Prime Minister of Malaysia

Last updated

Prime Minister of Malaysia
Perdana Menteri Malaysia
ڤردان منتري مليسيا
Coat of arms of Malaysia.svg
Office-of-Prime-Minister-Of-Malaysia.png
Emblem of the Prime Minister's Office
PM Kishida meeting with PM Ibrahim of Malaysia (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Anwar Ibrahim
since 24 November 2022
Government of Malaysia
Prime Minister's Department
Style Prime Minister
(informal)
Yang Amat Berhormat
(formal)
The Right Honourable
(within the Commonwealth)
His Excellency
(diplomatic)
Member of
Reports to Parliament
Residence Seri Perdana, Putrajaya
Seat Perdana Putra, Putrajaya
Appointer Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Term length Five years, renewable
Constituting instrument Constitution of Malaysia
Inaugural holder Tunku Abdul Rahman
Formation31 August 1957;66 years ago (1957-08-31)
Salary RM22,826.65/US$ 5,106 per month [1]
Website www.pmo.gov.my

The prime ministerof Malaysia (Malay : Perdana Menteri Malaysia; Jawi : ڤردان منتري مليسيا) is the head of government of Malaysia. The prime minister directs the executive branch of the federal government. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints the prime minister as a member of Parliament (MP) who, in his opinion, is most likely to command the confidence of a majority of MPs. This person is usually the leader of the party winning the most seats in a general election.

Contents

After the formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963, Tunku Abdul Rahman, the chief minister of the Federation of Malaya, became the first prime minister of Malaysia.

Appointment

The prime minister's office at Perdana Putra, Putrajaya Perdana Putra building 2005.jpg
The prime minister's office at Perdana Putra, Putrajaya

According to the Federal Constitution, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall first appoint a prime minister to preside over the Cabinet. The prime minister is to be a member of the Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives), and who in his majesty's judgment is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of that House. This person must be a Malaysian citizen, but cannot have obtained their citizenship by means of naturalisation or registration. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall appoint other ministers from either the Dewan Rakyat or Dewan Negara (Senate) with the prime minister's advice.

The prime minister and his cabinet ministers must take and subscribe to the oath of office and allegiance as well as the oath of secrecy in the presence of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong before they can exercise functions of office. The Cabinet is collectively accountable to the Parliament of Malaysia. The members of the Cabinet shall not hold any office of profit and engage in any trade, business or profession that will cause a conflict of interest. The Prime Minister's Department (sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister's Office) is the body and ministry in which the prime minister exercises his/her functions and powers.

In the case where a government cannot get its appropriation (budget) legislation passed by the House of Representatives, or when the House passes a vote of "no confidence" in the government, the prime minister is bound by convention to resign immediately. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong's choice of replacement prime minister will be dictated by the circumstances. All other ministers shall continue to hold office by the pleasure of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, unless if the appointment of any minister is revoked by his majesty upon the advice of the prime minister. Any minister may resign his office.

Following a resignation in other circumstances, defeat in an election, or the death of a prime minister, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong would generally appoint as the new leader of the governing party or coalition as new Prime Minister.

Malaysia uses first-past-the-post-voting system, which means a party or coalition who gets 112 seats in lower house will lead the government. [2]

Powers

The power of the prime minister is subject to a number of limitations. Prime ministers removed as leader of his or her party, or whose government loses a vote of no confidence in the House of Representatives, must advise a new election of the lower house or resign the office. The defeat of a supply bill (one that concerns the spending of money) or unable to pass important policy-related legislation is seen to require the resignation of the government or dissolution of Parliament, much like a non-confidence vote, since a government that cannot spend money is hamstrung, also called loss of supply.

The prime minister's party will normally have a majority in the House of Representatives and party discipline is exceptionally strong in Malaysian politics, so passage of the government's legislation through the House of Representatives is mostly a formality.

