President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

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President of the
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Président de la République démocratique du Congo  (French)
Rais wa Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo  (Swahili)
Mokonzi wa Republíki ya Kongó Demokratíki  (Lingala)
Presidential Seal of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg
Presidential Seal
Flag of the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg
Presidential Standard
Felix Tshisekedi - 2019 (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Félix Tshisekedi

since 25 January 2019
Style His Excellency
Type Head of state
Residence Palais de la Nation, Kinshasa
Term length 5 years,
renewable once
Formation30 June 1960
First holder Joseph Kasavubu
Salary51,500 USD annually [1]
Website Official website of the President of the DRC

The president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (French: Président de la République démocratique du Congo, Swahili : Rais wa Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo, Lingala : Mokonzi wa Republíki ya Kongó Demokratíki), is the head of state of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

Contents

The position of president in the DRC has existed since the first constitution – known as The Fundamental Law – of 1960. However the powers of this position have varied over the years, from a limited shared role in the executive branch, with a prime minister, to a full-blown dictatorship. Under the current constitution, the President exists as the highest institution in a semi-presidential republic. The president is protected by the Republican Guard.

The constitutional mandate of the then president, Joseph Kabila, was due to expire on 20 December 2016 but was initially extended by him until the end of 2017 [2] and he continued to remain in post until a presidential election was held in December 2018 when Félix Tshisekedi was elected and took office on 24 January 2019.

Presidential powers

Monument to Lumumba and the Tower of Limete. Kinshasa, tour de l'echangeur de Limete - 20090705.jpg
Monument to Lumumba and the Tower of Limete.

The semi-presidential system established by the constitution is largely borrowed from the French constitution. Although it is the prime minister and parliament that oversee much of the nation's actual lawmaking, the president wields significant influence, both formally and from constitutional convention. The president holds the nation's most senior office, and outranks all other politicians.

Perhaps the president's greatest power is his or her ability to choose the prime minister. However, the President must nominate the prime minister from among the parliamentary majority after consultation with the parliamentary majority, if an obvious majority exists, and if it does not exist, must nominate a prime minister who has a once renewable 30 day exploratory mandate to form a coalition. The prime minister and cabinet must present their plan of action to the National Assembly, which must approve the government and the plan of action by an absolute majority. Only the National Assembly has the power to dismiss the Prime Minister's government.

Among the formal powers of the president:

Requirements

Article 72 of the Congolese constitution states that the President must be a natural-born citizen – or more accurately: French: citoyen d'origine – of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and at least 30 years of age. Additionally, the President must be free of any legal constraints on their civil and political rights.

Article 10 of the same constitution defines citoyen d'origine as : "anyone belonging to the ethnic groups whose persons and territory constituted what became the Congo (currently the Democratic Republic of the Congo), at independence".

Succession

Articles 75 and 76 of the constitution state that upon the death or resignation of the President, the vacancy of the position is declared by the Constitutional court. The President of the Senate then becomes interim president.

The Independent Electoral Commission has to organize elections between sixty (60) and ninety (90) [16] days after the official declaration of vacancy by the Constitutional court.

Other information

Presidential registration plate (PR) Registration Plate of DRC 5- Presidential Registration Plate.jpg
Presidential registration plate (PR)
Palais de la Nation, Kinshasa Palais de la nation.jpg
Palais de la Nation, Kinshasa

The official office of the president is the Palais de la Nation (Palace of the Nation) in Kinshasa.The official residence of the president is the Camp Tshatshi Palace in Kinshasa, although it has not been used since it was looted in 1997. Other presidential residences include:

Elections

Under the 2006 constitution, the President is directly elected to a five-year term – renewable only once – by universal suffrage. The first President to have been elected under these provisions is Joseph Kabila, in the 2006 elections.

After the president is elected, he goes through a solemn investiture ceremony.

2018 election

CandidatePartyVotes%
Félix Tshisekedi Union for Democracy and Social Progress 7,051,01338.56
Martin Fayulu Dynamic of Congolese Political Opposition6,366,73234.82
Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary Independent4,357,35923.83
Radjabho Tebabho SoboraboCongolese United for Reform70,2490.38
Vital Kamerhe Union for the Congolese Nation 51,3800.28
Pierre Honoré Kazadi Lukonda Ngube-Ngube People's Front for Justice44,0190.24
Theodore Ngoy Ilunga wa NsengaIndependent43,6970.24
Freddy Matungulu Our Congo33,2730.18
Marie-Josée Ifoku Alliance of Elites for a New Congo27,3130.15
Jean-Philibert Mabaya Rainbow of Congo26,9070.15
Samy Badibanga The Progressives26,7220.15
Alain Daniel Shekomba Independent26,6110.15
Seth Kikuni Independent23,5520.13
Noel K Tshiani Muadiamvita Independent23,5480.13
Charles LuntadilaIndependent20,1820.11
Yves MpungaPremier Political Force18,9760.10
Tryphon Kin-Kiey Mulumba Independent16,5960.09
Gabriel Mokia MandemboMovement of Congolese Democrats15,7780.09
Francis MvembaIndependent15,0130.08
Sylvain Maurice MashekeIndependent14,3370.08
Joseph MalutaIndependent11,5620.06
Total18,284,819100.00
Valid votes18,284,81999.74
Invalid/blank votes48,4980.26
Total votes18,333,317100.00
Registered voters/turnout38,542,13847.57
Source: African Union [lower-alpha 1]
  1. There is a difference of 3,999 between the reported number of valid votes (18,280,820) and the reported totals for each candidate.

See also

Historical:

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References

  1. "The highest and lowest paid African presidents - Business Daily". Business Daily.
  2. "20 dead in Congo unrest as Kabila clings on to power". IOL. South Africa. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  3. Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2006, article 69 Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine .
  4. 1 2 Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2006, article 81 Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  5. Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2006, article 79 Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  6. Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2006, article 80 Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  7. Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2006, article 82 Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  8. Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2006, article 83 Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  9. Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2006, article 84 Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  10. Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2006, article 85 Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  11. Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2006, article 86 Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  12. Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2006, article 87 Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  13. Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2006, article 88 Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  14. Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2006, article 91 Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  15. Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2006, article 137 Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  16. Constitution of the DRC