|Prime Minister of Romania |
Prim-ministrul Guvernului României
Standard of the Prime Minister of Romania
|Member of|| Government of Romania |
Supreme Council of National Defence
|Residence|| Victoria Palace, Bucharest |
Cabinet and Government headquarters
|Appointer||President of Romania|
|Term length||4 years|
No term limit
|Inaugural holder|| Barbu Catargiu |
as President of The Council of Ministers
|Formation||January 22, 1862|
|Salary||15,108 lei (2015)|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The Prime Minister of the Government of Romania (Romanian : Prim-ministrul Guvernului României) is the head of the Government of Romania. Initially, the office was styled President of the Council of Ministers (Romanian : Președintele Consiliului de Miniștri), when the term "Government" included more than the Cabinet, and the Cabinet was called The Council of Ministers (Consiliul de Miniștri). The title was officially changed to Prime Minister by the 1965 Constitution of Romania during the communist regime.
Romanian is an Eastern Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language. It is an official and national language of Romania and Moldova. In addition, it is also one of the official languages of the European Union.
The Government of Romania forms one half of the executive branch of the government of Romania. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Romania, and consists of the ministries, various subordinated institutions and agencies, and the 42 prefectures. The seat of the Romanian Government is at Victoria Palace in Bucharest.
The 1965 Constitution of Romania was drafted by a committee of the Great National Assembly (MAN) and approved by a plenary session of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party on June 28, 1965. It was then debated at the party’s 9th Congress in July and adopted by the MAN, sitting as a Constituent Assembly, on August 21, being published in Monitorul Oficial that day. It was Romania's sixth constitution, and the third of the Communist era.
The current Prime Minister is Viorica Dăncilă.
One of the roles of the President of the Republic is to designate a candidate for the office of Prime Minister. The President must consult with the party that has the majority in the Parliament or, if no such majority exists, with the parties represented in Parliament.
Once designated, the candidate assembles a proposal for the governing program and the cabinet. The proposal must be approved by the Parliament within ten days, through a vote of confidence process. Both the program and the cabinet membership are debated by the Parliament in a joint session of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The proposal is accepted only if a majority of all Deputies and Senators approves.
Once the vote of confidence is obtained, the candidate becomes the Prime Minister and all cabinet members become Ministers. The Prime Minister, the Ministers, and other members of the Government take an oath before the President, as stipulated under Article 82 of the Constitution. The Government as a whole and each of its members exercise their mandate from the date of the oath.
The Prime Minister directs Government actions and co-ordinates the activities of its members. He or she submits to the Chamber of Deputies or the Senate reports and statements on Government policy, to be debated.As head of the government, the Prime Minister is charged with directing the internal policy of the country and leads the public administration. In this regard, the government cooperates with other interested social actors.
As with any other office of public authority, the office of Prime Minister is incompatible with any other office, except that of deputy or senator and is also incompatible with a professional position in a commercial organization. The term of a Prime Minister ends with the individual's resignation, dismissal following a motion of no confidence, loss of electoral rights (following a conviction), incompatibility with the office, death or expiration of the term of the legislature. The Prime Minister, together with the minister tasked with the particular field of government, can sign resolutions and ordinances to take effect as executive orders the moment they are published in the Monitorul Oficial, the official gazette of the Romanian state. Such ordinances must be sent to the appropriate chamber of Parliament where they are discussed in an urgent manner and they are then sent to the official gazette. In case the noticed chamber does not discuss or approve said ordinance after 30 days of its arrival, the ordinance is officially adopted and published in the Monitor. An emergency ordinance cannot modify a constitutional law, concern the functioning of the fundamental institutions, rights or liberties.
Monitorul Oficial al României is the official gazette of Romania, in which all the promulgated bills, presidential decrees, governmental ordinances and other major legal acts are published.
Unlike in the president-parliamentary semi-presidential systems, such as Russia, the Romanian Prime Minister is not a subordinate of the President who cannot dismiss the Prime Minister.The President can attend the government meetings debating upon matters of national interest with regard to foreign policy, country's defense, maintenance of public order, and, at the invitation of the Prime Minister, in other instances as well. The President will always chair the government meetings he attends.
In addition to his constitutional roles, the Prime Minister is, generally, the leader of the major party in the majority coalition that supports the government, although this is not always the case.
The Government and the other bodies of administration must submit all information, reports or documents requested by the Chamber of Deputies, Senate or parliamentary committees as part of the parliamentary control of government.
