|Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Cambodia |
| Office of the Prime Minister |
Royal Government of Cambodia
|Status||Head of government|
|Member of|| Council of Ministers |
Council of the Throne
|Reports to||National Assembly|
|Residence||The Peace Palace|
|Appointer||King of Cambodia|
|Term length||Five years, renewable|
|Constituting instrument||Constitution of Cambodia|
|Inaugural holder||Norodom Sihanouk|
|Formation||18 March 1945|
|Deputy||Deputy Prime Minister|
|Salary||KHR3,675,000 , including KHR10,600,000 MP's salary|
|Website||Prime Minister of Cambodia|
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politics and government of
The Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Cambodia (Khmer : នាយករដ្ឋមន្ត្រីនៃព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, French : Premier ministre du Royaume du Cambodge) is the head of government of Cambodia. The prime minister is also the chairman of the Cabinet and leads the executive branch of the Royal Cambodian Government. The prime minister is required to be a member of parliament, and is appointed by the monarch for a term of five years. Since 1945, 36 individuals have served as prime minister.
Khmer or Cambodian is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia. With approximately 16 million speakers, it is the second most widely spoken Austroasiatic language. Khmer has been influenced considerably by Sanskrit and Pali, especially in the royal and religious registers, through Hinduism and Buddhism. The more colloquial registers have influenced, and have been influenced by, Thai, Lao, Vietnamese, and Cham, all of which, due to geographical proximity and long-term cultural contact, form a sprachbund in peninsular Southeast Asia. It is also the earliest recorded and earliest written language of the Mon–Khmer family, predating Mon and by a significant margin Vietnamese, due to Old Khmer being the language of the historical empires of Chenla, Angkor and, presumably, their earlier predecessor state, Funan.
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.
The incumbent prime minister, since 1985, is Hun Sen of the Cambodian People's Party. He served from 1985 to 1993 and was second prime minister from 1993 to 1998. Elected as prime minister in his own right in 1998, he is the longest serving prime minister in Cambodian history.
Hun Sen is a Cambodian politician and the Prime Minister of Cambodia, President of the Cambodian People's Party (CPP) and Member of Parliament (MP) for Kandal. He has served as Prime Minister since 1985, making him the world's second longest-serving prime minister, the longest-serving head of government of Cambodia and one of the longest-serving leaders in the world. From 1979 to 1986 and again from 1987 to 1990, Hun Sen also served as Cambodia's foreign minister. His full honorary title is Samdech Akka Moha Sena Padei Techo Hun Sen. Born Hun Bunal, he changed his name to Hun Sen in 1972 two years after joining the Khmer Rouge.
The Cambodian People's Party, founded as the Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party, is the current ruling political party of Cambodia. It was the sole legal party in the country at the time of the People's Republic of Kampuchea (1979–1989) and during the first two years of the State of Cambodia. Its name was changed during the final years of the State of Cambodia, when the single-party system as well as the Marxist–Leninist ideology were abandoned. Having governed Cambodia since 1979, it is one of the longest-ruling parties in the world. The General Secretary of the party from 1979 to 1981 was Pen Sovan. The KPRP was originally a Marxist–Leninist party, although it took on a more reformist outlook in the mid-1980s under Heng Samrin's leadership. In the 1990s, the KPRP officially dropped its commitment to socialist ideology altogether when it renamed itself the Cambodian People's Party. It is also currently the oldest active party in Cambodia. Since 2018, the party commands all 125 seats in the National Assembly, and 58 of 62 seats in the Senate. Hun Sen, the Prime Minister of Cambodia, has served as the party's President since 2015.
The position was first held by King Norodom Sihanouk in March 1945, during the French colonial administration.Cambodia's first parliamentary elections were held on 1 September 1946. The Democratic Party remained the dominant-party in Cambodian politics throughout the 1940s until the formation of the Sangkum Reastr Niyum in 1955. Sangkum was the dominant-party in Cambodia from 1955 to 1970 following a military coup by General Lon Nol. Until 1993, it was not an elected position. Merely few prime ministers were elected including Sisowath Youtevong, Norodom Sihanouk, and Lon Nol. In 1993, constitutional monarchy was restored in Cambodia. The role of the prime minister was officially recognized in the constitution. The CPP–FUNCINPEC coalition agreement of 1993 marked a brief period in Cambodia where Hun Sen and Prince Norodom Ranariddh were coequal Prime Ministers. The coalition lasted from 2 July until 21 September 1993, when Norodom Ranariddh then became the first democratically elected prime minister and Hun Sen was second prime minister. In 1997 Sen's Cambodian People's Party staged a coup that replaced Ranariddh with Ung Huot for one year until the criticized 1998 election installed Sen as sole prime minister.