Under the Constitution, the prime minister's role includes advising the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on:

Under Article 39 of the Constitution, executive authority is vested in the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. However, Article 40(1) states that in most cases, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is bound to exercise his powers on the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under the Cabinet's general authority. Thus, in practice, actual governing authority is vested in the Prime Minister and Cabinet.

Acting prime minister

From time to time, prime ministers are required to leave the country on business and a deputy is appointed to take their place during that time. In the days before jet aeroplanes, such absences could be for extended periods. However, the position can be fully decided by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the king of Malaysia when the position remains empty following the sudden resignation or death of the prime minister.[ citation needed ]

Caretaker prime minister

Under Article 55(3) of Constitution of Malaysia, the lower house of Parliament, unless sooner dissolved by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong with his own discretion on the advice of the prime minister, shall continue for five years from the date of its first meeting. Article 55(4) of the Constitution permits a delay of 60 days in the holding of the general election from the date of dissolution and Parliament shall be summoned to meet on a date not later than 120 days from the date of dissolution. Conventionally, between the dissolution of one Parliament and the convening of the next, the prime minister and the cabinet remain in office in a caretaker capacity.[ citation needed ]

List of prime ministers of Malaysia

Colour key (for political coalitions/parties):

   Alliance Party (2)    Barisan Nasional (6)    Pakatan Harapan (2)    Perikatan Nasional (1)

#PortraitPrime Minister
(Birth–Death)
Constituency
Term of officeMandate [lower-alpha 1] Party [lower-alpha 2] Government Monarch(s)
Took officeLeft officeTime in office
1 Aankomst Prins Abdoel Rahman op Ypenburg, Bestanddeelnr 911-8186 (cropped 3to4).jpg His Highness
Tunku Abdul Rahman
تونکو عبد الرحمن
(1903–1990)
MP for Kuala Kedah
31 August
1957
22 September
1970
13 years, 23 days 1955 Alliance (UMNO) Rahman I Abdul Rahman
Hisamuddin
Putra
Ismail Nasiruddin
Abdul Halim
1959 Rahman II
1964 Rahman III
1969 Rahman IV
2 Tun Abdul Razak Universiti (4to3).jpg Tun Haji
Abdul Razak Hussein
عبد الرزاق حسين
(1922–1976)
MP for Pekan
22 September
1970
14 January
1976 [lower-alpha 3]
5 years, 115 days Alliance (UMNO) Razak I Abdul Halim
Yahya Petra
1974 BN (UMNO) Razak II
3 Tun Hussein Onn potrait (cropped 4to3, version 2).jpg Tun
Hussein Onn
حسين عون
(1922–1990)
MP for Sri Gading
15 January
1976
16 July
1981
5 years, 183 days BN (UMNO) Hussein I Yahya Petra
Ahmad Shah
1978 Hussein II
4 Mahathir 1984 (cropped).jpg Tun Dr.
Mahathir Mohamad
محاضير محمد
(b.1925)
MP for Kubang Pasu
16 July
1981
30 October
2003
22 years, 107 days BN (UMNO) Mahathir I Ahmad Shah
Iskandar
Azlan Shah
Ja'afar
Salahuddin
Sirajuddin
1982 Mahathir II
1986 Mahathir III
1990 Mahathir IV
1995 Mahathir V
1999 Mahathir VI
5 Condoleezza Rice et Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (cropped, 3to4 portrait).jpg Tun
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
عبد الله احمد بدوي
(b.1939)
MP for Kepala Batas
31 October
2003
3 April
2009
5 years, 155 days BN (UMNO) Abdullah I Sirajuddin
Mizan Zainal Abidin
2004 Abdullah II
2008 Abdullah III
6 Dato Sri Mohd Najib Tun Razak (9to12).JPG Dato' Sri Haji
Najib Razak
نجيب رزاق
(b.1953)
MP for Pekan
3 April
2009
9 May
2018
9 years, 37 days BN (UMNO) Najib I Mizan Zainal Abidin
Abdul Halim
Muhammad V
2013 Najib II
7 Mahathir Mohamad 13112018 (cropped).jpg Tun Dr.
Mahathir Mohamad
محاضير محمد
(b.1925)
MP for Langkawi
10 May
2018
24 February
2020
1 year, 291 days 2018 PH (BERSATU) Mahathir VII Muhammad V
Abdullah
During this interval, the incumbent Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad was the Interim Prime Minister. (24 February–1 March 2020)Abdullah
8 Kamala Lakhir melawat Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin 3 (cropped, 3to4 portrait).jpg Tan Sri Dato' Haji
Muhyiddin Yassin
محيي الدين ياسين
(b.1947)
MP for Pagoh
1 March
2020
16 August
2021
1 year, 169 days PN (BERSATU) Muhyiddin
During this interval, the incumbent Prime Minister, Muhyiddin Yassin was the Caretaker Prime Minister. (16–21 August 2021)
9 Ismail Sabri in the White House (cropped, 3to4 portrait).jpg Dato' Sri
Ismail Sabri Yaakob
اسماعيل صبري يعقوب
(b.1960)
MP for Bera
21 August
2021
24 November
2022
1 year, 96 days BN (UMNO) Ismail Sabri
10 PM Kishida meeting with PM Ibrahim of Malaysia (cropped, 3to4 portrait).jpg Dato' Seri
Anwar Ibrahim
انور ابراهيم‎
(b.1947)
MP for Tambun
24 November
2022
Incumbent1 year, 87 days(2022) PH (PKR) Anwar Abdullah
Ibrahim Iskandar