The members of government are allowed to attend the works of Parliament and they must do so at the request of the presidents of the chambers. The Prime Minister and the members of his Cabinet must answer all questions or interpellations brought forward by deputies or senators as under the terms laid down in the statutes of Parliament. After such interpellations, the Chamber or the Senate can adopt a simple motion to express their position towards an issue of internal or external politics.
Parliament can dismiss an outgoing Prime Minister and his cabinet by adopting a motion of no confidence against the government. In order for a motion to be initiated, it must be signed by at least a quarter of deputies and senators and for it to pass, a majority of deputies and senators must vote in favour of it. After a motion of no confidence is adopted, the Prime Minister and his Cabinet are officially dismissed and the President must designate an individual to form a new government.Since 1989, three Prime Ministers have been dismissed following the adoption of a motion of no confidence: Emil Boc(2009) , Mihai Răzvan Ungureanu(2012) and Sorin Grindeanu(2017) .
Originally styled President of the Council of Ministers, the office was first created in 1862 during the reign of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza. Cuza, unlike other monarchs of his time, was not a hereditary ruler. In 1859 he was elected Prince of Wallachia and Prince of Moldavia in two separate elections, thus de facto uniting the two principalities. By 1862, he had completely fused the two administrations into a single government with its capital at Bucharest, the new country bearing the name Romania, but the union was in danger of being dissolved after the end of his rule. A liberal, in favour of the two great reform projects envisioned by the liberals of the time (the electoral and agrarian reforms), Cuza did not publicly espouse his political preferences or position himself as the leader of a faction, preferring to keep the office of the Prince politically neutral. In order to give the country a political government, Cuza created the office of Prime Minister and brought into power the leader of the Conservative faction, Barbu Catargiu.
During the first years after its creation the office held considerable authority, being able to challenge the will of the Prince and together with a Legislative Assembly composed mainly of conservatives and reactionaries, Catargiu's conservative government was able to delay the adoption of several reforms. Frustrated by the government's opposition to reforms, and unable to work with an Assembly dominated by reactionary forces due to the censitary nature of the electoral system, Cuza launched a coup d'etat, followed by a constitutional referendum that replaced the Convention of Paris, an act that served as the constitution of the country, with his own version named the Statute expanding the Paris Convention (Romanian : Statutul dezvoltător al Convenției de la Paris). The new constitution created the Senate for serving Cuza's legislative purposes and vested the office of the Prince with full executive authority, while the Prime Minister remained his subordinate. Even though Cuza now had plenary powers, the office the Prime Minister remained influent, and Mihail Kogălniceanu, the 3rd Prime Minister, a liberal and former ally of Cuza often clashed with him.
After Cuza's removal by coup d'etat in 1866 by a coalition formed by both members of the liberal and conservative factions, the political forces of the time settled on two objectives: bringing a foreign prince from a European noble family on the country's throne and drafting a liberal constitution. The 1866 Constitution confirmed that the Prime Minister served at the pleasure of the Prince, the latter being able to appoint and dismiss the former at any time and for any reason. Nevertheless, the Prime Minister still held considerable influence.
After World War I led to the creation of Greater Romania another constitution was drafted in 1923 to reflect the changes the Romanian state had undergone since the Treaty of Versailles and the Treaty of Trianon. The new constitution limited the powers of the King, vesting the executive power entirely in the Prime Minister and his Cabinet who now governed in the King's name after the latter appointed him.The new constitution also made the first steps towards a parliamentary control of the government, stipulating that either of the chambers may put ministers under accusation to stand trial.
There are 13 living former Romanian Prime Ministers:
The most recent death of a former Prime Minister of Romania is that of Radu Vasile (1998–1999) on July 3, 2013.
The current residence of the Prime Minister is the Victoria Palace.
Initially designed to be headquarters of the Foreign Ministry, Victoria Palace was the headquarters of Foreign Ministry and Council of Ministers during the Communist period and became, in 1990, headquarters of the first government of post-communist Romania.
The palace was declared a historical monument in 2004.
Romania's political framework is a semi-presidential representative democratic republic where the Prime Minister is the head of government and the President is the head of state. Executive power is exercised by the President of the republic and the government. Romania has a multi-party system, with legislative power vested in the government and the two chambers of Parliament: the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Until 1989, the communist rule political structure took place in the framework of a one-party socialist republic governed by the Romanian Communist Party as its only legal party.
