Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn

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Prince Arthur
Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught.jpg
Prince Arthur in 1915
Governor General of Canada
In office13 October 1911 – 11 November 1916
Monarch George V
Predecessor The Earl Grey
Successor The Duke of Devonshire
Prime Minister
Born(1850-05-01)1 May 1850
Buckingham Palace, London, England
Died16 January 1942(1942-01-16) (aged 91)
Bagshot Park, Surrey, England
Burial19 March 1942
Spouse
Issue
Full name
Arthur William Patrick Albert
House Windsor (from 1917)
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
(until 1917)
Father Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Mother Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom
Military career
Service/branchFlag of the British Army.svg  British Army
Years of service1868–1942
Rank Field Marshal
Unit Royal Engineers
Royal Regiment of Artillery
Rifle Brigade
Commands held Inspector-General of the Forces
Commander-in-Chief, Ireland
Third Army Corps
Aldershot Command
Southern Command
Bombay Army
Battles/wars Fenian Raids Anglo-Egyptian War
First World War
Second World War
Awards Volunteer Officers' Decoration
Territorial Decoration

Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (Arthur William Patrick Albert; 1 May 1850 16 January 1942) was the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. He served as the Governor General of Canada, the tenth since Canadian Confederation and the only British prince to do so. In 1910 he was appointed Grand Prior of the Order of St John and held this position until 1939.

Queen Victoria British monarch who reigned 1837–1901

Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.

Albert, Prince Consort Husband of Queen Victoria

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the husband of Queen Victoria.

Governor General of Canada representative of the monarch of Canada

The Governor General of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The person of the sovereign is shared equally both with the 15 other Commonwealth realms and the 10 provinces of Canada, but resides predominantly in her oldest and most populous realm, the United Kingdom. The Queen, on the advice of her Canadian prime minister, appoints a governor general to carry out most of her constitutional and ceremonial duties. The commission is for an unfixed period of time—known as serving at Her Majesty's pleasure—though five years is the normal convention. Beginning in 1959, it has also been traditional to rotate between anglophone and francophone officeholders—although many recent governors general have been bilingual. Once in office, the governor general maintains direct contact with the Queen, wherever she may be at the time.

Contents

Arthur was educated by private tutors before entering the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich at the age of 16. Upon graduation, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the British Army, where he served for some 40 years, seeing service in various parts of the British Empire. During this time he was also created a royal duke, becoming the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, as well as the Earl of Sussex. In 1911, he was appointed as Governor General of Canada, replacing the Earl Grey as viceroy. He occupied this post until he was succeeded by the Duke of Devonshire in 1916. He acted as the King's, and thus the Canadian Commander-in-Chief's, representative through the first years of the First World War.

Royal Military Academy, Woolwich military academy in Woolwich, in south-east London

The Royal Military Academy (RMA) at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army military academy for the training of commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. It later also trained officers of the Royal Corps of Signals and other technical corps. RMA Woolwich was commonly known as "The Shop" because its first building was a converted workshop of the Woolwich Arsenal.

A lieutenant is the junior most commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations.

British Army land warfare branch of the British Armed Forces of the United Kingdom

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular (full-time) personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve (part-time) personnel.

After the end of his viceregal tenure, Arthur returned to the United Kingdom and there, as well as in India, performed various royal duties, while also again taking up military duties. Though he retired from public life in 1928, he continued to make his presence known in the army well into the Second World War, before his death in 1942. He was Queen Victoria's last surviving son.

Early life

A painting of Queen Victoria with Prince Arthur by Franz Xaver Winterhalter. Queen Victoria with Prince Arthur.jpg
A painting of Queen Victoria with Prince Arthur by Franz Xaver Winterhalter.

Arthur was born at Buckingham Palace on 1 May 1850, the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The prince was baptised by the Archbishop of Canterbury, John Bird Sumner, on 22 June in the palace's private chapel. His godparents were Prince William of Prussia (the later King of Prussia and German Emperor Wilhelm I); his great-uncle's sister-in-law, Princess Bernard of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (for whom his maternal grandmother the Duchess of Kent stood proxy); and the Duke of Wellington, with whom he shared his birthday and after whom he was named. [1] [2] As with his older brothers, Arthur received his early education from private tutors. It was reported that he became the Queen's favourite child. [3]

Buckingham Palace Official London residence and principal workplace of the British monarch

Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the monarch of the United Kingdom. Located in the City of Westminster, the palace is often at the centre of state occasions and royal hospitality. It has been a focal point for the British people at times of national rejoicing and mourning.

