Prime Minister of Yugoslavia

Last updated
Prime Minister of Yugoslavia
Премијер Југославије
Premijer Jugoslavije
Standard of the Prime Minister of SFR Yugoslavia.svg
Josip Broz Tito uniform portrait.jpg
Longest serving
Josip Broz Tito

2 November 1944 – 29 June 1963
Government of Yugoslavia
Member of Parliament of Yugoslavia
Reports to King of Yugoslavia (Serbs, Croats and Slovenes)(1918–1945)
President of Yugoslavia (1945–1971)
Presidency of Yugoslavia (1971–1992)
Seat Belgrade, Serbia
Nominator King of Yugoslavia (Serbs, Croats and Slovenes)(1918–1945)
Central Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (1945–1992)
Appointer Parliament of Yugoslavia
Precursor Prime Minister of Serbia
President of the National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
Formation1 December 1918 (1 December 1918)
First holder Stojan Protić
Final holder Ante Marković
Abolished14 July 1992 (14 July 1992)
Superseded by Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Prime Minister of Croatia
Prime Minister of North Macedonia
Prime Minister of Serbia and Montenegro
Prime Minister of Slovenia
Deputy Deputy Prime Minister of Yugoslavia

The prime minister of Yugoslavia (Serbian : Премијер Југославије, romanized: Premijer Jugoslavije) was the head of government of the Yugoslav state, from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918 until the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992.

Contents

History

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was created by the unification of the Kingdom of Serbia (Montenegro had united with Serbia five days previously, while the regions of Kosovo and Metohija, Baranya, Syrmia, Banat, Bačka and Vardar Macedonia were parts of Serbia prior to the unification) and the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (itself formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire) on 1 December 1918.

Until 6 January 1929, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was a parliamentary monarchy. On that day, King Alexander I abolished the Vidovdan Constitution (adopted in 1921), prorogued the National Assembly and introduced a personal dictatorship (so-called 6 January Dictatorship). [1] He renamed the country Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929, and although introduced the 1931 Constitution, he continued to rule as a de facto absolute monarch until his assassination on 9 October 1934, during a state visit to France. After his assassination, parliamentary monarchy was put back in place.

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was defeated and occupied on 17 April 1941 after the German invasion. The monarchy was formally abolished and the republic proclaimed on 29 November 1945.

In 1945 there were ten living former prime ministers. Out of these, Nikola Uzunović, Dušan Simović, Miloš Trifunović and Ivan Šubašić lived in the Democratic Federal Republic of Yugoslavia while Petar Živković, Bogoljub Jevtić, Milan Stojadinović, Dragiša Cvetković, Slobodan Jovanović and Božidar Purić remained in exile.

SFR Yugoslavia

After the German invasion and fragmentation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the Partisan resistance in occupied Yugoslavia formed a deliberative council, the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) in 1942. On 29 November 1943 the AVNOJ proclaimed the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, and appointed the National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia (NKOJ), led by Prime Minister Josip Broz Tito, as its government. Josip Broz Tito was quickly recognized by the Allies at the Tehran Conference, and the royalist government-in-exile in London was pressured into agreeing on a merge with the NKOJ. In order to facilitate this, Ivan Šubašić was appointed by the King to head the London government.

For a period, Yugoslavia had two recognized prime ministers and governments (which both agreed to formally merge as soon as possible): Josip Broz Tito leading the NKOJ in occupied Yugoslavia, and Ivan Šubašić leading the King's government-in-exile in London. With the Tito-Šubašić Agreement in 1944, the two prime ministers agreed that the new joint government would be led by Tito. After the liberation of Yugoslavia's capital Belgrade in October 1944, the joint government was officially formed on 2 November 1944, with Josip Broz Tito as the prime minister.

After the war, elections were held ending in an overwhelming victory for Tito's People's Front. The new parliament deposed King Peter II on 29 November 1945, and declared a Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (in 1963, the state was renamed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). The government was first headed by a prime minister up to 14 January 1953, when major decentralization reforms reorganized the government into the Federal Executive Council chaired by a President, who was still usually called "Prime Minister" in non-Yugoslav sources. Josip Broz Tito held the post from 1944 to 1963; from 1953 onward, he was also President of the Republic.