The constructive vote of no confidence is a variation on the motion of no confidence that allows a parliament to withdraw confidence from a head of government only if there is a positive majority for a prospective successor. The principle is intended to ensure that a replacement head of government has enough parliamentary support to govern.
The President of Romania is the head of state of Romania. The President is directly elected by a two-round system for a five-year term. An individual may serve two terms. During his/her term in office, the President may not be a member of any political party.
The Chairman of the Government of the Czech Republic, is the head of the Government of the Czech Republic. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Chamber of Deputies. The current Prime Minister, Andrej Babiš, leader of the ANO 2011, was appointed by the President on 6 December 2017, and serves as 12th person in the office.
In parliamentary and some semi-presidential systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election.
The Senate is the upper house in the bicameral Parliament of Romania. It has 136 seats, to which members are elected by direct popular vote, using mixed member proportional representation in 43 electoral districts, to serve four-year terms.
The Council of Ministers of the Republic of Poland is the collective executive decision-making body of the Polish government. The cabinet consists of the Prime Minister, also known as the President of the Council of Ministers, the Deputy Prime Minister, who acts as a vice-president of the council, and other ministers. The current competences and procedures of the cabinet are described between Articles 146 to 162 of the constitution.
The President of the Lebanese Republic is the head of state of Lebanon. The president is elected by the parliament for a term of six years, which is not immediately renewable. By convention, the president is always a Maronite Christian.
The Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Cambodia is the head of government of Cambodia. The prime minister is also the chairman of the Cabinet and leads the executive branch of the Royal Cambodian Government. The prime minister is required to be a member of parliament, and is appointed by the monarch for a term of five years. Since 1945, 36 individuals have served as prime minister.
The Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Mauritius is the official council which advises the President of the Republic in the making of major decisions. It is led by the Prime Minister and a total of 23 ministers and the Attorney General, who is considered to be a cabinet member. The constitution of the Republic provides a cabinet under the leadership of the Prime Minister that must be appointed by the President after each general elections.
Ioan Totu was a Romanian communist politician who served as the Vice Prime Minister of Romania from 1982 to 1985 and as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1986 to 1989, during the rule of Nicolae Ceaușescu. He briefly served as President of the State Planning Committee in late 1989.
The Third Ponta Cabinet was the executive of Romania from 5 March to 13 December 2014. It was established after one day before it received the vote of confidence from the country's Parliament. The Third Ponta Cabinet is supported by PSD–UNPR–PC Alliance and an unregistered party (PLR) led by Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu. In December 2014, UDMR voted the egress from the government, invoking the result of the presidential election, inasmuch as Klaus Iohannis, PSD counter candidate, was voted by more than 70% of the electorate in the ethnic Hungarian counties.
The Fourth Ponta Cabinet was the government of Romania from 17 December 2014 to 4 November 2015. The Cabinet was supported by the Social Democratic Party (PSD), the National Union for the Progress of Romania (UNPR) and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats (ALDE), the alliance forged by Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu's Liberal Reformist Party and Daniel Constantin's Conservative Party (PC). Fourteen of the ministerial portfolios were held by PSD members, three by ALDE, two by UNPR and two by independent members.
The Streleț Cabinet was the Cabinet of Moldova from 30 July to 29 October 2015. It consisted of ministers from the Liberal Democratic Party (PLDM), the Democratic Party (PDM) and the Liberal Party (PL), who together formed the Alliance for European Integration III. The Cabinet was installed after a successful vote of confidence held in the Parliament of Moldova on 30 July 2015. It was dismissed by Parliament on 29 October amid ongoing protests, lasting 3 months. A new cabinet was formed only on 20 January 2016; until then the Deputy Prime Minister for Social Affairs Gheorghe Brega was acting Prime Minister.
Sorin Mihai Grindeanu is a Romanian politician who served as Prime Minister of Romania from January to June 2017 when he was removed by a motion of no confidence adopted by Parliament.
The Dăncilă Cabinet is the 129th Government of Romania. It is led by Viorica Dăncilă, who assumed office as Prime Minister of Romania on 29 January 2018. The cabinet took office on 29 January.
The Council of Ministers of Lebanon is the executive body of the Republic of Lebanon. Its president is the Prime Minister of Lebanon, and it appointed by the President of Lebanon with confirmation of the Parliament of Lebanon. It is generally equally composed of Muslims and Christians. The Council of Ministers is considered to be the "government" of Lebanon by the Constitution.