Archbishop of Canterbury senior bishop of the Church of England

The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. The current archbishop is Justin Welby, who was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013. Welby is the 105th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to Augustine of Canterbury, the "Apostle to the English", sent from Rome in the year 597. Welby succeeded Rowan Williams.

John Bird Sumner Archbishop of Canterbury; Bishop of Chester; British Anglican bishop

John Bird Sumner was a bishop in the Church of England and Archbishop of Canterbury.

Military career

It was at an early age that Arthur developed an interest in the army, and in 1866 he followed through on his military ambitions by enrolling at the Royal Military College at Woolwich, from where he graduated two years later and was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Corps of Royal Engineers on 18 June 1868. [4] The Prince transferred to the Royal Regiment of Artillery on 2 November 1868 and, [5] on 2 August 1869, to the Rifle Brigade, [6] his father's own regiment, after which he conducted a long and distinguished career as an army officer, including service in South Africa, Canada in 1869, Ireland, Egypt in 1882, and in India from 1886 to 1890.

Woolwich district in South East London, England

Woolwich is a district of south-east London, England, within the Royal Borough of Greenwich. Originally a town in Kent, it has been part of the London metropolitan area since the 19th century. In 1965, most of the former Metropolitan Borough of Woolwich became part of Greenwich Borough, of which it remains the administrative centre.

Royal Engineers corps of the British Army

The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army.

In Canada, Arthur, as an officer with the Montreal detachment of the Rifle Brigade, [2] undertook a year's training and engaged in defending the Dominion from the Fenian Raids; there was initially concern that his personal involvement in Canada's defence might put the Prince in danger from Fenians and their supporters in the United States, but it was decided his military duty was primary. [2] Following his arrival at Halifax, Arthur toured the country for eight weeks and made a visit in January 1870 to Washington, D.C., where he met with President Ulysses S. Grant. [2] [7] During his service in Canada he was also entertained by Canadian society; among other activities, he attended an investiture ceremony in Montreal, was a guest at balls and garden parties, and attended the opening of parliament in Ottawa (becoming the first member of the royal family to do so), [7] all of which was documented in photographs that were sent back for the Queen to view. It was not, however, all social and state functions for Arthur; the Prince was on 25 May 1870 engaged in fending off Fenian invaders during the Battle of Eccles Hill, for which he received the Fenian Medal. [8]

Montreal City in Quebec, Canada

Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Originally called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with warm to hot summers and cold, snowy winters.

A Dominion was the "title" given to the semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867. "Dominion status" was a constitutional term of art used to signify an independent Commonwealth realm; they included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland, South Africa, and the Irish Free State, and then from the late 1940s also India, Pakistan, and Ceylon. The Balfour Declaration of 1926 recognised the Dominions as "autonomous Communities within the British Empire", and the 1931 Statute of Westminster confirmed their full legislative independence.

President of the United States Head of state and of government of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

Prince Arthur met with the Chiefs of the Six Nations of the Grand River at the Mohawk Chapel in 1869. Prince Arthur Mohawk Chapel Canada 1869.jpg
Prince Arthur met with the Chiefs of the Six Nations of the Grand River at the Mohawk Chapel in 1869.

Arthur made an impression on many in Canada. He was given on 1 October 1869 the title Chief of the Six Nations by the Iroquois of the Grand River Reserve in Ontario and the name Kavakoudge (meaning the sun flying from east to west under the guidance of the Great Spirit), enabling him to sit in the tribe's councils and vote on matters of tribe governance. As he became the 51st chief on the council, his appointment broke the centuries-old tradition that there should only be 50 chiefs of the Six Nations. [9] Of the Prince, Lady Lisgar, wife of then Governor General of Canada the Lord Lisgar, noted in a letter to Victoria that Canadians seemed hopeful Prince Arthur would one day return as governor general. [10]

Iroquois Northeast Native American confederacy

The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy. They were known during the colonial years to the French as the Iroquois League, and later as the Iroquois Confederacy, and to the English as the Five Nations, comprising the Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, and Seneca. After 1722, they accepted the Tuscarora people from the Southeast into their confederacy and became known as the Six Nations.

Six Nations of the Grand River Indian reserve in Ontario, Canada

Six Nations is the largest First Nations reserve in Canada. As of the end of 2017, it has a total of 27,276 members, 12,848 of whom live on the reserve. It is the only reserve in North America that has representatives of all six Iroquois nations living together. These nations are the Mohawk, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Seneca and Tuscarora. Some Lenape also live in the territory.

Great Spirit

The Great Spirit, known as Wakan Tanka among the Sioux, Gitche Manitou in Algonquian, and in many Native American and First Nations cultures as the divine or the sacred, is the supreme being, God, or a conception of universal spiritual force.

