Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany

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Prince Edward
Duke of York and Albany
Edward, Duke of York (Pompeo Batoni).jpg
Born(1739-03-25)25 March 1739
Norfolk House, St James's Square, Westminster
Died17 September 1767(1767-09-17) (aged 28)
Prince's Palace, Monaco-Ville
Burial1 November 1767
Full name
Edward Augustus
House Hanover
Father Frederick, Prince of Wales
Mother Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Military career
AllegianceFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
Service/branchNaval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg  Royal Navy
Years of service1759–1767
Rank Vice-admiral of the blue
Battles/wars Seven Years' War
Edward (left) and George examining a map of the fortifications of Portsmouth - a detail from George Knapton's The Children of Frederick, Prince of Wales, 1751 PrincesEdwardAndGeorge.jpg
Edward (left) and George examining a map of the fortifications of Portsmouth – a detail from George Knapton's The Children of Frederick, Prince of Wales, 1751

Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, KG , PC , FRS (Edward Augustus; [1] 25 March 1739 – 17 September 1767) was the younger brother of George III of the United Kingdom and the second son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

Fellow of the Royal Society Elected Fellow of the Royal Society, including Honorary, Foreign and Royal Fellows

Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a 'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science, and medical science'.

George III of the United Kingdom King of Great Britain and Ireland

George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, and never visited Hanover.

Contents

Early life

Prince Edward (centre), together with his brother, the future George III and their tutor, Francis Ayscough, Dean of Bristol, ca. 1749 Francis Ayscough with the Prince of Wales (later King George III) and Edward Augustus, Duke of York and Albany by Richard Wilson.jpg
Prince Edward (centre), together with his brother, the future George III and their tutor, Francis Ayscough, Dean of Bristol, ca. 1749

The young prince was baptised Edward Augustus, at Norfolk House, by The Bishop of Oxford, Thomas Secker, and his godparents were his great-uncle The King in Prussia (for whom The Duke of Queensberry stood proxy), The Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (who was represented by Lord Carnarvon), and his maternal aunt The Duchess of Saxe-Weissenfels (for whom Lady Charlotte Edwin, a daughter of the late 4th Duke of Hamilton, stood proxy). [2]

Norfolk House

Norfolk House, at 31 St James's Square, Westminster, was built in 1722 for Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk.

The Bishop of Oxford is the diocesan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Oxford in the Province of Canterbury; his seat is at Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford. The current bishop is Steven Croft, following the confirmation of his election to the See on 6 July 2016.

Thomas Secker Archbishop of Canterbury

Thomas Secker was the Archbishop of Canterbury in the Church of England.

As a boy, Prince Edward, with his brother, went through long hours of schooling in arithmetic, Latin, geometry, writing, religion, French, German, Greek and even dancing to be well rounded. For the future George III, the young Prince Edward was his only constant companion, but it was Edward who was their mother's favourite. As he grew up, quite unlike his simple and solitary brother, Prince Edward became a very popular figure in London society. Those who knew Prince Edward described him as silly, frivolous, rather a chatter-box, someone who loved a good practical joke and who did not keep the most upright company. [3] [ better source needed ]

Seven Years War

Prince Edward, aged 15, by Liotard Edward Augustus, Duke of York 1754 by Liotard.jpg
Prince Edward, aged 15, by Liotard

Prince Edward showed an interest in naval affairs and sought permission to serve with the Royal Navy. He participated in the naval descents against the French coast taking part in the failed Raid on St Malo, which ended in the Battle of St. Cast in 1758.

Royal Navy Maritime warfare branch of the United Kingdoms military

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.

He was promoted to captain of HMS Phoenix on 14 June 1759. [4] [5] He was made rear-admiral of the blue in 1761 and vice-admiral of the blue in 1762. [6]

Captain (Royal Navy) senior officer rank of the Royal Navy

Captain (Capt) is a senior officer rank of the Royal Navy. It ranks above commander and below commodore and has a NATO ranking code of OF-5. The rank is equivalent to a colonel in the British Army and Royal Marines, and to a group captain in the Royal Air Force. There are similarly named equivalent ranks in the navies of many other countries.

HMS <i>Phoenix</i> (1759)

HMS Phoenix was a 44-gun fifth-rate ship of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1759 and sunk in 1780 and saw service during the American War of Independence.

Later life

The Duke of York and Albany, 1763, as painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Edward, Duke of York and Albany.jpg
The Duke of York and Albany, 1763, as painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds.

