Presidential dollar coins

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Presidential dollar coin
United States
Value1 U.S. dollar
Mass8.100 g (0.26  troy oz)
Diameter26.49 mm (1.043 in)
Thickness2.00 mm (0.0787 in)
EdgeEngraved: text "E pluribus unum", the coin's mint mark, its year of issuance, and 13 five-pointed stars (prior to 2009: text "In God We Trust")
CompositionCopper with manganese brass cladding:
88.5% Cu
6% Zn
3.5% Mn
2% Ni
Years of minting2007–2011 (Circulation)
2012–2016; 2020 (Collectors Only)
Catalog number
George Washington Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png
DesignPortrait of US Presidents (first shown)
Design date2007–2016; 2020
Presidential dollar coin reverse.png
Design Statue of Liberty
Designer Don Everhart
Design date2007

Presidential dollar coins (authorized by Pub. L. Tooltip Public Law (United States)  109–145 (text) (PDF) , 119  Stat.   2664 , enacted December 22, 2005) are a series of United States dollar coins with engravings of relief portraits of U.S. presidents on the obverse and the Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World) on the reverse.


From 2007 to 2011, Presidential dollar coins were minted for circulation in large numbers, resulting in a large stockpile of unused $1 coins. From 2012 to 2016, new coins in the series were minted only for collectors. [1] A new coin was released on December 4, 2020, to honor George H. W. Bush, who died after the original program ended. [2] [3]

Legislative history

S. 1047, the Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005, was introduced on May 17, 2005, by Senator John E. Sununu with over 70 co-sponsors. It was reported favorably out of the U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs without amendment on July 29, 2005. The Senate passed it with a technical amendment (S.Amdt. 2676), by unanimous consent on November 18, 2005. The House of Representatives passed it (291-113) [4] on December 13, 2005 (a similar bill, H.R. 902, had previously passed in the House, but it was the Senate bill which was passed by both chambers). The enrolled bill was presented to president George W. Bush on December 15, 2005, and he signed it into law on December 22, 2005. [5]

Program details

The program began on January 1, 2007, and, like the 50 State quarters program, was not scheduled to end until every eligible subject was honored. The program was to issue coins featuring each of four presidents per year on the obverse, issuing one for three months before moving on to the next president in chronological order by term in office. To be eligible, a president must have been deceased for at least two years prior to the time of minting. [6] The United States Mint called it the Presidential $1 Coin Program. [7]

The reverse of the coins bears the Statue of Liberty (formally Liberty Enlightening the World), the inscription "$1" and the inscription "United States of America" in all caps, in the font ITC Benguiat. Inscribed along the edge of the coin is the year of minting or issuance of the coin, the mint mark, 13 stars, and also the legend E Pluribus Unum in the following arrangement: ★★★★★★★★★★  (mint year)  (mint mark)  ★★★  E PLURIBUS UNUM; before 2009, In God We Trust was also part of the edge lettering. The legend "Liberty" is absent from the coin altogether, since the decision was made that the image of the Statue of Liberty on the reverse of the coin was sufficient to convey the message of liberty. The text of the act does not specify the color of the coins, but per the U.S. Mint "the specifications will be identical to those used for the current Golden dollar". [8] The George Washington $1 coin was first available to the public on February 15, 2007, in honor of Washington's Birthday, which was observed on February 19.

This marked the first time since the St. Gaudens Double Eagle (1907–1933) that the United States had issued a coin with edge lettering for circulation. Edge-lettered coins date back to the 1790s. The process was started to discourage the shaving of gold coin edges, a practice which was used to cheat payees. In December 2007, Congress passed H.R. 2764, moving "In God We Trust" to either the obverse or reverse of the coins. [9] This is the same bill that created a program that included quarters for Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.

The act had been introduced because of the failure of the Sacagawea $1 coin to gain widespread circulation in the United States. The act sympathized with the need of the nation's private sector for a $1 coin, and expected that the appeal of changing the design would increase the public demand for new coins (as the public generally responded well to the State Quarter program). The program was also intended to help educate the public about the nation's presidents and their history. In case the coins did not catch on with the general public, then the Mint hoped that collectors would be as interested in the dollars as they were with the State Quarters,[ citation needed ] which generated about $6.3 billion in seigniorage (i.e., the difference between the face value of the coins and the cost to produce them) between January 1999 and December 2008. [10]

Stack showing edge lettering George stack.JPG
Stack showing edge lettering

Unlike the State Quarter program and the Westward Journey nickel series, which suspended the issuance of the current design during those programs, the act directed the Mint to continue to issue Sacagawea dollar coins during the Presidential series. The law states that at least one in three issued dollars must be a Sacagawea dollar. Furthermore, the Sacagawea design was required to continue after the Presidential Coin program ended. These requirements were added at the behest of the North Dakota congressional delegation to ensure that Sacagawea, whom North Dakotans consider to be one of their own, ultimately remains on the dollar coin.

However, Federal Reserve officials indicated to Congress that "if the Presidential $1 Coin Program does not stimulate substantial transactional demand for dollar coins, the requirement that the Mint nonetheless produce Sacagawea dollars would result in costs to the taxpayer without any offsetting benefits." In that event, the Federal Reserve indicated that it would "strongly recommend that Congress reassess the one-third requirement." [11] The one-third requirement was later changed to one-fifth by the Native American $1 Coin Act, [12] passed on September 20, 2007.

