Prince Álmos

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Álmos
Duke of Hungary, Croatia and Nyitra
Chronicon Pictum P105 Kalman es Almos kibekulese Domoson.JPG
Reconciliation of Kálmán and Álmos ( Illuminated Chronicle ).
Bornc. 1070
Kingdom of Hungary
Died1 September 1127 (aged 5657)
Constantinople, Byzantine Empire
Spouse Predslava of Kiev
Issue Adelaide, Duchess of Bohemia
Béla II, King of Hungary
Hedwig, Margravine of Austria
House House of Árpád
Father Géza I of Hungary
MotherSophia

Álmos (also "Almus", Slovak, Croatian : Almoš; c. 1070  or 1075 [1] – 1 September 1127 [2] ) was a Hungarian prince, the son of King Géza I of Hungary and brother of King Coloman. He held several governmental posts in the Kingdom of Hungary.

Slovak language language spoken in Slovakia

Slovak or less frequently Slovakian is a West Slavic language. It is called slovenský jazyk or slovenčina in the language itself.

Croatian language South Slavic language

Croatian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, and other neighboring countries. It is the official and literary standard of Croatia and one of the official languages of the European Union. Croatian is also one of the official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina and a recognized minority language in Serbia and neighboring countries.

Géza I of Hungary 11th-century King of Hungary

Géza I was King of Hungary from 1074 until his death. He was the eldest son of King Béla I. His baptismal name was Magnus. With German assistance, Géza's cousin Solomon acquired the crown when his father died in 1063, forcing Géza to leave Hungary. Géza returned with Polish reinforcements and signed a treaty with Solomon in early 1064. In the treaty, Géza and his brother, Ladislaus acknowledged the rule of Solomon, who granted them their father's former duchy, which encompassed one-third of the Kingdom of Hungary.

Contents

Life

Early life

Álmos was the younger of the two sons surviving infancy of the future King Géza I. [3] [4] His mother seems to have been his father's first wife, Sophia, because Géza's Byzantine second wife whose baptismal name is unknownreturned to her homeland after her husband's death. [3] Both Álmos and his elder brother, Coloman, were born around 1070, according to the historians Gyula Kristó and Márta Font. [3] [5]

Synadene was a Byzantine Greek woman who briefly acted as queen consort of Hungary, probably in the 1070s. She was most likely married to King Géza I.

Coloman, King of Hungary King of Hungary (1095–1116)

Coloman the Learned, also the Book-Lover or the Bookish was King of Hungary from 1095 and King of Croatia from 1097 until his death. Because Coloman and his younger brother Álmos were underage when their father Géza I died, their uncle Ladislaus I ascended the throne in 1077. Ladislaus prepared Coloman—who was "half-blind and humpbacked", according to late medieval Hungarian chronicles—for a church career, and Coloman was eventually appointed bishop of Eger or Várad in the early 1090s. The dying King Ladislaus preferred Álmos to Coloman when nominating his heir in early 1095. Coloman fled from Hungary but returned around 19 July 1095 when his uncle died. He was crowned in early 1096; the circumstances of his accession to the throne are unknown. He granted the Hungarian Duchy—one-third of the Kingdom of Hungary—to Álmos.

Géza I who ascended the throne in 1074 died on 25 April 1077. [6] He was succeeded by his brother, Ladislaus I, because Coloman and Álmos were still minors. [7] The new king decided that Coloman should be prepared for a career in the Church. [5] The king's decision was unusual, because Coloman was elder than Álmos. [5]

Ladislaus I of Hungary King of Hungary

Ladislaus I or Ladislas I, also Saint Ladislaus or Saint Ladislas was King of Hungary from 1077 and King of Croatia from 1091. He was the second son of King Béla I of Hungary. After Béla's death in 1063, Ladislaus and his elder brother, Géza, acknowledged their cousin, Solomon as the lawful king in exchange for receiving their father's former duchy, which included one-third of the kingdom. They cooperated with Solomon for the next decade. Ladislaus's most popular legend, which narrates his fight with a "Cuman" who abducted a Hungarian girl, is connected to this period. The brothers' relationship with Solomon deteriorated in the early 1070s, and they rebelled against him. Géza was proclaimed king in 1074, but Solomon maintained control of the western regions of his kingdom. During Géza's reign, Ladislaus was his brother's most influential adviser.

In law, a minor is a person under a certain age, usually the age of majority, which legally demarcates childhood from adulthood. The age of majority depends upon jurisdiction and application, but it is generally 18. Minor may also be used in contexts that are unconnected to the overall age of majority. For example, the drinking age in the United States is usually 21, and younger people are sometimes called minors in the context of alcohol law, even if they are at least 18. The term underage often refers to those under the age of majority, but it may also refer to persons under a certain age limit, such as the drinking age, smoking age, age of consent, marriageable age, driving age, voting age, etc. Such age limits are often different from the age of majority.