Five out of nine heads of government of Yugoslavia in this period were of Croatian ethnicity. Three were from Croatia itself (Josip Broz Tito, Mika Špiljak, and Milka Planinc), while two were Bosnian Croats (Branko Mikulić and Ante Marković). Ante Marković however, though a Croat from Bosnia and Herzegovina by birth, was a politician of Croatia like Špiljak and Planinc, serving (at different times) as both prime minister and president of the presidency of that federal unit.

List

   People's Radical Party    Democratic Party    Slovene People's Party    Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy / Yugoslav National Party    Yugoslav Radical Union    Croatian Peasant Party    Communist Party of Yugoslavia / League of Communists of Yugoslavia    Union of Reform Forces of Yugoslavia    Socialist Party of Serbia    Independent

No.PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
EthnicityTerm of officePolitical partyElectionCabinetNotes
Took officeLeft officeTime in office
In the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Nikola Pasic cph.3b31626.jpg
Nikola Pašić
(1845–1926)
Acting
Serb 1 December 191822 December 191821 days NRS Pašić XIIActing prime minister, as the last prime minister of Serbia.
1
Stojan protic.jpg
Stojan Protić
(1857–1923)
Serb 22 December 191816 August 1919237 days NRS Protić IFirst Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (that will be renamed to "Yugoslavia").
2
Ljubimir davidovic.jpg
Ljubomir Davidović
(1863–1940)
Serb 16 August 191919 February 1920187 days DS Davidović I.
(1)
Stojan protic.jpg
Stojan Protić
(1857–1923)
Serb 19 February 192016 May 192087 days NRS Protić II.
3
Milenko Vesnic facingright.jpg
Milenko Vesnić
(1863–1921)
Serb 16 May 19201 January 1921230 days NRS 1920 Vesnić.
4
Nikola Pasic cph.3b31626.jpg
Nikola Pašić
(1845–1926)
Serb 1 January 192128 July 19243 years, 209 days NRS 1923 Pašić XIII–XIV–XV–XVI–XVII–XVIII–XIXSecond term.
Vidovdan Constitution adopted on June 28, 1921.
(2)
Ljubimir davidovic.jpg
Ljubomir Davidović
(1863–1940)
Serb 28 July 19246 November 1924101 days DS Davidović IISecond term
(4)
Nikola Pasic cph.3b31626.jpg
Nikola Pašić
(1845–1926)
Serb 6 November 19248 April 19261 year, 153 days NRS 1925 Pašić XX–XXI–XXIIThird term
5
Nikola Uzunovic.jpg
Nikola Uzunović
(1873–1954)
Serb 8 April 192617 April 19271 year, 9 days NRS Uzunović I–II.
6
Velimir vukicevic.jpg
Velimir Vukićević
(1871–1930)
Serb 17 April 192728 July 19281 year, 102 days NRS 1927 Vukićević I–IIResigned after assassination attempt on opposition leader Stjepan Radić in the Parliament.
7
Korosec anton.jpg
Anton Korošec
(1872–1940)
Slovene 28 July 19287 January 1929 [1] 163 days SLS KorošecAppointed after the assassination attempt on Stjepan Radić, until the 6 January Dictatorship.
8
Petar Zivkovic.jpg
Petar Živković
(1879–1947)
Serb 7 January 1929 [1] 4 April 19323 years, 88 days JRSD 1931 ŽivkovićPrime Minister during the 6 January Dictatorship.
Sentenced to death in absentia in 1946.
9
Vojislav Marinkovic.jpg
Vojislav Marinković
(1876–1935)
Serb 4 April 19323 July 193290 days JRSD MarinkovićPreviously a (founding) member of the Democratic Party.
10
Milan Srskic facingright.jpg
Milan Srškić
(1880–1937)
Serb 3 July 193227 January 19341 year, 208 days JRSD Srškić I–II.
(5)
Nikola Uzunovic.jpg
Nikola Uzunović
(1873–1954)
Serb 27 January 193422 December 1934329 days JNS Uzunović IIIThe Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy party was renamed into the Yugoslav National Party.
11
Bogoljub jevtic.jpg
Bogoljub Jevtić
(1886–1960)
Serb 22 December 193424 June 1935184 days JRZ
JNS
1935 Jevtić.
12
Milan Stojadinovic.jpg
Milan Stojadinović
(1888–1961)
Serb 24 June 19355 February 19393 years, 226 days JRZ 1938 Stojadinović I–II–III.
