|Prime Minister of Yugoslavia|
|Government of Yugoslavia|
|Member of||Parliament of Yugoslavia|
|Reports to|| King of Yugoslavia (Serbs, Croats and Slovenes)(1918–1945)|
President of Yugoslavia (1945–1971)
Presidency of Yugoslavia (1971–1992)
|Nominator|| King of Yugoslavia (Serbs, Croats and Slovenes)(1918–1945)|
Central Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (1945–1992)
|Appointer||Parliament of Yugoslavia|
|Precursor|| Prime Minister of Serbia |
President of the National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
|Formation||1 December 1918|
|First holder||Stojan Protić|
|Final holder||Ante Marković|
|Abolished||14 July 1992|
|Superseded by|| Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina |
Prime Minister of Croatia
Prime Minister of North Macedonia
Prime Minister of Serbia and Montenegro
Prime Minister of Slovenia
|Deputy||Deputy Prime Minister of Yugoslavia|
The prime minister of Yugoslavia (Serbian : Премијер Југославије, romanized: Premijer Jugoslavije) was the head of government of the Yugoslav state, from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918 until the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992.
The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was created by the unification of the Kingdom of Serbia (Montenegro had united with Serbia five days previously, while the regions of Kosovo and Metohija, Baranya, Syrmia, Banat, Bačka and Vardar Macedonia were parts of Serbia prior to the unification) and the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (itself formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire) on 1 December 1918.
Until 6 January 1929, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was a parliamentary monarchy. On that day, King Alexander I abolished the Vidovdan Constitution (adopted in 1921), prorogued the National Assembly and introduced a personal dictatorship (so-called 6 January Dictatorship).He renamed the country Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929, and although introduced the 1931 Constitution, he continued to rule as a de facto absolute monarch until his assassination on 9 October 1934, during a state visit to France. After his assassination, parliamentary monarchy was put back in place.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was defeated and occupied on 17 April 1941 after the German invasion. The monarchy was formally abolished and the republic proclaimed on 29 November 1945.
In 1945 there were ten living former prime ministers. Out of these, Nikola Uzunović, Dušan Simović, Miloš Trifunović and Ivan Šubašić lived in the Democratic Federal Republic of Yugoslavia while Petar Živković, Bogoljub Jevtić, Milan Stojadinović, Dragiša Cvetković, Slobodan Jovanović and Božidar Purić remained in exile.
After the German invasion and fragmentation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the Partisan resistance in occupied Yugoslavia formed a deliberative council, the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) in 1942. On 29 November 1943 the AVNOJ proclaimed the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, and appointed the National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia (NKOJ), led by Prime Minister Josip Broz Tito, as its government. Josip Broz Tito was quickly recognized by the Allies at the Tehran Conference, and the royalist government-in-exile in London was pressured into agreeing on a merge with the NKOJ. In order to facilitate this, Ivan Šubašić was appointed by the King to head the London government.
For a period, Yugoslavia had two recognized prime ministers and governments (which both agreed to formally merge as soon as possible): Josip Broz Tito leading the NKOJ in occupied Yugoslavia, and Ivan Šubašić leading the King's government-in-exile in London. With the Tito-Šubašić Agreement in 1944, the two prime ministers agreed that the new joint government would be led by Tito. After the liberation of Yugoslavia's capital Belgrade in October 1944, the joint government was officially formed on 2 November 1944, with Josip Broz Tito as the prime minister.
After the war, elections were held ending in an overwhelming victory for Tito's People's Front. The new parliament deposed King Peter II on 29 November 1945, and declared a Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (in 1963, the state was renamed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). The government was first headed by a prime minister up to 14 January 1953, when major decentralization reforms reorganized the government into the Federal Executive Council chaired by a President, who was still usually called "Prime Minister" in non-Yugoslav sources. Josip Broz Tito held the post from 1944 to 1963; from 1953 onward, he was also President of the Republic.
Five out of nine heads of government of Yugoslavia in this period were of Croatian ethnicity. Three were from Croatia itself (Josip Broz Tito, Mika Špiljak, and Milka Planinc), while two were Bosnian Croats (Branko Mikulić and Ante Marković). Ante Marković however, though a Croat from Bosnia and Herzegovina by birth, was a politician of Croatia like Špiljak and Planinc, serving (at different times) as both prime minister and president of the presidency of that federal unit.
