Prime Minister of Hungary

Last updated
Prime Minister of Hungary
Magyarország miniszterelnöke
Coat of Arms of Hungary (oak and olive branches).svg
Viktor Orban Tallinn Digital Summit.jpg
Incumbent
Viktor Orbán

since 29 May 2010
Style Mr. Prime Minister (informal)
His Excellency (diplomatic)
Member of
Reports to National Assembly
Seat Carmelite Monastery (Budapest, Színház Street 5-7)
Nominator President of Hungary
AppointerElected by National Assembly
Term length Four years, no term limit
Inaugural holder Count Lajos Batthyány
Formation17 March 1848
Deputy Deputy Prime Minister
Salary115,206 USD annually, including MP's salary [2]
Website The Prime Minister's Office

The prime minister of Hungary (Hungarian : miniszterelnök) is the head of government in Hungary. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Parliament, to their political party and ultimately to the electorate. The current holder of the office is Viktor Orbán, leader of the Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Alliance, who has served since 29 May 2010. [3]

Contents

According to the Hungarian Constitution, the Prime Minister is nominated by the President of Hungary and formally elected by the National Assembly. Constitutionally, the President is required to nominate the leader of the political party who wins a majority of seats in the National Assembly as Prime Minister. [4] If there is no party with a majority, the President holds an audience with the leaders of all parties represented in the Assembly and nominates the person who is most likely to command a majority in the Assembly, who is then formally elected by a simple majority of the Assembly. In practice, when this situation occurs, the Prime Minister is the leader of the party winning a plurality of votes in the election, or the leader of the senior partner in the governing coalition. The Prime Minister has a leading role in the executive branch in accordance with the Hungarian Constitution, which vests him with the power to "define the general policy of the Government." The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them. Cabinet nominees appear before one or more parliamentary committees in consultative open hearings. They must then survive a vote by Parliament and be formally approved by the President.

Official title

The title of Hungary's head of government in Hungarian is miniszterelnök. Literally translated, this means "Minister-President". However, since "Prime minister" or "premier" is the more usual title in a parliamentary system for a head of government in English-speaking nations, the title is translated as "Prime Minister" by most English sources.

History of the office

Portrait of Count Lajos Batthyany by Miklos Barabas, 1848. He was appointed as Hungary's first Prime Minister. Barabas-batthyany.jpg
Portrait of Count Lajos Batthyány by Miklós Barabás, 1848. He was appointed as Hungary's first Prime Minister.

Palatine of Hungary

The palatine (Latin : comes palatii, comes palatinus, later palatinus (regni), Hungarian : nádorispán/ nádor, Slovak : nádvorný župan/ nádvorný špán, later: palatín / nádvorník, German : Palatin) was the highest dignitary in the Kingdom of Hungary after the king (a kind of powerful Prime Minister and supreme judge) from the kingdom's rise up to 1848/1918.

Initially, he was in fact the representative of the king, later the vice-regent (viceroy). In the early centuries of the kingdom, he was appointed by the king, later elected by the Diet of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Habsburgs solidified their hold of Hungary, the dignity became an appointed position once again. Finally, it became hereditary in a cadet (junior) branch of the Habsburg dynasty after King Francis appointed his brother Joseph.

Creation of the position

During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 the revolutionaries wanted the creation of a Hungarian cabinet which would be independent from the Austrian Empire and the Buda Chancellery (which was office of the Imperial Governor-General). One of the 12 points said: 2. A responsible government in Buda-Pest.

Ferdinand V appointed Count Lajos Batthyány for the position of Prime Minister of Hungary on 17 March 1848. The government was called ministry, differently from the current acceptation. The ministries were called departments. Batthyány resigned on October 2, 1848 he was succeeded by Lajos Kossuth as President of the Committee of National Defence. This executive body has not been allocated the portfolios. In April 1849, when the Hungarians had won many successes, after sounding the army, Kossuth issued the celebrated Hungarian Declaration of Independence. In May Bertalan Szemere was appointed Prime Minister. The position was vacant after the defeat of the freedom fight.

List of officeholders

Living former prime ministers

As of June2021, 5 former prime ministers of Hungary are alive. Viktor Orbán, who served as Prime Minister from 1998 to 2002, is currently serving and thus is not included on this list.

NameTerm of officeDate of birth
Miklós Németh 1988199024 January 1948 (age 73)
Péter Boross 1993199427 August 1928 (age 92)
Péter Medgyessy 2002200419 October 1942 (age 78)
Ferenc Gyurcsány 200420094 June 1961 (age 60)
Gordon Bajnai 200920105 March 1968 (age 53)

See also

Related Research Articles

Lajos Kossuth Hungarian politician and orator

Lajos Kossuth de Udvard et Kossuthfalva was a Hungarian nobleman, lawyer, journalist, politician, statesman and Governor-President of the Kingdom of Hungary during the revolution of 1848–49.

A minister-president or minister president is the head of government in a number of European countries or subnational governments with a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government where they preside over the council of ministers. It is an alternative term for prime minister, premier, chief minister, or first minister and very similar to the title of president of the council of ministers.

Josip Jelačić Ban of Croatia between 1848 and 1859

Count Josip Jelačić von Bužim was a Croatian lieutenant field marshal in a Imperial-Royal Army and politician, the Ban of Croatia between 23 March 1848 and 19 April 1859. He was a member of the House of Jelačić and a noted army general, remembered for his military campaigns during the Revolutions of 1848 and for his abolition of serfdom in Croatia.