He was created Duke of York and Albany and Earl of Ulster by his paternal grandfather, George II, on 1 April 1760. [7]

Duke of York and Albany

Duke of York and Albany was a title of nobility in the Peerage of Great Britain. The title was created three times during the 18th century and was usually given to the second son of British monarchs. The predecessor titles in the English and Scottish peerages were Duke of York and Duke of Albany.

Earl of Ulster Title in the Peerage of United Kingdom

The title of Earl of Ulster has been created six times in the Peerage of Ireland and twice Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since 1928, the title has been held by the Duke of Gloucester and is used as a courtesy title by the Duke's eldest son, currently Alexander Windsor, Earl of Ulster. Ulster, one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland, consists of nine counties, six of which make up Northern Ireland, the remainder are in Ireland.

George II of Great Britain British monarch

George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.

When Edward's brother ascended the throne on 25 October 1760 as George III, he named Edward a privy counsellor.

From the time his brother became king and until the birth of the king's first child, the future George IV, on 12 August 1762, the duke was heir presumptive to the British throne.

On 27 July 1765, he was initiated into the Masonic Order. [8]

In the late summer of 1767, on his way to Genoa, the duke fell ill and had to be landed in the harbour of Monaco. Despite the care and attention he was given, he died in the Palace of Honoré III, Prince of Monaco, on 17 September. The state bedchamber where the ill duke died has since been known as the York Room. After his death, his body was returned to London aboard HMS Montreal, and is interred in Westminster Abbey. [9]

Legacy

The Duke of York and Albany in the robes of the Order of the Garter, approx. 1764-1765 Edward, Duke of York.jpg
The Duke of York and Albany in the robes of the Order of the Garter, approx. 1764–1765

Literature

TO

His ROYAL HIGHNESS

EDWARD

Duke of YORK

Sir,

PERMIT me to take this method of thanking your Royal Highness, for condescending to like the following Sketch. Or, in other Words, permit me to let the World know that this ſame Cub has been laughed at by the Duke of YORK;---- has been read to your Royal Highness by the Genius himself, and warmed by the immediate beams of your kind Indulgence.

HAD I been able to conceal this, I should have imagined that I had not the least Spark of the Enthusiasm of Parnassus in my Composition.---- To be so deficient in Vanity, which, if I am not mistaken, may be reckoned an inseparable Characteristic of a Poet.

THIS Trifle, SIR, would not presume to interrupt you, when engaged in matters of Consequence. It only begs leave to pay it's Respects in an hour devoted to cheerful Festivity.

I wish your Royal Highness a long, a merry, and a happy Life; and am,

Your obliged

Devoted Servant. [10]

Places and people named after Prince Edward

Titles, styles, honour and arms

Coat of arms of the Prince Edward, the Duke of York and Albany Coat of Arms of Edward Augustus, Duke of York and Albany.svg
Coat of arms of the Prince Edward, the Duke of York and Albany

Titles and styles

Honours

Arms

Edward was granted use of the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of five points, the centre bearing a cross gules, the other points each bearing a canton gules. [11]

Ancestors

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. 1 2 In The London Gazette, the Prince is called simply 'Prince Edward' (16 November 1756; 28 June 1757; 18 April 1758; 27 October 1759; 1 January; 2 February 1760)
  2. Yvonne's Royalty Home Page: Royal Christenings. Users.uniserve.com. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  3. "The Mad Monarchist: Royal Profile: Prince Edward Duke of York". The Mad Monarchist. 30 December 2009.
  4. Haydn, Joseph (1851). Book of Dignities; containing Rolls of the Official Personages of the British Empire. London: Longman, Brown, Greene, and Longman. p. 285.
  5. A political index to the histories of Great Britain & Ireland, or, a complete register of the hereditary honours, public offices, and persons in office : from the earliest periods to the present time. Archive.org. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  6. Joseph Haydn and Horace Ockerby, The Book of Dignities, London 1894, p. 814
  7. Yvonne's Royalty: Peerage. Mypage.uniserve.ca. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  8. "The History". Loyal and True Masonic Lodge No 4050.
  9. Winfield, Rif (2007). British Warships in the Age of Sail 1793–1817: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates. Seaforth Publishing. p. 190. ISBN   1-86176-246-1.
  10. The Cub at Newmarket (1762). James Boswell .info. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  11. "Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family". Heraldica.org. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  12. Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 4.