13
Dragisa Cvetkovic (1).jpg
Dragiša Cvetković
(1893–1969)
Serb 5 February 193927 March 19412 years, 50 days JRZ Cvetković I–IISentenced in absentia in 1945. [2]
In the Yugoslav government-in-exile
14
Dusan Simovic.jpg
Dušan Simović
(1882–1962)
Serb 27 March 194111 January 1942290 days Independent Simović Chief of the General Staff of the Royal Yugoslav Army. Took power by military coup d'état. He led government into exile in London.
15
Slobodan Jovanovic (Vreme, 1940).jpg
Slobodan Jovanović
(1869–1958)
Serb 11 January 194226 June 19431 year, 166 days Independent Jovanović I-IIHeaded government-in-exile.
Found guilty of treason in absentia in 1946.
16
Milos Trifunovic.jpg
Miloš Trifunović
(1871–1957)
Serb 26 June 194310 August 194345 days NRS Trifunović Headed government-in-exile
17
Bozidar Puric.jpg
Božidar Purić
(1891–1977)
Serb 10 August 19438 July 1944333 days Independent Purić Headed government-in-exile
18
Aj 10 03 01 subasic s.jpg
Ivan Šubašić
(1892–1955)
Croat 8 July 19442 November 1944117 days HSS Šubašić Headed government-in-exile.
Merged into coalition government on November 2, 1944, with Josip Broz Tito presiding. [3] [4]
In the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
19
(1)
Josip Broz Tito uniform portrait.jpg
Josip Broz Tito
(1892–1980)
Croat 2 November 194429 June 196318 years, 239 days KPJ
SKJ
1945
1950
1953
1958
1963
Tito I–II–III–IV–V–VIHeld post simultaneously (as head of the NKOJ) first with Božidar Purić, then Ivan Šubašić. Headed joint coalition government.
20
(2)
Petar Stambolic 1958.jpg
Petar Stambolić
(1912–2007)
Serb 29 June 196316 May 19673 years, 321 days SKJ Stambolić.
21
(3)
Mika Spiljak.jpg
Mika Špiljak
(1916–2007)
Croat 16 May 196718 May 19692 years, 2 days SKJ Špiljak.
22
(4)
Mitja Ribicic crop.jpg
Mitja Ribičič
(1919–2013)
Slovene 18 May 196930 July 19712 years, 73 days SKJ 1969 Ribičič.
23
(5)
Dzemal Bijedic 1975.jpg
Džemal Bijedić
(1917–1977)
Bosniak 30 July 197118 January 1977 5 years, 172 days SKJ 1974 BijedićKilled in a plane crash. [5]
24
(6)
Veselin Duranovic.jpg
Veselin Đuranović
(1925–1997)
Montenegrin 18 January 1977 [6] 16 May 19825 years, 118 days SKJ 1978 Đuranović .
25
(7)
Milka Planinc.jpg
Milka Planinc
(1924–2010)
Croat 16 May 198215 May 19863 years, 364 days SKJ 1982 Planinc First female head of the government.
26
(8)
Branko Mikulic (1988).jpg
Branko Mikulić
(1928–1994)
Croat 15 May 198616 March 19892 years, 305 days SKJ 1986 MikulićResigned on 30 December 1988, amid widespread protests.
27
(9)
Ante Markovic.jpg
Ante Marković
(1924–2011)
Croat 16 March 198920 December 19912 years, 279 days SRSJ
SKJ
1990MarkovićLast prime minister of Yugoslavia.
League of Communists was dissolved in 1990, Marković formed his own party.
Emblem of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.svg
Aleksandar Mitrović
(1933–2012)
Acting
Serb 20 December 199114 July 1992207 days SPS MarkovićActing prime minister.
Installed by Serbia and Montenegro.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Edwin Leland James (7 January 1929). "KING OF YUGOSLAVIA ASSUMES ALL POWER". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  2. Rehabilitovan Dragiša Cvetković
  3. Lampe, John R.; Yugoslavia as history: twice there was a country; Cambridge University Press, 2000 ISBN   0-521-77401-2
  4. Ramet, Sabrina P.; The three Yugoslavias: state-building and legitimation, 1918-2005; Indiana University Press, 2006 ISBN   0-253-34656-8
  5. Malcolm Browne (19 January 1977). "Bijedic, Yugoslav Prime Minister, Is Killed in Crash of Executive Jet". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  6. "Montenegrin Is Appointed Premier of Yugoslavia". The New York Times. 16 March 1977. Retrieved 13 August 2021.