Prime Minister of Hungary

Last updated
Prime Minister of Hungary
Magyarország miniszterelnöke
Coat of Arms of Hungary (oak and olive branches).svg
Viktor Orban Tallinn Digital Summit.jpg
Incumbent
Viktor Orbán

since 29 May 2010
Style Mr. Prime Minister (informal)
His Excellency (diplomatic)
Member of
Reports to National Assembly
Seat Carmelite Monastery (Budapest, Színház Street 5-7)
Nominator President of Hungary
AppointerElected by National Assembly
Term length Four years, no term limit
Inaugural holder Count Lajos Batthyány
Formation17 March 1848
Deputy Deputy Prime Minister
Salary4 823 000 Ft monthly [2]
Website The Prime Minister's Office https://www.miniszterelnok.hu/

The prime minister of Hungary (Hungarian : Magyarország miniszterelnöke) is the head of government of Hungary. The prime minister and the Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Parliament, to their political party and ultimately to the electorate. The current holder of the office is Viktor Orbán, leader of the Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Alliance, who has served since 29 May 2010. [3]

Contents

According to the Hungarian Constitution, the prime minister is nominated by the president of Hungary and formally elected by the National Assembly. Constitutionally, the president is required to nominate the leader of the political party who wins a majority of seats in the National Assembly as prime minister. [4] If there is no party with a majority, the president holds an audience with the leaders of all parties represented in the assembly and nominates the person who is most likely to command a majority in the assembly, who is then formally elected by a simple majority of the assembly. In practice, when this situation occurs, the prime minister is the leader of the party winning a plurality of votes in the election, or the leader of the senior partner in the governing coalition.

Official title

The title of Hungary's head of government in Hungarian is miniszterelnök. Literally translated, this means "minister-president". However, since "prime minister" or "premier" is the more usual title in a parliamentary system for a head of government in English-speaking nations, the title is translated as "prime minister" by most English sources.

History of the office

Portrait of Count Lajos Batthyany by Miklos Barabas, 1848. He was appointed as Hungary's first Prime Minister. Barabas-batthyany.jpg
Portrait of Count Lajos Batthyány by Miklós Barabás, 1848. He was appointed as Hungary's first Prime Minister.

Palatine of Hungary

The palatine (Latin : comes palatii, comes palatinus, later palatinus (regni), Hungarian : nádorispán/nádor, Slovak : nádvorný župan / nádvorný špán, later: palatín/nádvorník, German : Palatin) was the highest dignitary in the Kingdom of Hungary after the king (a kind of powerful Prime Minister and supreme judge) from the kingdom's rise up to 1848/1918.

Initially, he was in fact the representative of the king, later the vice-regent (viceroy). In the early centuries of the kingdom, he was appointed by the king, later elected by the Diet of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Habsburgs solidified their hold of Hungary, the dignity became an appointed position once again. Finally, it became hereditary in a cadet (junior) branch of the Habsburg dynasty after King Francis appointed his brother Joseph.

Creation of the position

During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 the revolutionaries wanted the creation of a Hungarian cabinet which would be independent from the Austrian Empire and the Buda Chancellery (which was office of the imperial governor-general). One of the 12 points said: 2. A responsible government in Buda-Pest.

Ferdinand V appointed Count Lajos Batthyány for the position of prime minister of Hungary on 17 March 1848. The government was called ministry, differently from the current acceptation. The ministries were called departments. The position was vacant after the defeat of the freedom fight.

List of officeholders

Living former prime ministers

As of September2022, five former prime ministers of Hungary are alive. Viktor Orbán, who served as prime minister from 1998 to 2002, is currently serving and thus is not included on this list.

NameTerm of officeDate of birth
Miklós Németh 1988199024 January 1948 (age 74)
Péter Boross 1993199427 August 1928 (age 94)
Péter Medgyessy 2002200419 October 1942 (age 79)
Ferenc Gyurcsány 200420094 June 1961 (age 61)
Gordon Bajnai 200920105 March 1968 (age 54)

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chancellor of Austria</span> Head of government of the Republic of Austria

The chancellor of the Republic of Austria is the head of government of the Republic of Austria. The position corresponds to that of Prime Minister in several other parliamentary democracies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fidesz</span> Political party in Hungary

Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Alliance is a right-wing populist and national-conservative political party in Hungary, led by Viktor Orbán.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Viktor Orbán</span> Prime Minister of Hungary (1998–2002; 2010–present)

Viktor Mihály Orbán is a Hungarian politician who has served as prime minister of Hungary since 2010, previously holding the office from 1998 to 2002. He has presided over Fidesz since 1993, with a brief break between 2000 and 2003. His tenure has seen Hungary government shift towards what he has called "illiberal democracy" — citing countries such as China, Russia, India, Singapore, and Turkey as models of governance — while simultaneously promoting anti-Americanism, Euroscepticism, and opposition to Western democracy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Palatine of Hungary</span> Highest-ranking office in the Kingdom of Hungary from the 11th century to 1848

The Palatine of Hungary was the highest-ranking office in the Kingdom of Hungary from the beginning of the 11th century to 1848. Initially, Palatines were representatives of the monarchs, later the vice-regent (viceroy). In the early centuries of the kingdom, they were appointed by the king, and later were elected by the Diet of the Kingdom of Hungary. A Palatine's jurisdiction included only Hungary proper, in the Kingdom of Croatia until 1918 the ban held similar function as the highest office in the Kingdom, monarch's representative, commander of the royal army and viceroy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Péter Boross</span> Hungarian politician