People's Radical Party Democratic Party Slovene People's Party Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy / Yugoslav National Party Yugoslav Radical Union Croatian Peasant Party Communist Party of Yugoslavia / League of Communists of Yugoslavia Union of Reform Forces of Yugoslavia Socialist Party of Serbia Independent
|Ethnicity||Term of office||Political party||Election||Cabinet||Notes|
|Took office||Left office||Time in office|
|In the Kingdom of Yugoslavia|
|–|| Nikola Pašić |
|Serb||1 December 1918||22 December 1918||21 days||NRS||–||Pašić XII||Acting prime minister, as the last prime minister of Serbia.|
|1|| Stojan Protić |
|Serb||22 December 1918||16 August 1919||237 days||NRS||–||Protić I||First Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (that will be renamed to "Yugoslavia").|
|2|| Ljubomir Davidović |
|Serb||16 August 1919||19 February 1920||187 days||DS||–||Davidović I||.|
|(1)|| Stojan Protić |
|Serb||19 February 1920||16 May 1920||87 days||NRS||–||Protić II||.|
|3|| Milenko Vesnić |
|Serb||16 May 1920||1 January 1921||230 days||NRS||1920||Vesnić||.|
|4|| Nikola Pašić |
|Serb||1 January 1921||28 July 1924||3 years, 209 days||NRS||1923||Pašić XIII–XIV–XV–XVI–XVII–XVIII–XIX||Second term.|
Vidovdan Constitution adopted on June 28, 1921.
|(2)|| Ljubomir Davidović |
|Serb||28 July 1924||6 November 1924||101 days||DS||–||Davidović II||Second term|
|(4)|| Nikola Pašić |
|Serb||6 November 1924||8 April 1926||1 year, 153 days||NRS||1925||Pašić XX–XXI–XXII||Third term|
|5|| Nikola Uzunović |
|Serb||8 April 1926||17 April 1927||1 year, 9 days||NRS||–||Uzunović I–II||.|
|6|| Velimir Vukićević |
|Serb||17 April 1927||28 July 1928||1 year, 102 days||NRS||1927||Vukićević I–II||Resigned after assassination attempt on opposition leader Stjepan Radić in the Parliament.|
|7|| Anton Korošec |
|Slovene||28 July 1928||7 January 1929||163 days||SLS||–||Korošec||Appointed after the assassination attempt on Stjepan Radić, until the 6 January Dictatorship.|
|8|| Petar Živković |
|Serb||7 January 1929||4 April 1932||3 years, 88 days||JRSD||1931||Živković||Prime Minister during the 6 January Dictatorship.|
Sentenced to death in absentia in 1946.
|9|| Vojislav Marinković |
|Serb||4 April 1932||3 July 1932||90 days||JRSD||–||Marinković||Previously a (founding) member of the Democratic Party.|
|10|| Milan Srškić |
|Serb||3 July 1932||27 January 1934||1 year, 208 days||JRSD||–||Srškić I–II||.|
|(5)|| Nikola Uzunović |
|Serb||27 January 1934||22 December 1934||329 days||JNS||–||Uzunović III||The Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy party was renamed into the Yugoslav National Party.|
|11|| Bogoljub Jevtić |
|Serb||22 December 1934||24 June 1935||184 days|| JRZ |
|12|| Milan Stojadinović |
|Serb||24 June 1935||5 February 1939||3 years, 226 days||JRZ||1938||Stojadinović I–II–III||.|
|13|| Dragiša Cvetković |
|Serb||5 February 1939||27 March 1941||2 years, 50 days||JRZ||–||Cvetković I–II||Sentenced in absentia in 1945.|
|In the Yugoslav government-in-exile|
|14|| Dušan Simović |
|Serb||27 March 1941||11 January 1942||290 days||Independent||–||Simović||Chief of the General Staff of the Royal Yugoslav Army. Took power by military coup d'état. He led government into exile in London.|
|15|| Slobodan Jovanović |
|Serb||11 January 1942||26 June 1943||1 year, 166 days||Independent||–||Jovanović I-II||Headed government-in-exile.|
Found guilty of treason in absentia in 1946.
|16|| Miloš Trifunović |
|Serb||26 June 1943||10 August 1943||45 days||NRS||–||Trifunović||Headed government-in-exile|
|17|| Božidar Purić |
|Serb||10 August 1943||8 July 1944||333 days||Independent||–||Purić||Headed government-in-exile|
|18|| Ivan Šubašić |
|Croat||8 July 1944||2 November 1944||117 days||HSS||–||Šubašić||Headed government-in-exile.|
Merged into coalition government on November 2, 1944, with Josip Broz Tito presiding.
