic of Korea

The president of the Republic of Korea, also known as the president of South Korea, is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Korea. The president leads the State Council, and is the chief of the executive branch of the national government as well as the commander-in-chief of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Legislative Yuan</span> Unicameral national legislature of the Republic of China (Taiwan)

The Legislative Yuan is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of China (Taiwan) located in Taipei. The Legislative Yuan is composed of 113 members, who are directly elected for 4-year terms by people of the Taiwan Area through a parallel voting system.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">President of South Africa</span> South Africas head of state and head of government

The president of South Africa is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of South Africa. The president heads the executive branch of the Government of South Africa and is the commander-in-chief of the South African National Defence Force. Between 1961 and 1994, the office of head of state was the state presidency.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">President of Egypt</span> Head of state of Egypt

The president of Egypt is the executive head of state of Egypt and the de facto appointer of the official head of government under the Egyptian Constitution of 2014. Under the various iterations of the Constitution of Egypt following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the president is also the supreme commander of the Armed Forces, and head of the executive branch of the Egyptian government. The current president is Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, who has been in office since 8 June 2014.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">President of Tunisia</span> Head of state of Tunisia.

The president of Tunisia, officially the president of the Tunisian Republic, is the head of state of Tunisia. Tunisia is a presidential republic, whereby the president is the head of state and head of government. Under Article 77 of the Constitution of Tunisia, the president is also the commander-in-chief of the Tunisian Armed Forces. The incumbent president is Kais Saied who has held this position since 23 October 2019 following the death of Beji Caid Essebsi on 25 July 2019. 2022 Tunisian constitutional referendum turned Tunisia into a presidential republic, giving the president sweeping powers while largely limiting the role of the parliament.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prime Minister of Turkey</span> Head of government of the Republic of Turkey (1920–2018)

The prime minister of the Republic of Turkey was the head of government of the Republic of Turkey from 1920 to 2018, who led a political coalition in the Turkish Parliament and presided over the cabinet. Throughout the political history of Turkey, functions and powers of the post have changed occasionally. Prior to its dissolution as a result of the 2017 Constitutional Referendum, the prime minister was generally the dominant figure in Turkish politics, outweighing the president.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Constitution of Venezuela</span> Current and twenty-sixth constitution of Venezuela

The Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is the current and twenty-sixth constitution of Venezuela. It was drafted in mid-1999 by a constituent assembly that had been created by popular referendum. Adopted in December 1999, it replaced the 1961 Constitution, the longest-serving in Venezuelan history. It was primarily promoted by then President of Venezuela Hugo Chávez and thereafter received strong backing from diverse sectors, including figures involved in promulgating the 1961 constitution such as Luis Miquilena and Carlos Andrés Pérez. Chávez and his followers (chavistas) refer to the 1999 document as the "Constitución Bolivariana" because they assert that it is ideologically descended from the thinking and political philosophy of Simón Bolívar and Bolivarianism. Since the creation of the Constituent National Assembly in August 2017, the Bolivarian government has declared the 1999 constitution suspended until a new constitution is created.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Egyptian Constitution of 1971</span>

The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt was the former constitution of Egypt. It was adopted on 11 September 1971 through a public referendum. It was later amended in 1980, 2005, and 2007. It was proclaimed to update the democratic representative system in assertion of the rule of law, independence of the judiciary, and party plurality. On 13 February 2011, the Constitution was suspended following the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak as a result of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. On 30 March 2011, it was "effectively voided" after a new provisional constitution was passed by the country's ruling Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. It has since been superseded by the Egyptian Constitution of 2012 and the current Egyptian Constitution of 2014.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2007 Turkish presidential election</span> Turkish presidential election

The 2007 Turkish presidential election refers to two attempts to elect the country's 11th president, to succeed Ahmet Necdet Sezer. The most likely candidate for president was Abdullah Gül. Turkey's presidential office is regarded as the guardian of the country's secular system; the fact that Gül's wife wears the Islamic headscarf, as well as his own history in political Islam, turned the elections into a political crisis.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Republic Protests</span> 2007 Turkish secularist protests against Prime Minister Erdoğan

The Republic Protests were a series of peaceful mass rallies that took place in Turkey in 2007 in support of a strict principle of state secularism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Constitution of Kenya</span> Supreme law of the Republic of Kenya

The Constitution of Kenya is the supreme law of the Republic of Kenya. There have been three significant versions of the constitution, with the most recent redraft being enabled in 2010. The 2010 edition replaced the 1963 independence constitution. The constitution was presented to the Attorney General of Kenya on 7 April 2010, officially published on 6 May 2010, and was subjected to a referendum on 4 August 2010. The new Constitution was approved by 67% of Kenyan voters. The constitution was promulgated on 27 August 2010.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2015 Armenian constitutional referendum</span>

A constitutional referendum was held in Armenia on 6 December 2015. Its amendments to the constitution put the country on a course from having a semi-presidential system to being a parliamentary republic, with the changes beginning to take place during the 2017–18 electoral cycle. The referendum passed with 66.2% of voters supporting it. Voter turnout was 50.8%, passing the 33% threshold to validate the results.