Péter Boross is a retired Hungarian politician and former member of the Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from December 1993 to July 1994. He assumed the position upon the death of his predecessor, József Antall, and held the office until his right-wing coalition was defeated in election by the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP), which was led by his successor Gyula Horn. Prior to his premiership, Boross functioned as Minister of Civilian Intelligence Services (1990) and Minister of the Interior (1990–1993). He was also a Member of Parliament from 1994 to 1998 and from 2006 to 2009.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">György Lázár</span> Hungarian politician

György Lázár was a Hungarian Communist politician who served as Chairman of the Council of Ministers from 1975 to 1987. He retired from politics in 1988.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hungarian Revolution of 1848</span> European Revolution of 1848

The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 or fully Hungarian Civic Revolution and War of Independence of 1848–1849 was one of many European Revolutions of 1848 and was closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas. Although the revolution failed, it is one of the most significant events in Hungary's modern history, forming the cornerstone of modern Hungarian national identity.

The Government of Hungary exercises executive power in Hungary. It is led by the Prime Minister, and is composed of various ministers. It is the principal organ of public administration. The Prime Minister (miniszterelnök) is elected by the National Assembly and serves as the head of government and exercises executive power. The Prime Minister is the leader of the party with the most seats in parliament. The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them. Cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary committees, survive a vote in the National Assembly, and be formally approved by the President. The cabinet is responsible to the parliament.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Péter Szijjártó</span> Hungarian politician

Péter Szijjártó is a Hungarian politician who has been Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade since 2014. He previously served as Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade and Parliamentary State Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. In June 2012, he was appointed to State Secretary for Foreign Affairs and External Economic Relations of the Prime Minister's Office.

Hungary in its modern (post-1946) borders roughly corresponds to the Great Hungarian Plain. During the Iron Age, it was located at the crossroads between the cultural spheres of the Celtic tribes, Dalmatian tribes and the Germanic tribes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zsolt Semjén</span> Hungarian politician

Zsolt Semjén is a Hungarian politician, minister without portfolio and Deputy Prime Minister in the second, third and fourth cabinets of Prime Minister Viktor Orbán. Semjén has been the leader of the Christian Democratic People's Party (KDNP) since 2003, which formed a coalition and alliance with Fidesz.

2012 Hungarian presidential election

An early indirect presidential election was held in Hungary on 2 May 2012, following the resignation of Pál Schmitt as President of Hungary on 2 April 2012. János Áder was elected president with an absolute majority.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2018 Hungarian parliamentary election</span> Parliamentary election in Hungary

The 2018 Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 8 April 2018. This parliamentary election was the eighth since the 1990 first multi-party election and the second since the adoption of a new Constitution of Hungary which came into force on 1 January 2012. The result was a victory for the Fidesz–KDNP alliance, preserving its two-thirds majority, with Viktor Orbán remaining Prime Minister. Orbán and Fidesz campaigned primarily on the issues of immigration and foreign meddling, and the election was seen as a victory for right-wing populism in Europe.

2017 Hungarian presidential election

An indirect presidential election was held in Hungary on 13 March 2017. János Áder was elected President of Hungary for a second term.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2022 Hungarian parliamentary election</span> Parliamentary election in Hungary

Parliamentary elections were held in Hungary on 3 April 2022 to elect the National Assembly, coinciding with a referendum.

First Orbán Government Hungarian government

The First Orbán Government was the fourth democraticly elected government in Hungary after the regime change. It existed between 1998 and 2002. Its creation was made possible by the FKgP: the party withdrew 82 candidates in the second round of the election, so FKgP voters voted for the local Fidesz candidate instead, thus reversing the election result. Due to the resignations in the Parliament afterwards, the votes of the way smaller but still large number of 48 smallholder representatives were essential for the formation of the government. The governmental relationship between the two parties was formed by the coalition agreement developed by the negotiating delegations, led by László Kövér and Béla Szabadi. The coalition government consisted of three parties: Fidesz, FKgP and MDF. The latter was introduced to the Parliament with the help of Fidesz. Prime Minister Viktor Orbán took his oath of office on July 6, 1998, and his ministers took office on July 8, two days later. The coalition was dissolved in 2001, if not formally, but on its merits: the coalition agreement virtually expired. The FKgP could not even recall Imre Boros, even though the right to nominate belonged to the party. From the moment that József Torgyán, the chairman of the FKgP, was forced to resign as a minister because of his son's so called "cassette case", although he was able to retain his position within the party, but his position weakened considerably: his party faction expelled the party chairman from the group with votes from Fidesz supporters and in violation of house rules. He assured the government of the support of five members who had previously been expelled or separated from the smallholder faction, leaving a majority in the National Assembly for a time. At the same time, the government received external support from MIÉP.

2022 Hungarian presidential election

An indirect presidential election was held in Hungary on 10 March 2022. Katalin Novák became the first female President of Hungary after winning an absolute majority.

Events in the year 2022 in Hungary.

References

  1. "2011. évi CCII. törvény Magyarország címerének és zászlajának használatáról, valamint állami kitüntetéseiről" [Act CCII of 2011 on the Use of the Coat of Arms and Flag of Hungary and on State Awards]. CompLex Hatályos Jogszabályok Gyűjteménye (in Hungarian) via net.jogtar.hu.
  2. Nagy Máté (10 Sep 2022). "Így változott Orbán Viktor fizetése 2010 óta". Index (in Hungarian). Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  3. "Members of the Government". Website of the Hungarian Government. Archived from the original on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  4. The Fundamental Law of Hungary (PDF) via Nemzeti Jogszabálytár.