Norodom Sihanouk was a Cambodian royal, politician, composer and filmmaker who was twice King and numerous times Prime Minister of Cambodia. In Cambodia, he is also known as Samdech Euv. Until the early years of his rule, his family ruled over the French Protectorate of Cambodia.
The French Protectorate of Cambodia refers to the Kingdom of Cambodia when it was a French protectorate within French Indochina — a collection of Southeast Asian protectorates within the French Colonial Empire. The protectorate was established in 1867 when the Cambodian King Norodom requested the establishment of a French protectorate over his country, meanwhile Siam renounced suzerainty over Cambodia and officially recognised the French protectorate on Cambodia. Cambodia was integrated into the French Indochina union in 1887 along with the French colonies and protectorates in Vietnam. In 1946, Cambodia was granted self-rule within the French Union and had its protectorate status abolished in 1949. Cambodia later gained its independence and the independence day was celebrated on 9 November 1953.
The Democratic Party was a left-leaning, pro-independence political party formed in 1946 by Prince Sisowath Youtevong, who had previously been a member of the French Section of the Workers' International. It was the sole dominant party in Cambodia from 1946 until the creation of Sangkum in 1955.
The prime minister is required to be a member of parliament. He first needs to be elected by a majority of parliament before a swearing-in ceremony can take place. The inauguration of the prime minister takes place at the Royal Palace. The prime minister-designate takes an oath of office in front of the monarch and the two heads of the Thammayut and Mohanikay order. A cabinet will then be unveiled. The formation of a new government takes place no more than 60 days after the election, as defined in the constitution. The prime minister is assisted by deputy prime ministers.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this category includes specifically members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title. Member of Congress is an equivalent term in other jurisdictions.
A deputy prime minister or vice prime minister is, in some countries, a government minister who can take the position of acting prime minister when the prime minister is temporarily absent. The position is often likened to that of a vice president, but is significantly different even though both positions are "number two" offices. The position of deputy prime minister should not be confused with the Canadian Deputy Minister of the Prime Minister of Canada, a nonpolitical civil servant position. Also, the Deputy Prime Minister of Canada does not act as a "number two".
Article 125 of the Constitutionstates that should the prime minister resign or die in office, an acting prime minister is appointed.
The Peace Palace serves as the principal workplace of the prime minister.It was inaugurated on 19 October 2010 by the King. However, the prime minister resides at his own private residence.
The Peace Palace, also known as the Office of the Prime Minister of Cambodia, is the principal workplace of the Prime Minister of Cambodia. It is located in Phnom Penh. The building was officially inaugurated by King Norodom Sihamoni on 19 October 2010. Its overall cost was US$50 million. Aside from being the office of the Prime Minister, the Peace Palace has also chaired the East Asia Summit in 2012 and many other meetings with foreign leaders.
The powers of the Prime Minister are established by the current Constitution of Cambodia, adopted on 24 September 1993 and amended on 4 March 1999.They are defined by the following articles of the Constitution:
The Deputy Prime Minister (Khmer : ឧបនាយករដ្ឋមន្ត្រី) serves as the deputy to the Prime Minister of Cambodia and is the second highest position in the Cabinet. As of September 2018, there are 10 deputy prime ministers.
|Name||Incumbent since||Other offices||Party|
|Sar Kheng||3 February 1992||Minister of Interior||Cambodian People's Party|
|Hor Namhong||16 July 2004||none||Cambodian People's Party|
|Tea Banh||16 July 2004||Minister of National Defense||Cambodian People's Party|
|Bin Chhin||5 September 2007||Minister in Charge of the Office of the Council of Ministers||Cambodian People's Party|
|Yim Chhaily||25 September 2008||none||Cambodian People's Party|
|Men Sam An||25 September 2008||Minister of National Assembly-Senate Relations and Inspection||Cambodian People's Party|
|Ke Kim Yan||12 March 2009||none||Cambodian People's Party|
|Prak Sokhonn||6 September 2018||Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation||Cambodian People's Party|
|Aun Pornmoniroth||6 September 2018||Minister of Economy and Finance||Cambodian People's Party|
|Chea Sophara||6 September 2018||Minister of Land Management, Urban Planning and Construction||Cambodian People's Party|
|No.||Portrait||Name||Term of Office||Political Party||Term|
|Took Office||Left Office||Time in Office|
|1|| Norodom Ranariddh |
First Prime Minister
|2 July 1993||6 August 1997||4 years, 35 days||FUNCINPEC||1(1993)|
|2|| Hun Sen |
Second Prime Minister
|24 September 1993||30 November 1998||5 years, 67 days||Cambodian People's Party|
|3|| Ung Huot |
First Prime Minister
|6 August 1997||30 November 1998||1 year, 116 days||FUNCINPEC|
|(2)|| Hun Sen |
|30 November 1998||Incumbent||20 years, 126 days||Cambodian People's Party||2(1998)|
As of April2019, there are four living former prime ministers, as shown below. The most recent death of a former Prime Minister was that of Pen Sovan on 29 October 2016, aged 80.