Previous versions of the act called for removing from circulation dollar coins issued before the Sacagawea dollar, most notably the Susan B. Anthony dollar, but the version of the act which became law merely directs the Secretary of the Treasury to study the matter and report back to Congress. The act required federal government agencies (including the United States Postal Service), businesses operating on federal property, and federally funded transit systems to accept and dispense dollar coins by January 2008, and to post signs indicating that they do so. [13]

Minting errors

On March 8, 2007, the United States Mint announced, that on February 15, 2007, an unknown number of George Washington Presidential $1 coins were released into circulation without their edge inscriptions (the U.S. mottos, "In God We Trust" and "E pluribus unum", the coin's mint mark, and its year of issuance; i.e. E PLURIBUS UNUM • IN GOD WE TRUST • 2007 X (where X is either P or D)). Ron Guth, of the Professional Coin Grading Service, estimated at least 50,000 coins were released without the edge inscriptions. The first such coin discovered was sold on eBay for $600, while later coins were selling for $40–60, as of late March 2007. [14] [15] Because one of the inscriptions missing from the coins is the motto "In God we trust", some articles on the subject have referred to them as "Godless dollars". [16] Fake "Godless dollars" have been produced with the edge lettering filed off. [17]

Also, John Adams Presidential dollars have been discovered with plain edges. They are fewer in quantity than George Washington plain-edge dollars, making them rarer, thus more expensive. A more frequently encountered edge lettering error for the John Adams dollar is a coin with doubled edge lettering. This error occurs when a coin passes through the edge lettering machine twice. [18] Most examples of the doubled-edge-letter John Adams dollar are from the Philadelphia Mint (Denver Mint issues are comparatively scarce). They are seen in two varieties: 1) with both edge lettering inscriptions reading in the same direction, called "overlapped", and 2) with the two inscriptions running in opposite directions—i.e., inverted or upside-down relative to one another—called "inverted".

In early March 2007, a Colorado couple found a dollar coin which had not been struck with a die pair (missing the portrait of the president and the Statue of Liberty), but with edge lettering on the otherwise-blank planchet. [19]

Some of the coins have the words on the rim struck upside down (president face up). These are not minting errors, but rather a variation created by the minting process. Such upside-down coins have been sold on auction websites like eBay and Amazon for greater than their face value, though they represent roughly 50% of the minted population. [20]

Stockpile and suspension of production

A graph showing mintages of issues minted from 2007 to 2011 Prexibux mintages graph 07-11.png
A graph showing mintages of issues minted from 2007 to 2011

By 2011, 1.4 billion uncirculated $1 coins were stockpiled, [21] which, if laid flat, could reach from Los Angeles to Chicago. By 2016, this number might have reached two billion if the minting had continued unchanged. [22]

Rep. Jackie Speier of California circulated a "Dear Colleague" letter recommending that the U.S. not produce any dollar coins. She was planning to introduce legislation calling for the immediate halting of all dollar coin programs. [23]

The United States Government Accountability Office has stated that discontinuing the dollar bill in favor of the dollar coin would save the U.S. government about $5.5 billion over 30 years. [24]

On December 13, 2011, Vice President Joe Biden and Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner announced that the minting of Presidential $1 coins for circulation would be suspended. [21] Future entries in the program, beginning with those of Chester A. Arthur, would be issued in reduced quantities, only for collectors. [25]

By the end of 2022, the stockpile of $1 coins was reduced to 888 million. The inventory was estimated to last for nearly 16 more years (i.e. until 2038). [26]

The program's end and continuation

The act specifies that for a former president to be honored, they must have been deceased for at least two years before issue. [27] [28] Hence, former presidents George H. W. Bush, Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and then-current president Barack Obama were ineligible to have a dollar coin issued in their honor when the series ended in 2016, after honoring Ronald Reagan, the last president who was eligible.

Since the program has terminated, producing coins for those presidents not yet honored would require another Act of Congress. [29] On February 12, 2019, Senator John Cornyn introduced a bill to authorize a Presidential dollar honoring George H. W. Bush and an accompanying First Spouse gold coin for Barbara Bush, [2] which was signed into law by President Donald Trump on January 28, 2020. [30]


Despite not seeing widespread use in circulation, [31] the series has seen a few lower-mintage issues, mostly in specially marketed sets. Reverse Proof issues were made for the coins depicting Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush between 2015 and 2020. These issues had mintages between 16,000 and 48,000, depending on the issue. [32]

Coin details

Dollar coins were issued bearing the likenesses of presidents, as follows: [33]