Arthur was promoted to the honorary rank of colonel on 14 June 1871, [11] substantive lieutenant-colonel in 1876, [2] colonel on 29 May 1880 and, [12] on 1 April 13 years later, was made a general. [2] He gained military experience as Commander-in-Chief of the Bombay Army from December 1886 to March 1890. [13] He went on to be General Officer Commanding Southern District, at Portsmouth, from September 1890 [14] [15] to 1893. [16] The Prince had hoped to succeed his first cousin once-removed, the elderly Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, as Commander-in-chief of the British Army, upon the latter's forced retirement in 1895. But this desire was denied to Arthur, and instead he was given, between 1893 [17] and 1898, command of the Aldershot District Command. [14]

In August 1899 the 6th Battalion, Rifles of the Canadian Non-Permanent Active Militia, located in Vancouver, British Columbia, asked Prince Arthur to give his name to the regiment and act as its honorary colonel. The regiment had recently been converted to the infantry role from the 2nd Battalion, 5th British Columbia Regiment of Canadian Artillery. With the Prince's agreement the unit was renamed 6th Regiment, Duke of Connaught's Own Rifles (DCORs) on 1 May 1900. He was subsequently appointed colonel-in-chief of the regiment, then known as The British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own), in 1923. He held that appointment until his death.

On 26 June 1902 he was promoted to the post of field marshal, and thereafter served in various important positions, including Commander-in-Chief of Ireland, from January 1900 [18] to 1904, with the dual position of commander of the Third Army Corps from October 1901, [19] and Inspector-General of the Forces, between 1904 and 1907.

Peerage, marriage, and family

On his mother's birthday (24 May) in 1874, Arthur was created a royal peer, being titled as the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn and Earl of Sussex. [20] Some years later, Arthur came into the direct line of succession to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in Germany, upon the death in 1899 of his nephew, Prince Alfred of Edinburgh, the only son of his elder brother, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh. He decided, however, to renounce his own and his son's succession rights to the duchy, which then passed to his other nephew, Prince Charles Edward, the posthumous son of Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany. [21]

The Duke and Duchess of Connaught with their three children, 1893. ArthurConnaughtfamille.jpg
The Duke and Duchess of Connaught with their three children, 1893.

At St. George's Chapel in Windsor Castle, on 13 March 1879, Arthur married Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia, the daughter of Prince Frederick Charles and a great-niece of the German Emperor, Arthur's godfather, Wilhelm I. The couple had three children: Princess Margaret Victoria Charlotte Augusta Norah (born 15 January 1882), Prince Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert (born 13 January 1883), and Princess Victoria Patricia Helena Elizabeth (born 17 March 1886), who were all raised at the Connaughts' country home, Bagshot Park, in Surrey, and after 1900 at Clarence House, the Connaughts' London residence. Through his children's marriages, Arthur became the father-in-law of Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden; Princess Alexandra, Duchess of Fife; and Sir Alexander Ramsay. Arthur's first two children predeceased him; Margaret while pregnant with his sixth grandchild. [n 1] For many years, Arthur maintained a liaison with Leonie, Lady Leslie, sister of Jennie Churchill, while still remaining devoted to his wife. [22]

Alongside his military career, he continued to undertake royal duties beyond, or vaguely associated with, the army. On the return from a posting in India, he again, this time with his wife, toured Canada in 1890, stopping in all major cities across the country. [9] He also toured Canada in 1906. [23] In 1910, Arthur travelled aboard the Union-Castle Line ship Balmoral Castle to South Africa, to open the first parliament of the newly formed union, [24] and in Johannesburg on 30 November he laid a commemorative stone at the Rand Regiments Memorial, dedicated to the British soldiers that died during the Second Boer War. [25] When his brother was obliged to resign the office upon his accession in 1901 as King Edward VII, Prince Arthur was elected as Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England and was subsequently re-elected as such an additional 37 times before 1939, when the Prince was nearly 90 years of age.

Governor General of Canada

It was announced on 6 March 1911 that King George V had, by commission under the royal sign-manual, approved the recommendation of his British prime minister, H.H. Asquith, to appoint Arthur as his representative. [26] His brother-in-law, the Duke of Argyll, had previously served as the country's governor general, but when Arthur was sworn in on 13 October 1911 in the salon rouge of the parliament buildings of Quebec, [27] he became the first Governor General of Canada who was a member of the British royal family. [26]

The Duke of Connaught with his staff in 1913. He was appointed as the Governor General of Canada from 1911 to 1916. HRH the Duke of Connaught and staff (HS85-10-26905).jpg
The Duke of Connaught with his staff in 1913. He was appointed as the Governor General of Canada from 1911 to 1916.