Timeline

Anwar IbrahimIsmail Sabri YaakobMuhyiddin YassinMahathir MohamadMohd Najib Abdul RazakAbdullah Ahmad BadawiMahathir MohamadHussein OnnAbdul Razak HusseinTunku Abdul RahmanPrime Minister of Malaysia

Notes

  1. Legend for mandate portion of column:
    1955
    a year
    indicates a general election won by the government or that led to the formation of a government (the year links to the election's article);
    (2022)
    a parenthesised year
    indicates an election resulting in no single party or coalition winning a parliamentary majority (the year links to the election's article);
    a dash
    indicates the formation of a majority government without an election.
  2. This column names only the Prime Minister's party. The government may be a complex coalition of several parties and independents; those are not listed here.
  3. Died in office.

See also

Related Research Articles

Politics of Malaysia takes place in the framework of a federal representative democratic constitutional monarchy, in which the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is head of state and the Prime Minister of Malaysia is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the federal government and the 13 state governments. Legislative power is vested in the federal parliament and the 13 state assemblies. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, though the executive maintains a certain level of influence in the appointment of judges to the courts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">King of Malaysia</span> Head of state and elective constitutional monarch of Malaysia

The King of Malaysia is the constitutional monarch and head of state of Malaysia. He is also known as the "Supreme Head of the Federation", the "Paramount Ruler", or simply the "Agong". The office was established in 1957, when the Federation of Malaya gained independence from the United Kingdom. The king is elected by the Conference of Rulers, comprising the nine rulers of the Malay states, with the office de facto rotated between them, making Malaysia one of the world's few elective monarchies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Parliament of Malaysia</span> National bicameral legislature of Malaysia

The Parliament of Malaysia is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. The bicameral parliament consists of the Dewan Rakyat and the Dewan Negara. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King), as the head of state, is the third component of Parliament.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dewan Rakyat</span> Lower house of the Parliament of Malaysia

The Dewan Rakyat is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament, the federal legislature of Malaysia. The chamber and its powers are established by Article 44 of the Constitution of Malaysia. The Dewan Rakyat sits in the Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur, along with the Dewan Negara, the upper house.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Constitution of Malaysia</span> Federal Constitution of Malaysia