Release dateDenver
Total Mintage [34] DesignIn office
11st George Washington February 15, 2007 [35] 163,680,000176,680,000340,360,000 George Washington Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png 1789–1797
22nd John Adams May 17, 2007 [35] 112,140,000112,420,000224,560,000 John Adams Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png 1797–1801
33rd Thomas Jefferson August 16, 2007 [35] 102,810,000100,800,000203,610,000 Thomas Jefferson Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png 1801–1809
44th James Madison November 15, 2007 [35] 87,780,00084,560,000172,340,000 James Madison Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png 1809–1817
55th James Monroe February 14, 2008 [35] 60,230,00064,260,000124,490,000 James Monroe Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png 1817–1825
66th John Quincy Adams May 15, 2008 [35] 57,720,00057,540,000115,260,000 John Quincy Adams Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png 1825–1829
77th Andrew Jackson August 14, 2008 [35] 61,070,00061,180,000122,250,000 Andrew Jackson Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png 1829–1837
88th Martin Van Buren November 13, 2008 [35] 50,960,00051,520,000102,480,000 Martin Van Buren Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png 1837–1841
99th William Henry Harrison February 19, 2009 [35] 55,160,00043,260,00098,420,000 William Henry Harrison Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png 1841
1010th John Tyler May 21, 2009 [35] 43,540,00043,540,00087,080,000 John Tyler Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png 1841–1845
1111th James K. Polk August 20, 2009 [35] 41,720,00046,620,00088,340,000 James Polk Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png 1845–1849
1212th Zachary Taylor November 19, 2009 [35] 36,680,00041,580,00078,260,000 Zachary Taylor Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png 1849–1850
1313th Millard Fillmore February 18, 2010 [35] 36,960,00037,520,00074,480,000 Millard Fillmore $1 Presidential Coin obverse sketch.png 1850–1853
1414th Franklin Pierce May 20, 2010 [35] 38,360,00038,220,00076,580,000 Franklin Pierce $1 Presidential Coin obverse sketch.png 1853–1857
1515th James Buchanan August 19, 2010 [35] 36,540,00036,820,00073,360,000 James Buchanan $1 Presidential Coin obverse sketch.png 1857–1861
1616th Abraham Lincoln November 18, 2010 [35] 48,020,00049,000,00097,020,000 Abraham Lincoln $1 Presidential Coin obverse sketch.png 1861–1865
1717th Andrew Johnson February 17, 2011 [36] 37,100,00035,560,00072,660,000 Andew Johnson $1 Presidential Coin obverse.png 1865–1869
1818th Ulysses S. Grant May 19, 2011 [36] 37,940,00038,080,00076,020,000 Ulysses S. Grant $1 Presidential Coin obverse.png 1869–1877
1919th Rutherford B. Hayes August 18, 2011 [36] 36,820,00037,660,00074,480,000 Rutherford B. Hayes $1 Presidential Coin obverse.png 1877–1881
2020th James A. Garfield November 17, 2011 [36] 37,100,00037,100,00074,200,000 James Garfield $1 Presidential Coin obverse.png 1881
2121st Chester A. Arthur February 5, 2012 [36] 4,060,0006,020,00010,080,000 2012 Pres $1 Arthur unc.png 1881–1885
2222nd Grover Cleveland May 25, 2012 [36] 4,060,0005,460,0009,520,000 2012 Pres $1 Cleveland1 unc.png 1885–1889
2323rd Benjamin Harrison August 16, 2012 [36] 4,200,0005,640,0019,840,001 2012 Pres $1 BHarrison unc.png 1889–1893
2424th Grover Cleveland November 15, 2012 [36] 3,920,00010,680,00114,600,001 2012 Pres $1 Cleveland2 unc.png 1893–1897
2525th William McKinley February 19, 2013 [37] 3,365,1004,760,0008,125,100 25 William McKinley 2000.png 1897–1901
2626th Theodore Roosevelt April 11, 2013 [38] 3,920,0005,310,7009,230,700 26 Theodore Roosevelt 2000.png 1901–1909
2727th William Howard Taft July 9, 2013 [39] 3,360,0004,760,0008,120,000 27 William Howard Taft 2000.png 1909–1913
2828th Woodrow Wilson October 17, 2013 [40] 3,360,0004,620,0007,980,000 28 Woodrow Wilson 2000.png 1913–1921
2929th Warren G. Harding February 6, 2014 [41] 3,780,0006,160,0009,940,000 Harding Unc.png 1921–1923
3030th Calvin Coolidge April 10, 2014 [42] 3,780,0004,480,0008,260,000 Coolidge Unc.png 1923–1929
3131st Herbert Hoover June 19, 2014 [43] 3,780,0004,480,0008,260,000 Hoover Unc.png 1929–1933
3232nd Franklin D. Roosevelt August 28, 2014 [44] 3,920,0004,760,0008,680,000 FRoosevelt Unc.png 1933–1945
3333rd Harry S. Truman February 5, 2015 [45] 3,500,0004,900,0008,400,000 2015 Truman Coin.png 1945–1953
3434th Dwight D. Eisenhower April 13, 2015 [46] 3,645,9984,900,0008,545,998 Eisenhower Unc.png 1953–1961
3535th John F. Kennedy June 18, 2015 [47] 5,180,0006,160,00011,340,000 Kennedy Unc.png 1961–1963
3636th Lyndon B. Johnson August 18, 2015 [48] 4,200,0007,840,00012,040,000 LJohnson Unc.png 1963–1969
3737th Richard Nixon February 3, 2016 [49] 4,340,0005,460,00010,000,000 Nixon unc.png 1969–1974
3838th Gerald Ford March 8, 2016 [50] 5,040,0005,460,00010,500,000 Ford unc.png 1974–1977
3940th Ronald Reagan July 5, 2016 [51] 5,880,0007,140,00013,020,000 Ronald Reagan Presidential $1 Coin.jpg 1981–1989
4041st George H. W. Bush December 4, 20201,502,4251,242,2752,744,700 Bush unc.jpg 1989–1993

First Spouse program

Director of United States Mint Edmund C. Moy and First Lady Laura Bush at the unveiling of Dolley Madison's First Spouse coin on November 19, 2007 Ed Moy and First Lady Bush.jpg
Director of United States Mint Edmund C. Moy and First Lady Laura Bush at the unveiling of Dolley Madison's First Spouse coin on November 19, 2007

The United States has honored the spouses of each of the presidents honored by the Presidential $1 Coin Act by issuing half-ounce $10 gold coins featuring their images, in the order they served as first spouse, beginning in 2007. To date, all first spouses have been women (often called first ladies).