|In the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia|
| Josip Broz Tito |
|Croat||2 November 1944||29 June 1963||18 years, 239 days|| KPJ |
| 1945 |
|Tito I–II–III–IV–V–VI||Held post simultaneously (as head of the NKOJ) first with Božidar Purić, then Ivan Šubašić. Headed joint coalition government.|
| Petar Stambolić |
|Serb||29 June 1963||16 May 1967||3 years, 321 days||SKJ||–||Stambolić||.|
| Mika Špiljak |
|Croat||16 May 1967||18 May 1969||2 years, 2 days||SKJ||–||Špiljak||.|
| Mitja Ribičič |
|Slovene||18 May 1969||30 July 1971||2 years, 73 days||SKJ||1969||Ribičič||.|
| Džemal Bijedić |
|Bosniak||30 July 1971||18 January 1977 †||5 years, 172 days||SKJ||1974||Bijedić||Killed in a plane crash.|
| Veselin Đuranović |
|Montenegrin||18 January 1977||16 May 1982||5 years, 118 days||SKJ||1978||Đuranović||.|
| Milka Planinc |
|Croat||16 May 1982||15 May 1986||3 years, 364 days||SKJ||1982||Planinc||First female head of the government.|
| Branko Mikulić |
|Croat||15 May 1986||16 March 1989||2 years, 305 days||SKJ||1986||Mikulić||Resigned on 30 December 1988, amid widespread protests.|
| Ante Marković |
|Croat||16 March 1989||20 December 1991||2 years, 279 days|| SRSJ |
|1990||Marković||Last prime minister of Yugoslavia.|
League of Communists was dissolved in 1990, Marković formed his own party.
|–|| Aleksandar Mitrović |
|Serb||20 December 1991||14 July 1992||207 days||SPS||–||Marković||Acting prime minister.|
Installed by Serbia and Montenegro.
Yugoslavia was a country in Southeast Europe and Central Europe for most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in 1918 under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia, and constituted the first union of the South Slavic people as a sovereign state, following centuries in which the region had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. Peter I of Serbia was its first sovereign. The kingdom gained international recognition on 13 July 1922 at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. The official name of the state was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929.
Peter II was the last king of Yugoslavia, reigning from October 1934 until his deposition in November 1945. He was the last reigning member of the Karađorđević dynasty.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a state in Southeast and Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1941. From 1918 to 1929, it was officially called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, but the term "Yugoslavia" was its colloquial name due to its origins. The official name of the state was changed to "Kingdom of Yugoslavia" by King Alexander I on 3 October 1929.
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, also known as Democratic Federative Yugoslavia, was a provisional state established during World War II on 29 November 1943 through the Second Session of the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ). The National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia (NKOJ) was its original executive body. Throughout its existence it was governed by Marshal Josip Broz Tito as prime minister.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country in Southeast and Central Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. Covering an area of 255,804 km2, the SFRY bordered the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, Austria and Hungary to the north, Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and Albania and Greece to the south. It was a one-party socialist state and federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republics—Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia—with Belgrade as its capital; it also included two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Kosovo and Vojvodina.
League of Communists of Croatia was the Croatian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKJ). Until 1952, it was known as Communist Party of Croatia.
The Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia commonly abbreviated as the AVNOJ, was a deliberative and legislative body that was established in Bihać, Yugoslavia, in November 1942. It was established on the instigation of Josip Broz Tito, the leader of the Yugoslav Partisans – an armed resistance movement led by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia to resist the Axis occupation of the country during World War II.
The Tito–Šubašić Agreements are the result of a series of negotiations conducted by the leader of the Yugoslav Partisans, Josip Broz Tito, and the prime minister of the Yugoslav government-in-exile, Ivan Šubašić, in the second half of 1944 and early 1945. The agreements were designed to create a coalition government in post–World War II Yugoslavia that would be composed of representatives of the National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia and the government-in-exile.
Yugoslavs or Yugoslavians is a designation that was originally designed to refer to a united South Slavic people. It has been used in two connotations, the first in an ethnic or supra-ethnic connotation, and the second as a term for citizens of the former Yugoslavia. Cultural and political advocates of Yugoslav identity have historically ascribed the identity to be applicable to all people of South Slav heritage, including those of modern Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia. Attempts at uniting Bulgaria into Yugoslavia were however unsuccessful and therefore Bulgarians were not included in the panethnic identification.
Ivan Šubašić was an Yugoslav Croat politician, best known as the last Ban of Croatia and prime minister of the royalist Yugoslav Government in exile during the Second World War.