The Federal Constitution of Malaysia, which came into force in 1957 as the Constitution of the Federation of Malaya and was amended in 1963 to form the Constitution of Malaysia, is the supreme law of Malaysia and contains a total of 183 articles. It is a written legal document influenced by two previous documents, the Federation of Malaya Agreement 1948 and the Independence Constitution of 1957. The Federation was initially called the Federation of Malaya and it adopted its present name, Malaysia, when the states of Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore became part of the Federation. The Constitution establishes the Federation as a constitutional monarchy, having the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the Head of State with largely ceremonial roles. It provides for the establishment and organisation of three main branches of the government: the bicameral legislative branch called the Parliament, which consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate ; the executive branch led by the Prime Minister and his Cabinet Ministers and the judicial branch headed by the Federal Court.

Elections in Malaysia include elections to public office of the political entities that since 1963 have composed the federation of Malaysia. At present, elections in Malaysia exist at two levels: federal level and state level. Federal level elections are those for membership in the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of Parliament, while state level elections are for membership in the various State Legislative Assemblies. The heads of executive branch at both the federal and state levels, the Prime Minister and Menteri Besar/Chief Ministers respectively, are usually indirectly elected, filled by a member of the majority party/coalition in the respective legislatures.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dewan Negara</span> Upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia

The Dewan Negara is the upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia, consisting of 70 senators of whom 26 are elected by the state legislative assemblies, with two senators for each state, while the other 44 are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King), including four who are appointed to represent the federal territories.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Election Commission of Malaysia</span> Malaysian government agency

The Election Commission of Malaysia, abbreviated SPR or EC, is a commission set up for ensuring fair and equitable operations in undertaking the elections in Malaysia. The agency falls under the purview of the Prime Minister's Department.

The Cabinet of Malaysia is the executive branch of the Government of Malaysia. Led by the Prime Minister, the cabinet is a council of ministers who are accountable collectively to the Parliament. According to the Article 43 of the Federal Constitution, members of the Cabinet can only be selected from members of either houses of Parliament. Formally, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints all Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. The constitution is amended by repealing the Clause (8) of Article 43, enabling a person who is a member of State Legislative Assembly to continue to serve even while serving as a minister or deputy minister in the cabinet. Ministers other than the Prime Minister shall hold office during the pleasure of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, unless the appointment of any Minister shall have been revoked by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister but any Minister may resign from office. In practice, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is obliged to follow the advice of the Prime Minister on the appointment and dismissal of ministers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Government of Malaysia</span> Federal government of Malaysia

The Government of Malaysia, officially the Federal Government of Malaysia, is based in the Federal Territory of Putrajaya, with the exception of the legislative branch, which is located in Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia is a federation comprising the 11 States of Malaya, the Borneo States of Sabah and Sarawak, and 3 Federal Territories operating within a constitutional monarchy under the Westminster system and is categorised as a representative democracy. The federal government of Malaysia adheres to and is created by the Federal Constitution of Malaysia, the supreme law of the land.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chief Minister of Sabah</span> Head of Government of a Malaysian state

The chief minister of Sabah is the head of government of Sabah, Malaysia. Since September 2020, the position has been held by Hajiji Noor from the Parti Gagasan Rakyat Sabah from the coalition of Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (GRS) which had won the 2020 Sabah state election. As in other parts of the Malaysian federation, the Westminster Parliamentary system is adopted, whereby, the leader of the party with the most seats in the state legislature would usually become the chief minister of Sabah. In other words, it is the person commanding the support of the state legislature. The chief minister is appointed by the head of state known as the Yang di-Pertua Negeri. In comparison to other states in Malaysia, the office of the chief minister of Sabah has been held by a more diverse group of people in terms of ethnicity and religion. The post has been held by Kadazan-Dusuns, Bajaus, Malays, Chinese, Muruts, Rungus, Sungai, Idaans, and other persons of mixed heritage as well as being Muslims, Buddhists and Christians.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Menteri Besar of Negeri Sembilan</span> Head of government in the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan

The Menteri Besar of Negeri Sembilan or First Minister of Negeri Sembilan is the head of government in the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan. According to the convention, the Menteri Besar is the leader of the majority party or largest coalition party of the Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Premier of Sarawak</span> Head of government in Sarawak, Malaysia

The Premier of Sarawak is the head of government of the Malaysian state of Sarawak. The premier is appointed by the Governor, also known as the state's governor. The premier is also the leader of the political party or coalition able to secure a majority in the Council Negri.