The obverse of these coins feature portraits of the nation's first spouses, their names, the dates and order of their terms as first spouse, as well as the year of minting or issuance, and the words "In God We Trust" and "Liberty". The United States Mint issued the first spouse gold coins on the same schedule as the Presidential $1 coins issued honoring the presidents. Each coin has a unique reverse design featuring an image emblematic of that spouse's life and work, as well as the words "The United States of America", "E Pluribus Unum", "$10", "1/2 oz.", and ".9999 Fine Gold".

When a president served unmarried, as four presidents did, a gold coin was issued bearing an obverse image emblematic of Liberty as depicted on a circulating coin of that era, and bearing a reverse image emblematic of themes of that president. One exception is the coin depicting suffragist Alice Paul which represents the era of the Chester A. Arthur presidency, as Arthur was a widower.

The act, as written, explicitly states that the First Spouse coins are to be released at the same time as their respective $1 Presidential coins. [52] Because the act links a first spouse's eligibility for a coin to that of the presidential spouse, it means that a living first spouse could have appeared on a coin; actually this did not happen, though Nancy Reagan died only a few months before the release of her coin.

The United States Mint launched these coins officially at 12 pm EDT on June 19, 2007. They provided two versions of the coin: a proof version for $429.95 and an uncirculated version for $410.95.

The United States Mint also produces and makes available to the public bronze medal duplicates of the First Spouse gold coins which are not legal tender. [53] In February 2009 Coin World reported that some 2007 Abigail Adams medals were struck using the reverse from the 2008 Louisa Adams medal. [54] These pieces, called mules, were contained within the 2007 First Spouse medal set. [54]

Although the First Spouse program ended in 2016, it was continued in 2020 to honor Barbara Bush. [2]

A full listing of the coins is:

NameReverse designRelease dateProof Issue PriceMintage
figures [55]
Dates served
11 Martha Washington Mrs. Washington sewing, with slogan "First Lady of the Continental Army"June 19, 2007 [56] $429.9519,167 Martha Washington First Spouse Coin obverse.jpg 1789–1797
22 Abigail Adams Mrs. Adams writing her famous "Remember the Ladies" letterJune 19, 2007 [56] $429.9517,149 Abigail Adams First Spouse Coin obverse.jpg 1797–1801
33 Thomas Jefferson's Liberty Jefferson's grave at Monticello August 30, 2007 [57] $429.9519,815 Jefferson Liberty First Spouse Coin obverse.jpg Jefferson Liberty First Spouse Coin reverse.jpg 1801–1809
44 Dolley Madison Mrs. Madison posing before the Lansdowne portrait of Washington, which she saved during the Burning of Washington November 19, 2007 [58] $529.9517,943 Dolley Madison First Spouse Coin obverse.jpg 1809–1817
55 Elizabeth Monroe Mrs. Monroe at the reopening of the White House in 1818February 28, 2008 [59] $619.95*7,8001817–1825
66 Louisa Adams Mrs. Adams and her son Charles making the dangerous journey from St Petersburg to Paris in 1812May 29, 2008 [60] $619.95*6,5811825–1829
77 Andrew Jackson's LibertyJackson on horseback with his nickname "Old Hickory"August 28, 2008 [61] $619.95*7,684 Jackson L.jpg 1829–1837
88 Martin Van Buren's LibertyVan Buren reading in the grass in his home village of Kinderhook November 25, 2008 [62] $549.956,807 Van Buren L.jpg 1837–1841
99 Anna Harrison Mrs. Harrison reading to her childrenMarch 5, 2009 [63] $629.006,2511841
1010 Letitia Tyler Mrs. Tyler with children on Cedar Grove Plantation July 2, 2009 [64] N/A5,296 Tylerl-o.jpg 1841–1842
10A10A Julia Tyler Mr. and Mrs. Tyler dancingAugust 6, 2009 [65] N/A4,8441844–1845
1111 Sarah Polk Mr. and Mrs. Polk working together at a desk in the White HouseSeptember 3, 2009 [66] N/A5,151 Sarah Polk $1 coin front view.jpg Sarah Polk $1 coin reverse view.jpg 1845–1849
1212 Margaret Taylor A young Mrs. Taylor tending to a wounded soldier during the First Seminole War.December 3, 2009 [67] N/A4,936 Taylorm-o.jpg 1849–1850
1313 Abigail Fillmore Mrs. Fillmore shelving books in the White House Library, which she established.March 18, 2010 [68] N/A6,130 Fillmorea-o.jpg 1850–1853
1414 Jane Pierce Mrs. Pierce in the visitors' gallery of the Old Senate Chamber, listening to a debate.June 3, 2010 [69] N/A4,775 Jane Pierce First Spouse Coin obverse.jpg 1853–1857
1515 James Buchanan's LibertyBuchanan working as a bookkeeper in the family storeSeptember 2, 2010 [70] N/A7,110 Buchanansliberty-o.jpg 1857–1861
1616 Mary Todd Lincoln Mrs. Lincoln giving flowers and a book to Union soldiers during the Civil War December 2, 2010 [71] N/A6,861 Lincolnm-o.jpg 1861–1865
1717 Eliza Johnson Three children dancing and a Marine Band violinist at the children's ball that was held for President Johnson's 60th birthday.May 5, 2011 [72] N/A3,8871865–1869
1818 Julia Grant Grant and a young Julia Dent horseriding at White Haven, her family home.June 23, 2011 [73] N/A3,9431869–1877
1919 Lucy Hayes Mrs. Hayes hosting the first Easter Egg Roll at the White House, 1877September 1, 2011 [74] N/A3,8681877–1881
2020 Lucretia Garfield Mrs. Garfield painting on a canvas with brush and palette.December 1, 2011 [75] N/A3,653 2011-LGarfield-proof-rev.jpg 1881
2121 Alice Paul [76] Alice Paul marching for women's suffrage October 12, 2012 [77] N/A3,505 Alice Paul-unc-rev.jpg N/A †
2222 Frances Cleveland Mrs. Cleveland hosting a working women's reception.November 15, 2012 [78] N/A3,1581886–1889
2323 Caroline Harrison orchid and paint brushes December 6, 2012 [79] N/A3,0461889–1892
2424 Frances Cleveland Mrs. Cleveland delivering a speechDecember 20, 2012 [80] N/A3,104 2012-FCleveland2-unc-rev.jpg 1893–1897
2525 Ida McKinley Mrs. McKinley's hands crocheting slippers; she made thousands which were sold for charity.November 14, 2013 [81] N/A1,7691897–1901
2626 Edith Roosevelt Image of the White House with compass and "The White House Restored 1902"November 21, 2013 [82] N/A2,8511901–1909
2727 Helen Taft Cherry blossom of Prunus serrulata , brought to Washington, DC by Mrs. TaftDecember 2, 2013 [83] $770.002,5791909–1913
2828 Ellen Wilson Commemoration of Mrs. Wilson's creation of the White House Rose Garden December 9, 2013 [84] $770.002,5511913–1914
28A28A Edith Wilson Image commemorating Mrs. Wilson's support for her husband after his stroke; the President holds onto a cane with Edith's hand resting warmly on topDecember 16, 2013 [85] $770.002,4521915–1921
2929 Florence Harding Items relating to Mrs. Harding's life: ballots and ballot box, camera, torch, and initials referencing World War I veteransJuly 10, 2014 [86] $770.002,2881921–1923
3030 Grace Coolidge U.S.A. spelled out in American Sign Language in front of the White House; Mrs. Coolidge promoted Deaf educationJuly 17, 2014 [87] $770.002,1961923–1929
3131 Lou Hoover Radio commemorating Mrs. Hoover's radio address of 19 April 1929, the first by a First LadyAugust 14, 2014 [88] $770.002,0251929–1933
3232 Eleanor Roosevelt A hand lighting a candle, symbolizing her life's work and the global impact of her humanitarian initiatives.September 4, 2014 [89] $770.002,3891933–1945
3333 Bess Truman A wheel on railroad tracks, symbolizing Mrs. Truman's support for her husband on his 1948 whistle stop tour April 16, 2015 [90] $770.00N/A1945–1953
3434 Mamie Eisenhower Hand holding an I Like Mamie badgeMay 7, 2015 [91] $770.00N/A1953–1961
3535 Jacqueline Kennedy Saucer magnolia flower (planted by Mrs. Kennedy beside the John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame) overlaid on an image of the world.June 25, 2015 [92] $770.00N/A1961–1963
3636 Lady Bird Johnson Jefferson Memorial, Washington Monument and flowers in reference to Mrs. Johnson's efforts in the beautification and conservation of AmericaAugust 27, 2015 [93] N/AN/A1963–1969
3737 Pat Nixon People standing hand-in-hand surrounding a globe, symbolizing Mrs. Nixon's commitment to volunteerism.February 18, 2016 [94] N/AN/A1969–1974
3838 Elizabeth Ford Young woman ascending a staircase, representing Mrs. Ford's openness and advocacy regarding addiction, breast cancer and women's rights.March 25, 2016 [95] N/AN/A1974–1977
3940 Nancy Reagan Mrs. Reagan with two children wearing "Just Say No" T-shirtsJuly 1, 2016 [96] N/AN/A1981–1989
4041 Barbara Bush A child reading a book with a river and a rising Sun as part of the design.August 20, 2020 [97] $1,285.005,0001989–1993

* Due to volatility in the gold market, the U.S. Mint lowered the price to $549.95 on November 12, 2008, to more accurately reflect the current spot price of gold. This however constantly changed as the price of gold changed. The mint used pricing range tables to adjust pricing of gold coin: 2016 Pricing Grid

† Chester A. Arthur's wife Ellen died before he succeeded to the presidency. Since there was no First Lady during his presidency, the act explicitly states that Alice Paul, who was born during his term, would appear on this coin. [76] Since Paul was never First Lady, the coin does not have a served date.

Other provisions

The act also has two other provisions, for the following:

In 2009, numismatic cents that have the metallic copper content of cents minted in 1909 were issued for collectors.

Since 2010, another redesigned reverse for the Lincoln cent is being minted; this "shall bear an image emblematic of President Lincoln's preservation of the United States of America as a single and united country", and replaced the Lincoln Memorial reverse in use from 1959 to 2008.

