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|President of the Dominican Republic |
Presidente de la República Dominicana
Coat of arms of the Dominican Republic
|Style||Your Excellency, Mr. President|
(Excelentísimo, Señor presidente) His Excellency
|Residence||National Palace, Distrito Nacional, Santo Domingo|
|Appointer||Universal suffrage election|
|Term length||Four years, with once re-election|
|Inaugural holder||Pedro Santana|
|Formation||November 14, 1844|
|Deputy||Vice President of the Dominican Republic|
The President of the Dominican Republic (Spanish: Presidente de la República Dominicana) is both the head of state and head of government of the Dominican Republic. The presidential system was established in 1844, following the proclamation of the republic during the Dominican War of Independence. The President of the Dominican Republic is styled Your Excellency, Mr. President during his time in office. His official residence is the National Palace.
A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system, such as India, the head of state usually has mostly ceremonial powers, with a separate head of government. However in some parliamentary systems, like South Africa, there is an executive president that is both head of state and head of government. Likewise, in some parliamentary systems the head of state is not the head of government, but still has significant powers, for example Morocco. In contrast, a semi-presidential system, such as France, has both heads of state and government as the de facto leaders of the nation. Meanwhile, in presidential systems such as the United States, the head of state is also the head of government.
The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. "Head of government" is often differentiated from "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.
The Dominican Republic is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region. It occupies the eastern five-eighths of the island, which it shares with the nation of Haiti, making Hispaniola one of only two Caribbean islands, along with Saint Martin, that are shared by two sovereign states. The Dominican Republic is the second-largest Caribbean nation by area at 48,671 square kilometers (18,792 sq mi), and third by population with approximately 10,299,000 people, of whom approximately three million live in the metropolitan area of Santo Domingo, the capital city.
The article CXXVIII of the constitution instructs the president of the "faithful execution of the Dominican Law" and confers on him the rank of commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, the National Police and all the State security forces. It has the power to appoint ministers, grant pardons, moratoria and the duty of ensuring national security and the collection and faithful investment of national income. The constitution also places it as the head of the state's foreign policy and grants it the power to appoint diplomatic representatives on the recommendation and approval of the Senate of the Dominican Republic.
The Armed Forces of the Dominican Republic is the combined national military of the Dominican Republic. It consists of approximately 44,000 active duty personnel, approximately 60 percent of which are utilized mainly for non-military operations, including security providers for government-owned non-military facilities, toll security, forestry workers and other state enterprises, and personal security for ministers, congressmen, etc. The president is the commander in chief for the military and the Ministry of Defense is the chief managing body of the armed forces. The primary missions are to defend the nation and protect the territorial integrity of the country. The Dominican Republic's military is second in size to Cuba's in the Caribbean.
The Dominican Republic National Police is the national police force of the Dominican Republic. It is the largest police force in the Dominican Republic under the control of the Ministry of Interior and Police.
The Senate of the Dominican Republic is the upper legislative chamber in the bicameral legislature of the Dominican Republic, and together with the Chamber of Deputies makes up the Congress.
The president is elected by universal suffrage for a term of four years. Since the Constitution of the Dominican Republic of 1966, in its modification of 2015, no person can be elected to the position of president more than twice. In case of death, dismissal, resignation or resignation of a president, the vice president assumes the presidency. In the absence of both, the Executive Branch may organize an interim government or pass control of the government to the Legislative Branch.
The concept of universal franchise, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of wealth, income, race, or ethinicity, subject only to minor exceptions. In its original 19th-century usage by political reformers, universal suffrage was understood to mean only universal manhood suffrage; the vote was extended to women later, during the women's suffrage movement.
The Dominican Republic has gone through 39 constitutions, more than any other country, since its independence in 1844. This statistic is a somewhat deceiving indicator of political stability, however, because of the Dominican practice of promulgating a new constitution whenever an amendment was ratified. Although technically different from each other in some particular provisions, most new constitutions contained in reality only minor modifications of those previously in effect. Sweeping constitutional innovations were actually relatively rare.
There were 53 people who took office. The first president was Pedro Santana who was invested in November 14, 1844 by decision of the Central Government Junta. The current President of the Dominican Republic is Danilo Medina of the Dominican Liberation Party (Partido de la Liberación Dominicana or PLD), who took office on from August 16, 2012.
Pedro Santana y Familias, 1st Marquis of Las Carreras, better known as Pedro Santana, was a Dominican military commander and royalist politician who served as the president of the junta that had established the First Dominican Republic, a precursor to the position of the President of the Dominican Republic, and as the first President of the republic in the modern line of succession. A traditional royalist who was fond of the Spanish crown and the Spanish Empire, he ruled as a governor-general, but effectively as an authoritarian dictator.
Danilo Medina Sánchez is a Dominican politician and the current President of the Dominican Republic, since 2012.