Turkish presidential elections are held in Turkey as part of the general elections every five years, to determine who will serve as the President of Turkey.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Constitution of the Comoros</span>

The Constitution of the Comoros was adopted on 23 December 2001 and last amended in May 2009.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2018 Turkish parliamentary election</span>

Parliamentary elections were held in Turkey on 24 June 2018 as part of general elections, with presidential elections taking place on the same day. Originally scheduled for 3 November 2019, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan called snap elections on 18 April after months of speculation. With the passage of a series of constitutional amendments in the 2017 referendum, the number of MPs will be increased from the previous 550 to 600. These representatives will be elected by the constituents of the 87 electoral districts of Turkey by party-list proportional representation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vice President of Turkey</span> Second-highest office in the executive branch of the Government of the Republic of Turkey

The vice president of Turkey, officially the vice president of the Republic of Turkey, is the second-highest officer in the executive branch of the government of Turkey, after the president. The vice president is also a statutory member of the Cabinet, National Security Council and Supreme Military Council.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fuat Oktay</span> 1st Vice President of the Republic of Turkey (2018–present)

Fuat Oktay is a Turkish politician, civil servant and academic serving as the first and current vice president of Turkey since 10 July 2018. An independent, he previously served as undersecretary to the prime minister of Turkey from 2016 until his appointment to the vice presidency, following the creation of the office after the 2017 constitutional referendum.

The acting president of Turkey is a temporary post provided by the Constitution of Turkey. The acting president is a person who fulfills the duties and powers of the president of Turkey when cases of incapacity and vacancy occur.

References

  1. "Erdoğan'ın 2022 yılında alacağı maaş belli oldu" (in Turkish). T24. 5 January 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  2. "Ataturk ilkeleri ve inkilap tarihi 2". Istanbul University . Retrieved 21 October 2021.[ permanent dead link ]
  3. "Cumhuriyet'in Kuruluşu..." www.cumhuriyet.com.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  4. Kemal Çiçek; Ercüment Kuran; Nejat Göyünç; İlber Ortaylı (2000). The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation. Yeni Türkiye. p. 226.
  5. Jacob M. Landau (2004). Exploring Ottoman and Turkish History. p. 117.
  6. "Turkey: End Prosecutions For 'Insulting President'". Human Rights Watch. 17 October 2018. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  7. "The problem with insulting Turkey's President Erdogan". BBC News. 16 April 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  8. "Erdogan loyalist Yildirim: happy to become Turkey's last prime minister". Reuters. 19 June 2018. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  9. "Turkey's Ex-PM Made Parliament Speaker After Office Abolished". VOA. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  10. Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Constitution of the Republic of Turkey". Refworld. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  11. SABAH, DAILY (2 August 2021). "Turkey's new constitution to allow citizens to introduce laws". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  12. "Turkey's Constitution of 1982 with Amendments through 2017" (PDF). Constitute Project. p. 43. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  13. Shaheen, Kareem (2 May 2017). "Erdoğan rejoins Turkey's ruling party in wake of referendum on new powers". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 3 May 2017.
  14. 1 2 3 "Grand National Assembly of Turkey" (PDF). tbmmgov.tr. 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
  15. Yüksel, Saadet (March 2014). "Constitutional Changes of Turkey in 2001 under the Framework of the EU Adaptation Process" (PDF). Istanbul University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2022.
  16. KABOĞLU, İBRAHİM Ö. "Bir kimse en fazla iki defa cumhurbaşkanı seçilebilir". birgun.net (in Turkish). Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  17. "Constitution" (PDF). global.tbmm.gov.tr. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  18. "Turkish lawmakers take oath for parliament under new system". Trtworld.com. 7 July 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  19. "Turkish referendum: all you need to know | Recep Tayyip Erdoğan". The Guardian . London. 10 April 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  20. "Turkey's new presidential system and a changing west". 30 November 2001.
  21. "What happens now following the 'yes' vote in the Turkish referendum? | DW | 18.04.2017". Deutsche Welle .
  22. "Why did Turkey hold a referendum?". BBC News. 16 April 2017.