See also

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sacagawea dollar</span> US 1 dollar coin minted since 2000

The Sacagawea dollar is a United States dollar coin introduced in 2000, but subsequently minted only for niche circulation from 2002 onward. The coin generally failed to meet consumer and business demands. It is still generally accepted in circulation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kennedy half dollar</span> 50-cent piece depicting John F Kennedy minted after his assassination in 1963

The Kennedy half dollar, first minted in 1964, is a fifty-cent coin issued by the United States Mint. Intended as a memorial to the assassinated 35th president of the United States John F. Kennedy, it was authorized by Congress just over a month after his death. Use of existing works by Mint sculptors Gilroy Roberts and Frank Gasparro allowed dies to be prepared quickly, and striking of the new coins began in January 1964.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Washington quarter</span> US 25-cent coin minted since 1932

The Washington quarter is the present quarter dollar or 25-cent piece issued by the United States Mint. The coin was first struck in 1932; the original version was designed by sculptor John Flanagan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">District of Columbia and United States Territories quarters</span> Series of U.S. coins

The District of Columbia and United States Territories quarters were a series of six quarters minted by the United States Mint in 2009 to honor the District of Columbia and the unincorporated United States insular areas of Puerto Rico, Guam, the United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands. The islands commonly grouped together as the United States Minor Outlying Islands were not featured, as the law defined the word "territory" as being limited to the areas mentioned above. They followed the completion of the 50 State Quarters Program. The coins used the same George Washington obverse as with the quarters of the previous 10 years. The reverse of the quarters featured a design selected by the Mint depicting the federal district and each territory. Unlike on the 50 State quarters, the motto "E Pluribus Unum" preceded and was the same size as the mint date on the reverse.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Joel Iskowitz</span>

Joel Iskowitz is an American designer, book illustrator, print artist and stamp, coin and medal designer. From an initial interest in medical illustration, this graphic artist has branched to other fields. He specializes in highly realistic art resulting from extensive research to make his designs as accurate as possible. His philatelic (stamp) designs, he once said, "must be super accurate and well documented, for if you get so much as an animal's tuft of fur out of place on a philatelic design you will hear from someone critical of your design." Among his coin designs are the reverse of the 2009 Lincoln Bicentennial penny, 2008 Arizona State Quarter, 2009 District of Columbia Quarter, and the 2016 Nancy Reagan First Spouse Gold Coin. In 2011 he was inducted into the Hunter College Hall of Fame. A major address on his career as a designer of commemorative coins and medals, at the Museum of American Finance in October 2015, was aired on C-SPAN.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">David J. Ryder</span> American government official (born 1955)

David J. Ryder is an American government official. He was the Director of the United States Mint from 1992 to 1993, and returned to the position from 2018 to 2021.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lewis and Clark Exposition gold dollar</span> Commemorative United States coin

The Lewis and Clark Exposition Gold dollar is a commemorative coin that was struck in 1904 and 1905 as part of the United States government's participation in the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, held in the latter year in Portland, Oregon. Designed by United States Bureau of the Mint Chief Engraver Charles E. Barber, the coin did not sell well and less than a tenth of the authorized mintage of 250,000 was issued.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Susan B. Anthony dollar</span> United States dollar coin depicting Susan B. Anthony

The Susan B. Anthony dollar is a United States dollar coin minted from 1979 to 1981 when production was suspended due to poor public acceptance, and then again in 1999. Intended as a replacement for the larger Eisenhower dollar, the new smaller one-dollar coin went through testing of several shapes and compositions, but all were opposed by the vending machine industry, a powerful lobby affecting coin legislation. Finally, a round planchet with an eleven-sided inner border was chosen for the smaller dollar.

Thomas S. Cleveland is an American designer, illustrator and fine artist. He served in the United States Mint's Artistic Infusion Program from 2004 until 2014.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">American Innovation dollars</span> Series of US dollar coins

American Innovation dollars are dollar coins of a series minted by the United States Mint beginning in 2018 and scheduled to run through 2032. It is planned for each member of the series to showcase an innovation, innovator or group of innovators from a particular state or territory, while the obverse features the Statue of Liberty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United States Proof Set</span> Set of American proof coins

The United States Mint Proof Set, commonly known as the Proof Set in the United States, is a set of proof coins sold by the United States Mint. The proof set is popular with coin collectors as it is an affordable way to collect examples of United States coinage in proof condition.