The politics of Cambodia are defined within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, in which the King serves as the head of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. The collapse of communism set in motion events that led to the withdrawal of the Vietnamese armed forces, which had established their presence in the country since the fall of the Khmer Rouge. The 1993 constitution, which is currently in force, was promulgated as a result of the 1991 Paris Peace Agreements, followed by elections organized under the aegis of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia. The constitution proclaims a liberal, multiparty democracy in which powers are devolved to the executive, the judiciary and the legislature. Furthermore, the governing charter declares Cambodia to be an "independent, sovereign, peaceful, permanently neutral and non-aligned State."
The constructive vote of no confidence is a variation on the motion of no confidence that allows a parliament to withdraw confidence from a head of government only if there is a positive majority for a prospective successor. The principle is intended to ensure that a replacement head of government has enough parliamentary support to govern.
The Prime Minister of the Government of Romania is the head of the Government of Romania. Initially, the office was styled President of the Council of Ministers, when the term "Government" included more than the Cabinet, and the Cabinet was called The Council of Ministers. The title was officially changed to Prime Minister by the 1965 Constitution of Romania during the communist regime.
After the fall of the Pol Pot regime of Democratic Kampuchea, Cambodia was under Vietnamese occupation and a pro-Hanoi government, the People's Republic of Kampuchea was established. A civil war raged during the 1980s opposing the government's Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Armed Forces against the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea, a government in exile composed of three Cambodian political factions: Prince Norodom Sihanouk's Funcinpec party, the Party of Democratic Kampuchea and the Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF).
FUNCINPEC, National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful and Cooperative Cambodia in English, is a royalist political party in Cambodia. Founded in 1981 by Norodom Sihanouk, it started off as a resistance movement against the People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK) government. In 1982, it formed a resistance pact, the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK), together with the Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) and the Khmer Rouge. It was one of the signatory parties of the 1991 Paris Peace Accords, which paved the way for the formation of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC). In 1992, FUNCINPEC became a political party and participated in the 1993 general elections organised by UNTAC. It won the elections, and formed a coalition government with the Cambodian People's Party (CPP), with which it jointly headed. Norodom Ranariddh, Sihanouk's son who had succeeded him as the party president, became First Prime Minister while Hun Sen, who was from the CPP, became Second Prime Minister.
The Parliament of Pakistan is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan. It is a bicameral federal legislature that consists of the Senate as the upper house and the National Assembly, as the lower house. According to the constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the President of Pakistan is also a component of the Parliament. The National Assembly is elected for a five-year term on the basis of adult franchise and one-man one-vote. The tenure of a Member of the National Assembly is for the duration of the house, or sooner, in case the Member dies or resigns. The tenure of the National Assembly also comes to an end if dissolved on the advice of the Prime Minister or by the president in his discretion under the Constitution.
Norodom Ranariddh is a Cambodian royal politician and law academic. He is the second son of Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia and a half-brother of the current king, Norodom Sihamoni. Ranariddh is the president of FUNCINPEC, a Cambodian royalist party. He was also the First Prime Minister of Cambodia following the restoration of the monarchy, serving between 1993 and 1997, and subsequently as the President of the National Assembly between 1998 and 2006.
Norodom Sihamoni is the King of Cambodia. He became King on 14 October 2004, a week after the abdication of King Norodom Sihanouk. He is the eldest son of King Sihanouk and Queen Norodom Monineath. He was Cambodia's ambassador to UNESCO and named by a nine-member throne council to become the next king after his father Norodom Sihanouk abdicated in 2004. Before ascending the throne, Sihamoni was educated in the Czech Republic and was best known for his work as a cultural ambassador in Europe and as a classical dance instructor.
Chea Sim was a Cambodian politician. He was President of the Cambodian People's Party from 1991 to 2015, President of the National Assembly of Cambodia from 1981 to 1998 and President of the Senate from 1999 to 2015. His official title was Samdach Akeak Moha Thomak Pothisal Chea Sim, Protean Protsaphea ney Preah Reacheanachak Kampuchea.
The King of Cambodia is the head of state of the Kingdom of Cambodia. The King's power is limited to that of a symbolic figurehead to whom people are to give love and respect. The monarch also represents peace, stability, and prosperity to the Khmer people. Since 1993, the King of Cambodia is an elected monarch, making Cambodia one of the few elective monarchies of the world. The king is elected for life from among the members of the Norodom and Sisowath bloodline who are at least 30 years old by the Royal Council of the Throne, which consists of several senior political and religious figures.