Between 1084 and 1091 Álmos was the duke of Slavonia; between 1091 and 1095 he was named duke of Croatia. [8] According to the Illuminated Chronicle both Coloman and Álmos accompanied their uncle on a military campaign against Bohemia in the spring of 1095. [9] [10] Before reaching the border of his kingdom, Ladislaus I "was overcome by a grave infirmity" [11] and decided to appoint Álmos as his heir. [10] [12] However, Coloman did not want to respect his uncle's decision and fled to Poland. [13] [14]

Slavonia Historical region of Croatia

Slavonia is, with Dalmatia, Croatia proper and Istria, one of the four historical regions of Croatia. Taking up the east of the country, it roughly corresponds with five Croatian counties: Brod-Posavina, Osijek-Baranja, Požega-Slavonia, Virovitica-Podravina and Vukovar-Srijem, although the territory of the counties includes Baranya, and the definition of the western extent of Slavonia as a region varies. The counties cover 12,556 square kilometres or 22.2% of Croatia, inhabited by 806,192—18.8% of Croatia's population. The largest city in the region is Osijek, followed by Slavonski Brod and Vinkovci.

Bohemia Historical region in the Czech Republic

Bohemia is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. In a broader meaning, Bohemia sometimes refers to the entire Czech territory, including Moravia and Czech Silesia, especially in a historical context, such as the Lands of the Bohemian Crown ruled by Bohemian kings.

Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385) Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385

The Kingdom of Poland was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385.

Conflicts with Coloman

Coloman returned after King Ladislaus had died to claim his rights. [14] According to the Illuminated Chronicle, it was his uncle who had invited him back from Poland. [15] The same source adds that Álmos "in the true simplicity of his heart honoured his brother, Coloman, and yielded to him the crown of the kingdom", [11] which suggests that Coloman ascended the throne without bloodshed. [13] On the other hand, he was only crowned king in early 1096, implying that the two brothers had been fighting for the crown before they reached an agreement. [14] [16] Coloman was crowned in Székesfehérvár by Archbishop Seraphin of Esztergom. [13] According to the Illuminated Chronicle, at the same time he "granted the dukedom with full rights" [17] to Álmos. [18] This report shows that Álmos only acknowledged his brother's rule in exchange for receiving the one-time ducatus or duchy of their father and grandfather, which encompassed one-third of the kingdom. [18] [19]

Székesfehérvár City with county rights in Central Transdanubia, Hungary

The city of Székesfehérvár, known colloquially as Fehérvár, located in central Hungary, is the ninth largest city of the country; regional capital of Central Transdanubia; and the centre of Fejér county and Székesfehérvár District. The area is an important rail and road junction between Lake Balaton and Lake Velence.

The Duchy or Ducatus is the denomination for territories occasionally governed separately by members (dukes) of the Árpád dynasty within the Kingdom of Hungary in the 11th-12th centuries. The symbol of the ducal power was a sword, while the royal power was represented by the crown.

Béla I of Hungary King of Hungary

Béla I the Champion or the Wisent was King of Hungary from 1060 until his death. He descended from a younger branch of the Árpád dynasty. Béla's baptismal name was Adalbert. He left Hungary in 1031, together with his brothers, Levente and Andrew, after the execution of their father, Vazul. Béla settled in Poland and married Richeza, daughter of King Mieszko II of Poland.

After Coloman's victories over the marauding crusaders in 1096, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, whom Ladislaus I had supported against Pope Urban II in his last years, wrote a letter to Duke Álmos. [20] He stated that Coloman had "neglected" his "interests because of his own necessities" [21] and asked Álmos to intervene on his behalf at Coloman. [20] However, the kinga former bishopdid not continue his predecessor's foreign policy and joined the pope's camp. [22] [23] Historian Gyula Kristó writes that the fact that his brother, Álmos had for years had a close relationship with Emperor Henry may also have influenced Coloman's decision. [23]

Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Henry IV was Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 to 1105, king of Germany from 1054 to 1105, king of Italy and Burgundy from 1056 to 1105, and duke of Bavaria from 1052 to 1054. He was the elder of the two sons of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Agnes of Poitou. He was designated as his father sole heir on Christmas 1050. His father died on 5 October 1056 and the six-year-old Henry was placed under his mother's guardianship. Empress Agnes made lavish grants to the German aristocrats to secure their support. Unlike her late husband, she could not control the election of the popes, thus the idea of the "freedom of the church" spread during her rule. Taking advantage of the Empress's weakness, Archbishop Anno II of Cologne kidnapped Henry in April 1062. Anno administered Germany until Henry came of age in 1065, but Archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg gained the young King's confidence.

Pope Urban II pope

Pope Urban II, born Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was Pope from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099.

Coloman invaded Croatia and participated himself in the campaign in 1097. [16] Taking advantage of Coloman's absence, Álmos began to conspire against the king and mustered his armies. [24] Coloman returned from Croatia and marched towards his brother's duchy with his troops in 1098. [24] The two armies encountered at Tiszavárkony, only the river Tisza separated them. [25] However, the commanders of the two troops started negotiations and decided not to fight against each other, compelling Coloman and Álmos to make a peace. [25] [26]

[Coloman] and his army marched to [Tiszavárkony] against [Álmos], and [Álmos] drew near to [Tiszavárkony] from the opposite direction, and between them was the river [Tisza]. But loyal Hungarians sought to bring about a truce, in order that they could talk with each other, and they said: "Why do we fight? If they defeat us in battle, we shall die; and if they escape, they will flee: in times past our fathers fought against each other and brothers against brothers, and they died. Nor do we see any ground for fighting. Let those two fight if fighting pleases them; and whichever of them shall win, let us take as lord." Having taken this decision, the chief men dispersed. When Grak told [Coloman] of their decision and Ilia informed [Álmos], they kept the peace, though it was not by their own will.