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  2. 1 2 3 "S. 457: President George H.W. Bush and Barbara Bush Coin Act". GovTrack. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  3. "Bush Presidential $1 Coin and First Spouse Bronze Medal | U.S. Mint". Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  4. Roll call vote 624 , via
  5. Sununu, John E. (December 22, 2005). "S.1047 - 109th Congress (2005-2006): Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005".
  6. At the time the series ended in 2016, former Presidents Carter, George H. W. Bush, Clinton, and George W. Bush, and then-current President Obama, were still alive, and thus, are not represented on series issues.
  7. The United States Mint (March 23, 2010). "The United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Program". Retrieved November 3, 2010.
  8. Presidential dollar coin series being developed, United States Mint News & Views, David A. Lebryk, Acting Director, April 2006
  9. H.R. 2764 (Pub. L. Tooltip Public Law (United States)  110–161 (text) (PDF)) amends 31 U.S.C.   § 5112(n)(2) to remove "In God We Trust" from the edge and adds it to the obverse or reverse (signed December 27, 2007 by George W. Bush, and effective as soon as practical by the Secretary of the Treasury):
    SEC. 623. (a) In General- Section 5112(n)(2) of title 31, United States Code, is amended-- (1) in subparagraph (C)(i)-- (A) by striking 'inscriptions' and inserting 'inscription'; and (B) by striking 'In God We Trust'; and (2) by adding at the end the following new subparagraph: `(F) INSCRIPTION OF 'IN GOD WE TRUST'- The design on the obverse or the reverse shall bear the inscription 'In God We Trust'.'.
  10. "50 State Quarters Program Earned $6.3 Billion in Seigniorage". Coin Update. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  11. Louise L. Roseman, Director, Division of Reserve Bank Operations and Payment Systems Archived 2006-11-17 at the Wayback Machine
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  16. David S Morgan (March 7, 2007). ""Godless" Dollar Coins Slip Through Mint". CBS News. Archived from the original on May 18, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2010.
  17. Walters, Patrick (March 22, 2007). "Collectors report fake 'Godless' dollars". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on October 22, 2007.
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  19. Squires, Chase (March 14, 2007). "Faceless dollar coin found near Denver". The Boston Globe.
  20. " (Defunct)". discussed a variety of actual and rumored minting errors. Archived from the original on April 10, 2007.
  21. 1 2 Wolin, Neal (December 13, 2011). Reducing the Surplus Dollar Coin Inventory, Saving Taxpayer Dollars. Treasury Notes Blog. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  22. Nasaw, Daniel (August 10, 2010). "BBC News - Why the US keeps minting coins people hate and won't use". Retrieved November 3, 2010.
  23. Goldstein, Jacob (July 14, 2011). "Bill Would Kill Dollar Coin Program". NPR. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
  24. U.S. GAO. "U.S. Coins: Replacing the $1 Note with a $1 Coin Would Provide a Financial Benefit to the Government". U.S. GAO. Retrieved August 16, 2011.
  25. Deshishku, Stacia (December 13, 2011). Treasury to stop producing unneeded dollar coins. CNN. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  27. 31 U.S.C.   § 5112(n)(2)(E) :
    No coin issued under this subsection may bear the image of a living former or current president, or of any deceased former president during the 2-year period following the date of the death of that president.
  28. Staff reporter (March 22, 2010). "Legislator calls for Ronald Reagan portrait on $50 FRNs". Coin World. 51 (2606): 73.
  29. 31 U.S.C.   § 5112(n)(8) :
    The issuance of coins under this subsection shall terminate when each president has been so honored, subject to paragraph (2)(E), and may not be resumed except by an Act of Congress.
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  31. Gibbs, William T. "The Presidential dollar series: Failure or success?". Amos Media Company. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  32. Yeoman, R.S.; Bressett, Kenneth; Bowers, Q. David; Garrett, Jeff (2022). A Guide Book of United States Coins. Pelham, Alabama: Whitman Publishing. p. 244.
  33. The United States Mint (March 23, 2010). "The United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Program". Retrieved November 3, 2010.
  34. "The United States Mint" . Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  35. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Staff (1998–2013). "Presidential Dollar Coin Release Schedule". United States Mint. Retrieved December 31, 2013.
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  37. "United States Mint Releases William McKinley Presidential $1 Coin Products February 19" (Press release). United States Mint. February 12, 2013. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  38. "United States Mint to Release Theodore Roosevelt Presidential $1 Coin Products on April 11" (Press release). United States Mint. April 4, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  39. "United States Mint Releases William Howard Taft Presidential $1 Coin Products July 9". US MMint. July 2, 2013. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  40. "Woodrow Wilson Presidential $1 Coin Products Available October 17". US Mint. October 10, 2013. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  41. "United States Mint Set to Release Warren G. Harding Presidential $1 Coin Products Feb. 6". US Mint. January 30, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  42. "United States Mint Set to Release Calvin Coolidge Presidential $1 Coin Products April 10". United States Mint. April 4, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  43. "Herbert Hoover Presidential $1 Coin Available June 19". United States Mint. June 12, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  44. "Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential $1 Coin Product Options Available August 28". United States Mint. August 21, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  45. "Harry S. Trumann Presidential $ 1 Coin Product Options Available February 5".
  46. "United States Mint Begins Accepting Orders for Eisenhower Presidential $1 Coin Products on April 13" (Press release). April 8, 2015. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
  47. "Sales Open for Kennedy Presidential $1 Coin Products on June 18" (Press release). June 11, 2015. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
  48. "Lyndon B. Johnson Presidential $1 Coin Products Go On Sale on Aug. 18" (Press release). August 11, 2015. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
  49. "2016 Richard M. Nixon Presidential $1 Coin Products Go On Sale on Feb. 3" (Press release). January 27, 2016. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
  50. "2016 Gerald R. Ford Presidential $1 Coin Products Go On Sale on March 8" (Press release). March 1, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
  51. "2016 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin & First Spouse Medal Set™ – Ronald Reagan Available on July 5" (Press release). June 28, 2016. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  52. 31 U.S.C.   § 5112(o)(5)(A) says:
    IN GENERAL- The bullion coins issued under this subsection with respect to any spouse of a President shall be issued on the same schedule as the $1 coin issued under subsection (n) with respect to each such President.
  53. U.S. Mint: First Spouse Program. Accessed 2008-06-27. "The United States Mint also produces and make available to the public bronze medal duplicates of the First Spouse Gold Coins."