To Canada, Arthur brought with him his wife and his youngest daughter, the latter of whom would become an extremely popular figure with Canadians. The Governor General and his viceregal family travelled throughout the country, performing such constitutional and ceremonial tasks as opening parliament in 1911 (to which Arthur wore his field marshal's uniform and the Duchess of Connaught wore the gown she had worn at the King's coronation the previous year) and, [27] in 1917, laying at the newly rebuilt Centre Block on Parliament Hill the same cornerstone his older brother, the late King Edward VII, had set on 1 September 1860, when the original building was under construction. The family crossed the country a number of times and the Governor General made another trip to the United States in 1912, when he met with President William Howard Taft. [28]

When in Ottawa, Connaught maintained a routine of four days each week at his office on Parliament Hill and held small, private receptions for members of all political parties and dignitaries. The Duke learned to ice skate and hosted skating parties at the royal and viceroyal residence Rideau Hall to which the Connaughts made many physical improvements during Arthur's term as governor general. The royal family also took to camping and other outdoor sports, such as hunting and fishing. [29]

Prince Arthur and his viceregal party visit the Valcartier military base in 1914. Postcard of Vice-Regal Visit to Valcartier Military Base 1914.jpg
Prince Arthur and his viceregal party visit the Valcartier military base in 1914.

In 1914, the First World War broke out, with Canadians called to arms against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Arthur maintained a wider role in the empire for instance, from 1912 until his death, serving as Colonel-in-Chief of the Cape Town Highlanders Regiment [30] but the Connaughts remained in Canada after the beginning of the global conflict, with Arthur emphasising the need for military training and readiness for Canadian troops departing for war, and giving his name to Connaught Cup for the Royal Northwest Mounted Police, to encourage pistol marksmanship for recruits. He was also active in auxiliary war services and charities and conducted hospital visits. Though well intended, upon the outbreak of the war, Arthur immediately donned his field marshal's uniform and went, without advice or guidance from his ministers, to training grounds and barracks to address the troops and to see them off before their voyage to Europe. This was much to the chagrin of Prime Minister Robert Borden, who saw the Prince as overstepping constitutional conventions. [31] Borden placed blame on the military secretary, Edward Stanton (whom Borden considered to be "mediocre"), but also opined that Arthur "laboured under the handicap of his position as a member of the royal family and never realised his limitations as Governor General." [32] At the same time, the Duchess of Connaught worked for the Red Cross and other organisations to support the war cause. She was also Colonel-in-Chief of the Duchess of Connaught's Own Irish Canadian Rangers battalion, one of the regiments in the Canadian Expeditionary Force, and Princess Patricia also lent her name and support to the raising of a new Canadian army regiment Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry.

His term as Canada's Governor General ended in 1916.

Following the war, Arthur commissioned in memory of Canada's fallen a stained glass window which is located in St. Bartholomew's Church, Ottawa, next to Rideau Hall, and which the family attended regularly.

Later life

Portrait by Philip de Laszlo, 1937. Laszlo - Prince Arthur, The Duke of Connaught and Strathearn.jpg
Portrait by Philip de László, 1937.

After his years in Canada, the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn held no similar public offices but undertook a number of public engagements. In 1921, he travelled to India, where he officially opened the new Central Legislative Assembly, Council of State, and Chamber of Princes. [33] As president of the Boy Scouts Association and one of Lord Baden-Powell's friends and admirers, he performed the official opening of the 3rd World Scout Jamboree at Arrowe Park.

The Duke also returned to military service and continued well into the Second World War, [34] where he was seen as a grandfather figure by aspiring recruits. The Duchess, who had been ill during their years at Rideau Hall, died in March 1917, and Arthur mostly withdrew from public life in 1928; his last formal engagement was the opening of the Connaught Gardens in Sidmouth, Devon, on 3 November 1934.

Death

He died on 16 January 1942 at Bagshot Park, at the age of 91 years, 8 months and 15 days, the same age to the day as his elder sister, Louise, Duchess of Argyll, who had died three years before. A funeral service for the Duke was held at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle on 23 January, after which his body was placed temporarily in the Tomb House beneath the Albert Memorial Chapel in Windsor. [35] He was buried on 19 March 1942 in the Royal Burial Ground, Frogmore. [36] [37] He was the second last of Queen Victoria's children to die, with his younger sister Princess Beatrice dying two years later.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

As a member of the royal family and having been a viceroy, Prince Arthur held a number of titles and styles during his life. He was also the recipient of many honours, both domestic and foreign. He was an active member of the military, eventually reaching the rank of Field Marshal, and served as personal aide-de-camp to four successive sovereigns.