In Malaysian political and constitutional terminology, a caretaker government is a government of Malaysia during a period that starts when the parliament is dissolved by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong prior to a general election, and continues for a period after the election, until the next cabinet is appointed. A caretaker government is expected to conduct itself in accordance with a series of well-defined conventions that are administered by the Prime Minister's Department, although there is no law compelling the caretaker government to do so.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2022 Malaysian general election</span>

General elections were held in Malaysia on Saturday, 19 November 2022. The prospect of snap elections had been considered high due to the political crisis that had been ongoing since 2020; political instability caused by coalition or party switching among members of Parliament, combined with the fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic, contributed to the resignation of two prime ministers and the collapse of each of their respective coalition governments since the 2018 general elections.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Secretary of the House of Representatives of Malaysia</span>

The secretary of the House of Representatives of MalaysiaSUDR is the chief clerk of the House of Representatives of Malaysia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2020–2022 Malaysian political crisis</span> Political crisis in Malaysia

The 2020–2022 Malaysian political crisis was triggered after several Members of Parliament (MPs) of the 14th Malaysian Parliament changed party support, leading to the loss of a parliamentary majority, the collapse of two successive coalition governments, and the resignation of two Prime Ministers. The political crisis culminated in a 2022 snap general election and eventual formation of a coalition government.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Muhyiddin cabinet</span>

The Muhyiddin cabinet was formed on 10 March 2020, nine days after Muhyiddin Yassin was appointed as the 8th Prime Minister of Malaysia and dissolved 17 months and 6 days later on 16 August 2021, the day when Muhyiddin submitted his resignations as PM and of this cabinet. It was the 21st cabinet of Malaysia formed since independence. This cabinet was also known as the Perikatan Nasional Cabinet (PN-Cabinet) which combined 15 political parties from the Perikatan Nasional (PN) component parties, with Barisan Nasional (BN) component parties, Gabungan Parti Sarawak (GPS) component parties and United Sabah Party (PBS) as allied partners providing confidence and supply.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Perikatan Nasional</span> Political coalition in Malaysia

The National Alliance is a political coalition composed of the Malaysian United Indigenous Party, Malaysian Islamic Party, Malaysian People's Movement Party and Sabah Progressive Party. This coalition was preceded by the Malaysian Party Alliance Association, also known as the Persatuan Perikatan Parti Malaysia (PPPM). It is the second largest political coalition in Dewan Rakyat with 74 seats after Pakatan Harapan (PH) with 81 seats; dubbed as the "Green Wave".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2021 Malaysian state of emergency</span> Proclamation of emergency during pandemic time in Malaysia

The 2021 Malaysian Proclamation of Emergency was a federal proclamation of emergency issued by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia Al-Sultan Abdullah of Pahang to curb the spread of COVID-19 in Malaysia that was in effect from 12 January 2021 to 1 August 2021 nationwide except Sarawak, where the proclamation was not lifted along with other states on 1 August 2021 for the purpose of delaying the Sarawak state election to 2022. However, the proclamation in Sarawak was subsequently lifted on 3 November 2021.

References

  1. "CPPS Policy Factsheet: Remuneration of Elected Officials in Malaysia" (PDF). Centre for Public Policy Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  2. "Malaysia Gelar Pemilu Hari Ini". CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian). 19 November 2022. Retrieved 26 November 2022.