  54. 1 2 Gilkes, Paul (February 16, 2009). "First Spouse medals set holds Adams mule". Coin World. 50 (2549): 1. Some collectors have begun receiving a First Spouse medal mule - a piece bearing the obverse for Abigail Adams and a reverse intended for the Louisa Adams medal. The mules surfaced in some of the 2007 First Spouse sets …
  55. Yeoman, R.S. (2016). A Guide Book of United States Coins (69th ed.). Atlanta, GA: Whitman Publishing, LLC. pp. 364–368. ISBN   978-0-7948-4305-2.
  56. 1 2 "United States Mint Offers First Spouse Coins" (Press release). United States Mint. May 10, 2007. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  57. "Thomas Jefferson's Liberty First Spouse Gold Coin Available August 30" (Press release). United States Mint. August 13, 2007. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  58. "United States Mint Offers Dolley Madison First Spouse Gold Coins November 19" (Press release). United States Mint. November 15, 2007. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  59. "Elizabeth Monroe First Spouse Gold Coin Available February 28" (Press release). United States Mint. February 27, 2008. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  60. "Louisa Adams First Spouse Coin and Medal Available May 29" (Press release). United States Mint. May 27, 2008. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  61. "Andrew Jackson's Liberty First Spouse Gold Coin and Medal Available August 28" (Press release). United States Mint. August 21, 2008. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  62. "Martin Van Buren's Liberty First Spouse Gold Coin Available November 25" (Press release). United States Mint. November 26, 2008. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  63. "United States Mint Releases Anna Harrison First Spouse Gold Coin March 5" (Press release). United States Mint. February 25, 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  64. "Letitia Tyler First Spouse Gold Coin and Medal Available July 2" (Press release). United States Mint. July 2, 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  65. "Julia Tyler First Spouse Gold Coin and Medal Available August 6" (Press release). United States Mint. July 28, 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  66. "Sarah Polk First Spouse Gold Coin Available September 3" (Press release). United States Mint. September 1, 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  67. "Numismatic Products Featuring First Spouse Margaret Taylor Available December 3 and December 17" (Press release). United States Mint. November 25, 2009. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
  68. "Abigail Fillmore First Spouse Gold Coin and Medal Available March 18" (Press release). United States Mint. March 15, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  69. "United States Mint to Release Jane Pierce First Spouse Bronze Medal Gold Coin and Bronze Medal on June 3" (Press release). United States Mint. May 28, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  70. "James Buchanan's Liberty First Spouse Gold Coin and Medal Available September 2" (Press release). United States Mint. August 30, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  71. "United States Mint Releases Final 2010 First Spouse Gold Coin and Bronze Medal December 2" (Press release). November 24, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  72. "Eliza Johnson First Spouse Gold Coin and Bronze Medal Available May 5" (Press release). April 28, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  73. "United States Mint to Release Julia Grant First Spouse Gold Coin and Bronze Medal June 23" (Press release). June 16, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  74. "Lucy Hayes First Spouse Gold Coin & Bronze Medal Available September 1" (Press release). August 30, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  75. "Lucretia Garfield First Spouse Gold Coin and Bronze Medal Available December 1" (Press release). November 22, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  76. 1 2 Alice Paul is explicitly specified in 31 U.S.C.   § 5112(o)(3)(D)(i)(II)
    as represented, in the case of President Chester Alan Arthur, by a design incorporating the name and likeness of Alice Paul, a leading strategist in the suffrage movement, who was instrumental in gaining women the right to vote upon the adoption of the 19th amendment and thus the ability to participate in the election of future Presidents, and who was born on January 11, 1885, during the term of President Arthur
  77. "United States Mint Launches 2012 First Spouse Gold Coin Series" (Press release). October 2, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  78. "Frances Cleveland (first term) First Spouse Gold Coins Available November 15" (Press release). November 9, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  79. "United States Mint Opens Sales for Caroline Harrison First Spouse Gold Coin December 6" (Press release). November 29, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  80. "United States Mint Opens Sales for Final 2012 Numismatic Products Featuring First Spouse Gold Coins and Bronze Medal" (Press release). December 14, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  81. "United States Mint Set to Release Ida McKinley First Spouse Gold Coin November 14" (Press release). November 7, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  82. "Edith Roosevelt First Spouse Gold Coins Available November 21" (Press release). November 14, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  83. "United States Mint Opens Sales for Helen Taft First Spouse Gold Coins on December 2" (Press release). November 26, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  84. "Ellen Wilson First Spouse Gold Coin Available December 9" (Press release). December 6, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  85. "United States Mint Opens Sales for First Spouse Gold Coin and Bronze Medals December 16" (Press release). December 11, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  86. "United States Mint Set to Release Florence Harding First Spouse Gold Coin July 10" (Press release). July 3, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  87. "Grace Coolidge First Spouse ½ Ounce Gold Coins Go On Sale July 17" (Press release). July 10, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  88. "United States Mint Opens Sales for Lou Hoover First Spouse ½ Ounce Gold Coins August 14" (Press release). August 7, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  89. "United States Mint Opens Sales for Eleanor Roosevelt First Spouse ½ Ounce Gold Coins Sept. 4" (Press release). August 28, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  90. "United States Mint Opens Sales for Bess Truman First Spouse Gold Coins on April 16" (Press release). April 9, 2015. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
  91. "United States Mint Begins Sales of Mamie Eisenhower First Spouse Gold Coins on May 7" (Press release). April 30, 2015. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
  92. "Jacqueline Kennedy First Spouse Gold Coins Available on June 25" (Press release). June 18, 2015. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
  93. "United States Mint Opens Sales for Lady Bird Johnson First Spouse Gold Coins on Aug. 27" (Press release). August 20, 2015. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
  94. "United States Mint Opens Sales for Patricia Nixon First Spouse Gold Coins on Feb. 18" (Press release). February 11, 2016. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  95. "Now Available: 2016 Betty Ford First Spouse Gold Coins". March 25, 2016. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  96. "Nancy Reagan First Spouse Gold Coins Available July 1". June 27, 2016. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  97. "Barbara Bush First Spouse Gold Coin | U.S. Mint". Retrieved February 11, 2021.
Preceded by Dollar coin of the United States
(2007–2016, 2020)
Concurrent with:
Sacagawea dollar
Succeeded by