Arms

Issue

ImageNameBirthDeathNotes
Margaret of Connaught.jpg Princess Margaret of Connaught 15 January 18821 May 1920married, 15 June 1905, Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden; had issue. Grandchildren include Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Queen Anne-Marie of Greece and Margarethe II of Denmark.
Prince Arthur of Connaught Garter.jpg Prince Arthur of Connaught 13 January 188312 September 1938married, 15 October 1913, Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife; had issue
Princess Patricia.jpg Princess Patricia of Connaught 17 March 188612 January 1974married, 27 February 1919, Captain Sir Alexander Ramsay, renouncing her title and becoming Lady Patricia Ramsay; had issue

Ancestry

See also

Named in his honour:

Notes

  1. Through Princess Margaret, the reigning monarchs of Sweden and Denmark are descended from the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn.

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  20. "No. 24098". The London Gazette . 26 May 1874. p. 2779.
  21. "House Laws of the Saxe-Coburg and Gotha". Heraldica.org.
  22. King, Greg (2007). Twilight of Splendor: The Court of Queen Victoria During Her Diamond Jubilee. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. p. 59. ISBN   978-0-470-04439-1.
  23. Edmonton Bulletin, 9 March 1906
  24. Cox, Martin. "Union-Castle Line – A brief Company History". Maritime Matters. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2008.
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  26. 1 2 Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Governor General > Former Governors General > Field Marshal His Royal Highness the Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 30 April 2009.
  27. 1 2 Bousfield 2010 , p. 85
  28. Bousfield 2010 , p. 86
  29. Bousfield 2010 , p. 87
  30. "History – Past Royal Connections". Cape Town Highlanders Website (Unofficial). Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  31. Hubbard, R.H. (1977). Rideau Hall. Montreal and London: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN   978-0-7735-0310-6.
  32. Borden, Robert (1 January 1969). Memoires. 1. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart. pp. 601–602.
  33. Harrison, Brian, ed. (2004), "Arthur, Prince, first duke of Connaught and Strathearn", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, I, Oxford: Oxford University Press
  34. Bell, Edward (4 June 1939), Letter to Mrs. E.I.J. Bell, The Letter Repository, retrieved 25 April 2010
  35. "The Late Duke of Connaught". The Times (49189). London. 20 March 1942. p. 7.
  36. "Duke Of Connaught Dead In England, 91. Last of Four Sons of Queen Victoria, Governor General of Canada, 1911-16. King Orders Mourning. Senior Field Marshal of the British Army Had a Notable Career in Armed Forces". New York Times . 17 January 1942. p. 8.
  37. Coincidentally this was exactly the same age at which his elder sister, Princess Louise, Dowager Duchess of Argyll, died, making them jointly the two longest-lived of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert's nine children with him being the longest-lived living at almost 92.
  38. "British Royalty Cadency". Heraldica. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  39. Louda, Jiří; Maclagan, Michael (1999). Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe. London: Little, Brown. p. 34. ISBN   1-85605-469-1.
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Cadet branch of the House of Wettin
Born: 1 May 1850 Died: 16 January 1942
Government offices
Preceded by
The Earl Grey
Governor General of Canada
1911–1916
Succeeded by
The Duke of Devonshire
Military offices
Preceded by
Sir Charles Arbuthnot
C-in-C, Bombay Army
1886–1890
Succeeded by
Sir George Greaves
Preceded by
Sir Leicester Smyth
GOC Southern District
18901893
Succeeded by
Sir John Davis
Preceded by
Sir Evelyn Wood
GOC-in-C Aldershot Command
1893–1898
Succeeded by
Sir Redvers Buller
Preceded by
The Lord Roberts of Kandahar
Commander-in-Chief, Ireland
1900–1904
Succeeded by
The Lord Grenfell
Preceded by
New post
Inspector-General of the Forces
1904–1907
Succeeded by
Sir John French
Preceded by
Sir William Thomas Knollys
Colonel of the Scots Guards
1883–1904
Succeeded by
The Lord Methuen
Preceded by
The Duke of Cambridge
Colonel of the Grenadier Guards
1904–1942
Succeeded by
Princess Elizabeth
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Prince of Wales
Great Master of the Order of the Bath
1901–1942
Succeeded by
The Duke of Gloucester
Preceded by
The Earl of Ducie
Senior Privy Counsellor
1921–1942
Succeeded by
The Duke of Portland
Masonic offices
Preceded by
The Prince of Wales
Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge
of England

1901–1939
Succeeded by
The Duke of Kent
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
1874–1942
Succeeded by
Alastair Windsor