Viktor Orbán Hungarian politician, chairman of Fidesz; Prime Minister of Hungary (2010-present)

Viktor Mihály Orbán is a Hungarian politician who has been Prime Minister of Hungary since 2010; he was also Prime Minister from 1998 to 2002. He has also been President of Fidesz, a national conservative political party, since 1993, with a brief break between 2000 and 2003. Under his control it became the most centralized, most homogeneous and most disciplined party in contemporary Hungary. He supervises communications, long-term planning, daily operations, policy direction, and selection of candidates.

Lajos Batthyány Hungarian politician

Count Lajos Batthyány de Németújvár was the first Prime Minister of Hungary. He was born in Pozsony on 10 February 1807, and was executed by firing squad in Pest on 6 October 1849, the same day as the 13 Martyrs of Arad.

Péter Boross Hungarian politician

Péter Boross is a Hungarian politician, former member of the Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF), who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from December 1993 to July 1994. He assumed the position upon the death of his predecessor, József Antall, and held the office until his right-wing coalition was defeated in election by the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP), which was led by his successor Gyula Horn. Prior to his premiership, Boross functioned as Minister of Civilian Intelligence Services (1990) and Minister of the Interior (1990–1993). He was also a Member of Parliament from 1994 to 1998 and from 2006 to 2009.

Kossuth Memorial

Kossuth Memorial refers to one of three public monuments dedicated to former Hungarian Regent-President Lajos Kossuth in front of the Hungarian Parliament Building on Lajos Kossuth Square in Budapest. The memorial is an important Hungarian national symbol and scene of official celebrations.

The 13 Martyrs of Arad

The Thirteen Martyrs of Arad were the thirteen Hungarian rebel generals who were executed by the Austrian Empire on 6 October 1849 in the city of Arad, then part of the Kingdom of Hungary, after the Hungarian Revolution (1848–1849). The execution was ordered by the Austrian general Julius Jacob von Haynau.

Hungarian Revolution of 1848 European Revolution of 1848

The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 or fully Hungarian Civic Revolution and War of Independence of 1848–1849 was one of many European Revolutions of 1848 and was closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas. Although the revolution failed, it is one of the most significant events in Hungary's modern history, forming a cornerstone of modern Hungarian national identity.

The Government of Hungary exercises executive power in Hungary. It is led by the Prime Minister, and is composed of various ministers. It is the principal organ of public administration. The Prime Minister (miniszterelnök) is elected by the National Assembly and serves as the head of government and exercises executive power. The Prime Minister is the leader of the party with the most seats in parliament. The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them. Cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary committees, survive a vote in the National Assembly, and be formally approved by the President. The cabinet is responsible to the parliament.

Ádám Récsey Hungarian politician

Baron Ádám Récsey de Récse was a Hungarian general, joined the army of Habsburg Monarchy, and briefly a politician who was appointed illegally as the Prime Minister of Hungary by King Ferdinand V during the Revolution of 1848, serving in this capacity from 3 October to 7 October 1848. Récsey countersigned his own appointment, neglecting the Diet of Hungary. He resigned when an uprising broke out in Vienna in the effects of the Hungarian Revolution. He was the only Hungarian Prime Minister, who was born in the 18th century.

Mór Perczel

Sir Mór Perczel de Bonyhád, was a Hungarian landholder, general, and one of the leaders of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.

Records of prime ministers of Hungary

Records of prime ministers of Hungary from 1848 to the present.

Dénes Pázmándy (1816–1856)

Dénes Pázmándy de Szomor et Somodor was a Hungarian landowner and politician, who served as Speaker of the House of Representatives between 1848 and 1849.

László Csány

László Csány was a Hungarian politician, who served as Minister of Public Works and Transport in 1849. He is a martyr of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.

János Halász (politician) Hungarian politician

János Halász is a Hungarian politician, member of the National Assembly (MP) for Debrecen between 1998 and 2014. He was elected MP from his party, Fidesz's national list in 2014. He served as Parliamentary State Secretary in the Ministry of Human Resources between 2010 and 2013. He served as State Secretary for Culture between 28 February 2013 and 5 June 2014.

2018 Hungarian parliamentary election

The 2018 Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 8 April 2018. This parliamentary election was the eighth since the 1990 first multi-party election and the second since the adoption of a new Constitution of Hungary which came into force on 1 January 2012. The result was a victory for the Fidesz–KDNP alliance, preserving its two-thirds majority, with Viktor Orbán remaining Prime Minister. Orbán and Fidesz campaigned primarily on the issues of immigration and foreign meddling, and the election was seen as a victory for right-wing populism in Europe.

2017 Hungarian presidential election

An indirect presidential election was held in Hungary on 13 March 2017. János Áder was elected President of Hungary for a second term.

The Opposition Party was a political party that came to prominence during the 1848–49 revolution in Hungary.

References

  1. "2011. évi CCII. törvény Magyarország címerének és zászlajának használatáról, valamint állami kitüntetéseiről" [Act CCII of 2011 on the Use of the Coat of Arms and Flag of Hungary and on State Awards]. CompLex Hatályos Jogszabályok Gyűjteménye (in Hungarian). Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  2. https://index.hu/belfold/2021/05/29/orban-viktor-ber-es-fizetes-jarvany-illetmeny-novekedes/.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. "Members of the Government" . Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  4. "The Fundamental Law of Hungary (English)" (PDF). Hungarian State. Retrieved 8 May 2017.