Final confrontation

Almos and his son, Bela are blinded on Coloman's order (from the Illuminated Chronicle) Almos herceg.jpg
Álmos and his son, Béla are blinded on Coloman's order (from the Illuminated Chronicle )

The conflict was renewed a few years later between the two brothers, when Coloman had his four-year-old son, Stephen, crowned in 1105, which resulted in the open rebellion of Álmos. [28] [29] The duke left Hungary and sought the assistance of Emperor Henry IV against the king. [30] However, he realized that the emperor, who was facing a rebellion of his own son, could not help him. [30] Álmos returned to Hungary in 1106, but soon fled to his brother-in-law, Boleslaw III of Poland. [28] [25] With Polish assistance, he took the fortress of Abaújvár in Hungary. [31] As a result, Coloman had a meeting with Boleslaw III and the two monarchs "vowed perpetual friendship and brotherhood". [31] [32] [33] Without the Polish monarch's support Álmos was forced to yield to Coloman. [31]

Coloman had the blind Almos imprisoned before his death (from the Illuminated Chronicle) Chronicon Pictum P106 Almos elfogatasa.JPG
Coloman had the blind Álmos imprisoned before his death (from the Illuminated Chronicle )

King Coloman decided to take advantage of the absence of Álmoswho had made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and seized his duchy in 1107 or 1108. [31] Although Álmos was allowed to keep his own private property, the annexation of his duchy ensured the integrity of Coloman's kingdom. [32] Having returned from the Holy Land, Álmos decided to set up a monastery at Dömös. [32] On the occasion of its consecration, where Coloman was also present, Álmos wasfalsely, according to the Illuminated Chronicleaccused of an assassination attempt on the monarch. [32] Coloman decided to have his brother arrested, but "the most reverend bishops and other well-disposed dignitaries" intervened on Álmos's behalf and "thus reconciliation was solemnly sworn" [34] between the king and his brother. [32]

Álmos left for Passau. [31] Upon his request, Henry V of Germany invaded Hungary and laid siege to Pressburg (Bratislava, Slovakia) in September 1108. [35] [31] At the same time, Duke Svatopluk of Bohemia, who also supported Álmos, made an incursion into the regions north of the Danube. [35] However, Coloman's ally, Boleslaw III invaded Bohemia, forcing the Czech duke to withdraw. [31] [36] Although the emperor's attempt to take Pressburg was also a total failure, he could persuade Coloman to forgive his rebellious brother, who thus return to Hungary. [37]

Coloman discovered that Álmos was again conspiring to seize the throne. [38] [39] Having lost his patience, Coloman had Álmos and Álmos's young son, Béla, blinded in order to secure a peaceful succession for his own son. [38] On the same occasion, many of his brother's partisans were likewise mutilated. [40] After this Álmos went on to live in seclusion at the monastery of Dömös. Coloman died in 1116. His son, Stephen was crowned king in Székesfehérvár in the month of his father's death. [41] His peaceful succession proves that the safety measures Coloman had implemented to prevent Álmos from aspiring the throne were effective. [42] [43]

Exile

According to the Illuminated Chronicle, the blind Álmos, "fearing death at the hands of King Stephen", [44] fled to the Byzantine Empire. [45] [46] Many of his partisans followed him and Emperor John II Komnenos settled them in a town in Macedonia. [47] The Byzantine John Kinnamos confirms that the emperor "regarded" Álmos "favorably and received him with kindness". [48] He adds that king Stephen II "sent his envoys to the emperor and demanded that" Álmos "be expelled from" [49] the Byzantine Empire, but his request was rejected. [47] [50] The sources do not specify the date of Álmos's flee, but it seems to have occurred in about 1125. [47] Historian Ferenc Makk writes that Álmos was forced to flee from Hungary, because he had taken advantage of Stephen's failures in Volhynia and Dalmatia and conspired against Stephen. [46] Álmos died in exile on 1 September 1127. [51]

His son Béla the Blind would succeed as king of Hungary in 1131. The duke's remains were returned to Hungary in 1137.

Family

On August 21, 1104 Álmos married Predslava of Kiev, [54] and had the following children:

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  • Stephenson, Paul (2000). Byzantium's Balkan Frontier: A Political Study of the Northern Balkans, 9001204. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-02756-4.
Prince Álmos
Born:c. 1070 Died: 1 September 1127
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Stephen II
Duke of Croatia
for Ladislaus I

10911095
Succeeded by
Petar Svačić
Preceded by
Lampert
Duke of Nyitra
10951108
Succeeded by
Last creation
Preceded by
Demetrius Zvonimir
Duke of Slavonia
1084–1091
Succeeded by
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