The Banovina of Croatia or Banate of Croatia was an autonomous province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1939 and 1941. It was formed by a merger of Sava and Littoral banovinas into a single autonomous entity, with small parts of the Drina, Zeta, and Danube banovinas also included. Its capital was Zagreb and it included most of present-day Croatia along with portions of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. It had a surface area of 65,456 km2 and a population of 4,024,601 in late 1939. Its sole Ban during this period was Ivan Šubašić.
Juraj Krnjević was a Croatian politician who was among the leaders of the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS). He was the party's General Secretary since 1928 and President since 1964. He also served as the First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Post, Telegraph and Telephone of Yugoslavia between 1942 and 1943.
The National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia or NKOJ, was the World War II provisional executive body of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia. The NKOJ was elected by the AVNOJ during its Second Session in Jajce in late November 1943. During the Session, the AVNOJ also appointed Josip Broz Tito the Prime Minister in the NKOJ.
Yugoslavism or Yugoslavdom refers to an ideology supporting the notion that the South Slavs, namely the Bosniaks, Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Serbs and Slovenes, but also Bulgarians, belong to a single Yugoslav nation separated by diverging historical circumstances, forms of speech, and religious divides. During the interwar period, Yugoslavism became predominant, and then official ideology of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. There were two major forms of Yugoslavism in the period: the regime favoured integral Yugoslavism promoting unitarism, centralisation, and unification of the country's ethnic groups into a single Yugoslav nation, by coercion if necessary. The approach was also applied to languages spoken in the Kingdom. The main alternative was federalist Yugoslavism which advocated the autonomy of the historical lands in the form of a federation and gradual unification without outside pressure. Both agreed on the concept of National Oneness developed as an expression of the strategic alliance of South Slavs in Austria-Hungary in the early 20th century. The concept was meant as a notion that the South Slavs belong to a single "race", were of "one blood", and had shared language. It was considered neutral regarding the choice of centralism or federalism.
The Provisional Government of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia was the state's temporary national government formed through the merger of the Yugoslav government-in-exile and the National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia (NKOJ). It existed from 7 March to 11 November 1945. It then became the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia in late 1945, which in turn became the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1963 to 1992.
The Government of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in Exile was an official government of Yugoslavia, headed by King Peter II. It evacuated from Belgrade in April 1941, after the Axis invasion of the country, and went first to Greece, then to Palestine, then to Egypt and finally, in June 1941, to the United Kingdom, and hence it is also referred to as the "Government in London".
The Croatian Partisans, officially the National Liberation Movement in Croatia, were part of the Communist-led Yugoslav Partisans, a guerrila force in the Axis-occupied Yugoslavia that fought against the Axis-powers forces and Serbian royalists from July 1941 until May 1945 during World War II, across the territory of the Axis-allied Independent State of Croatia (NDH). Croatian Partisan units succeeded in temporarily or permanently liberating considerable parts of Croatia from Axis forces. The defeat of the NDH in mid-May 1945 was followed by mass killings of Croat prisoners and others at the hands of the Communist forces and the establishment later that year of a pro-Soviet one-party Communist Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, the People's Republic of Croatia being one of its constituent republics.
The Ba Congress, also known as the Saint Sava Congress or Great People's Congress, was a meeting of representatives of Draža Mihailović's Chetnik movement held between 25 and 28 January 1944 in the village of Ba in the German-occupied territory of Serbia during World War II. It sought to provide a political alternative to the plans for post-war Yugoslavia set out by the Chetnik's rivals, the communist-led Yugoslav Partisans, and attempted to reverse the decision of the major Allied powers to provide their exclusive support to the Yugoslav Partisans while withdrawing their support of the Chetniks.
Juraj Šutej was a lawyer and Croatian and Yugoslavian politician. He was a member of the Croatian Peasant Party. He was elected member of the Yugoslav Parliament from Duvno and Split districts in 1927, 1935, and 1938 elections. He served as the Yugoslav Finance Minister in the cabinets of Dragiša Cvetković and Dušan Simović in 1939–1941, as well as in the Yugoslav government-in-exile under Ivan Šubašić. In the Provisional Government of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia dominated by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia and led by Josip Broz Tito, Šutej was a minister without portfoilio. He resigned the post in October 1945 along with Šubašić in protest against KPJ's breaches of the Tito–Šubašić Agreements which were the basis of the government. The HSS boycotted the 1945 Yugoslavian parliamentary election, but Šutej unsuccessfully tried to revive its political work in 1946 before being overruled by the HSS leadership – prompting him to retire from politics.