The Dominican Liberation Party is the current governing political party in the Dominican Republic. Founded in 1973 by former president Juan Bosch, the party, along with the Dominican Revolutionary Party, have dominated politics in the country since the establishment of democracy.
Beginning in the first decade of the 21st century, the Dominican presidency has taken on a more participatory role at the global level, strengthening diplomatic ties throughout the world and serving as a mediator in conflicts as close as the 2009 Honduran coup d'état and so far away as the Arab–Israeli conflict.
The 2009 Honduran coup d'état, part of the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis, occurred when the Honduran Army on June 28, 2009 followed orders from the Honduran Supreme Court to oust President Manuel Zelaya and send him into exile. Zelaya had attempted to schedule a non-binding poll on holding a referendum on convening a constituent assembly to rewrite the constitution. Zelaya refused to comply with court orders to cease, and the Honduran Supreme Court issued a secret warrant for his arrest dated 26 June. Two days later, Honduran soldiers stormed the president's house in the middle of the night and detained him, forestalling the poll. Instead of bringing him to trial, the army put him on a military aeroplane and flew him to Costa Rica. Later that day, after the reading of a resignation letter of disputed authenticity, the Honduran Congress voted to remove Zelaya from office, and appointed Speaker of Congress Roberto Micheletti, his constitutional successor, to replace him.
The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between Arab countries and Israel, which climaxed during the 20th century. The roots of the Arab–Israeli conflict are attributed to the rise of Zionism and Arab nationalism towards the end of the 19th century, though the two national movements had not clashed until the 1920s. Part of the dispute arised from the conflicting claims to the land. Territory regarded by the Jewish people as their ancestral homeland is at the same time regarded by the Pan-Arab movement as historically and currently belonging to the Arab Palestinians, and in the Pan-Islamic context, as Muslim lands.
The origin of the Presidency of the Dominican Republic goes back to the War of Independence when the Central Government Junta (JCG) constituted the first form of government that the country had in independent and republican living conditions.
The Dominican Independence War gave the Dominican Republic autonomy from Haiti on February 27, 1844. Before the war, the island of Hispaniola had been united under the Haitian government for a period of 22 years when the newly independent nation, previously known as the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, was unified with Haiti in 1822. The criollo class within the country overthrew the Spanish crown in 1821 before unifying with Haiti a year later.
The main activities, at such a convulsive moment, were to lead the war against the invasion of the Haitians, since it depended on the survival of the newly born State and the application of emergency measures of a provisional nature in order to put the governmental machinery, the collection of taxes, inform foreign powers of the existence of the new State and extend its dominion over the newly liberated territory. At the beginning J.C.G. He had to keep Haitian laws in force for a while, since otherwise the courts, the collection of taxes, municipalities, customs and other indispensable organisms for the normal course of the institutional life of every society would not have worked. The J.C.G. He ruled the country for an 8-month period.
In July 1844, General Pedro Santana, after a streak of successive victories in the south of the country, appeared with his army in Santo Domingo and was proclaimed President of the Junta Central Government.In the following month, Santana deported the Fathers of the Nation. On 14 November of the same year he took office as the first Constitutional President of the Dominican Republic.
The Constitution of the Dominican Republic, which was most recently amended in 2015, establishes the requirements, rights and obligations of the President of the Republic.
The office can be held for up to two consecutive four-year terms.Persons who have completed their presidencies cannot run for the presidency again. The change of command takes place every four years, on 16 August, which is the day of the Restoration of the Republic, a national holiday.
Prior to 2015, the President was limited to one consecutive term, but could run for the office again after at least one subsequent term.
The schools and powers of the President of the Dominican Republic are contained in the title fourth, chapter I, section II of Constitution of the Dominican Republic giving the following rights and obligations: 'in its status as head of state corresponding:'
According to the Constitution of the Dominican Republic of 1966, in its modification of the year 2015 by the Congress, the President:
|Danilo Medina Sánchez||Dominican Liberation Party||2,847,438||61.74|
|Luis Rodolfo Abinader Corona||Modern Revolutionary Party||1,613,222||34.98|
|Guillermo Antonio Moreno García||Country Alliance||84,399||1.83|
|Elías Wessin Chávez||Quisqueyano Christian Democratic Party||20,423||0.44|
|Pelegrín Horacio Castillo Semán||National Progressive Force||16,283||0.35|
|Minerva Josefina Tavárez Mirabal||Alliance for Democracy||16,256||0.35|
|Hatuey de Camps Jiménez||Revolutionary Social Democratic Party||8,264||0.18|
|Flor Soraya Aquino Campos de Checo||National Unity Party||5,678||0.12|
The Dominican Republic is a representative democracy, where the President of the Dominican Republic functions as both the head of the government and head of the multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the bicameral National Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
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