Norodom Chakrapong is a Cambodian royal politician, businessman and former major-general of the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces. He is the fourth son of Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia and also a half-brother of the current king, Norodom Sihamoni. Chakrapong started his career as a military pilot in 1963. After Sihanouk was overthrown in 1970, Chakrapong spent time under house arrest, then in Beijing as the Head of Protocol of then-Prince Sihanouk, afterwards living overseas before he joined the Funcinpec in 1981 and fought against Vietnamese occupation as a commander of the Armée Nationale Sihanoukiste. In 1991, Chakrapong left Funcinpec to join the Cambodian People's Party (CPP) and served as the Deputy Prime Minister of Cambodia between 1992 and 1993. When the CPP lost the 1993 general elections, Chakrapong led a secession attempt in 1993. In 1994, he was accused of joining a failed coup attempt which led him to be sent into exile. After Chakrapong was pardoned in 1998, he founded a private airline company, Royal Phnom Penh Airways. The airlines later stopped all operations in early 2006.
Sam Rainsy is a Cambodian activist and politician who most recently served as the Leader of the Opposition. He is now the president of the Cambodia National Rescue Movement (CNRM), launched in January 2018. He was a Member of Parliament (MP) for Kampong Cham, first from 1998 until 2005, then from 2008 to 2011, and finally from 2014 until 2015; he has been revoked of parliamentary immunity three times. He was previously the MP for Siem Reap from 1993 until 1995 when he was expelled from the Constituent Assembly. A co-founder of the Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP), Rainsy was previously a member of the royalist Funcinpec Party and served as the Minister of Economy and Finance during Norodom Ranariddh's administration from 1993 until his sacking in 1994. In June 1995, he was expelled from the National Assembly, and formed the Khmer Nation Party (KNP), which changed its name before the 1998 elections to the Sam Rainsy Party (SRP) to avoid registration issues. From 2000 to 2002 and again from 2012 to 2014, Rainsy was the chairperson of the Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats.
Sar Kheng is a Cambodian politician. One of the highest-ranking members of the ruling Cambodian People's Party, he is the current Minister of the Interior and has served as a Deputy Prime Minister since 1992. He also represents the province of Battambang in the Cambodian Parliament. Kheng has been the Minister of the Interior since 1992. Until March 2006, he shared the position with FUNCINPEC party member You Hockry as co-Ministers of the Interior, but then became sole interior minister in a cabinet reshuffle as FUNCINPEC ended its coalition with the CPP. He is currently the second longest serving government minister of Cambodia after Prime Minister Hun Sen. On June 14, 2015, King Norodom Sihamoni awarded Kheng the honorary title of "Samdech". His official title is "Samdech Kralahom Sar Kheng". Kheng is married to Nhem Sakhan with whom he has three children.
The Senate is the upper house of the Parliament of Cambodia. It is a legislative body composed of 62 members. Fifty-eight of the Senate seats are elected every six years by the commune councillors from 24 provinces of Cambodia and members of the National Assembly. In addition, the King nominates two Senators, and the National Assembly nominates two, ending with a total of 62 Senators. The Senate performs its duties as determined in the constitution and law in force. The Senate is chaired and presided by the President, currently Say Chhum of the Cambodian People's Party and assisted by two Vice Presidents.
The National Assembly is one of the two houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Cambodia. It is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being referred to as the upper house.
The National Assembly of Thailand is the bicameral legislative branch of the government of Thailand. It convenes in the Parliament House, Dusit District, Bangkok.
Chau Sen Cocsal, also known as "Chhum", was a Cambodian civil servant and politician who served as interim Prime Minister of Cambodia in 1962 and President of the National Assembly twice, in 1962–63 and 1966–68. He lived for 103 years, 143 days, making him the oldest-lived state leader in the world with the known date of birth and death. The only leader possibly longer living than him is another Cambodian Prime Minister, Ek Yi Oun (1910–2013). Chhum was awarded the honorary title "Samdech" in 1993 by King Norodom Sihanouk.
The Cabinet of Cambodia, officially known as the Council of Ministers, is the executive body of the Kingdom of Cambodia led by the Prime Minister, assisted by Deputy Prime Ministers, Senior Ministers, Ministers, and Secretaries of State. Members of the Cabinet are nominated by the Prime Minister and appointed by the Monarch.
The Royal Council of the Throne of Cambodia is a nine-member council of Cambodia responsible for selecting the Cambodian monarch. It was established by the constitution on 24 September 1993. The nine members of the council include the Prime Minister, President of the National Assembly, President of the Senate, First and Second Vice Presidents of the National Assembly, First and Second Vice Presidents of the Senate, and the two heads of the order of Mahanikay and Thammayut. The council was active only in October 2004 when it named Norodom Sihamoni as the new king. The voting is conducted through a secret ballot by the nine members.
Prime Minister gets salary and other allowances equal to 3,675,000 Riels about USD 918...
A lawmaker with no committee responsibilities takes home a $975 salary, but allowances (including $500 for gasoline) boost the figure to $2,650.