Prince Edward Islands

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Prince Edward Islands
PrEdwIsl Map.png
Map of Prince Edward Islands
Orthographic projection centered on the Prince Edward Island.png
Orthographic projection centred on the Prince Edward Islands
Geography
Location Indian Ocean
Coordinates 46°53′19″S37°44′08″E / 46.888739°S 37.735658°E / -46.888739; 37.735658 Coordinates: 46°53′19″S37°44′08″E / 46.888739°S 37.735658°E / -46.888739; 37.735658
Area335 km2 (129 sq mi)
Highest elevation1,242 m (4,075 ft)
Highest point Mascarin Peak
Administration
Demographics
Population0 (Uninhabited – Permanent)
50 (Research Staff – Non-Permanent)
Designations
Designated24 January 1997
Reference no.1688 [1]

The Prince Edward Islands are two small islands in the sub-antarctic Indian Ocean that are part of South Africa. The islands are named Marion Island (named after Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne) and Prince Edward Island (named after Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn).

Indian Ocean The ocean between Africa, Asia, Australia and Antarctica (or the Southern Ocean)

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi). It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica.

South Africa Republic in the southernmost part of Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European (White), Asian (Indian), and multiracial (Coloured) ancestry.

Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne, with the surname sometimes spelt Dufresne, was a Breton-born French explorer who made important discoveries in the south Indian Ocean, in Tasmania and in New Zealand. Du Fresne was killed by Māori in 1772.

Contents

The islands in the group have been declared Special Nature Reserves under the South African Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, No. 57 of 2003, and activities on the islands are therefore restricted to research and conservation management. [2] [3] Further protection was granted when the area was declared a "Marine Protected Area" in 2013. [4] [5] The only human inhabitants of the islands are the staff of a meteorological and biological research station run by the South African National Antarctic Programme on Marion Island.

Meteorology Interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere focusing on weather forecasting

Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data. It was not until after the elucidation of the laws of physics and more particularly, the development of the computer, allowing for the automated solution of a great many equations that model the weather, in the latter half of the 20th century that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved.

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. Despite the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis.

The South African National Antarctic Programme is the South African government's programme for research in the Antarctic and Subantarctic. Three research stations fall under this programme: the Antarctica research station SANAE IV, and one station each on the subantarctic islands Gough Island and Marion Island. These stations are managed and administered by the Directorate: Antarctic and Islands of the Department of Environmental Affairs.

History

Prince Edward, after whom the islands are named Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn by Sir William Beechey.jpg
Prince Edward, after whom the islands are named

The islands were discovered on 4 March 1663 by Barent Barentszoon Lam of the Dutch East India Company ship Maerseveen and were named Dina (Prince Edward) and Maerseveen (Marion), [6] but the islands were erroneously recorded to be at 41° South, and neither were found again by subsequent Dutch sailors. [7] [8] In January 1772, the French frigate Le Mascarin, captained by Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne, visited the islands and spent five days trying to land, thinking they had found Antarctica (then not yet proven to exist). [9] Marion named the islands Terre de l'Espérance (Marion) and Ile de la Caverne (Pr. Edward). [7] After failing to land, Le Mascarin continued eastward, discovering the Crozet Islands and landing at New Zealand, where Marion du Fresne and some of his crew were killed and eaten by Māori natives. Julien Crozet, navigator and second in command of Le Mascarin, survived the disaster, and happened to meet James Cook at Cape Town in 1776, at the onset of Cook's third voyage. [10] Crozet shared the charts of his ill-fated expedition, and as Cook sailed from Cape Town, he passed the islands on 13 December, but was unable to attempt a landing due to bad weather. [9] Cook named the islands after Prince Edward, the fourth son of King George III; and though he is also often credited with naming the larger island Marion, after Captain Marion, this name was adopted by sealers and whalers who later hunted the area, to distinguish the two islands. [11]

The Dutch East India Company was an early megacorporation founded by a government-directed amalgamation of several rival Dutch trading companies (voorcompagnieën) in the early 17th century. It was established on March 20, 1602 as a chartered company to trade with India and Indianised Southeast Asian countries when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade. It has been often labelled a trading company or sometimes a shipping company. However, VOC was in fact a proto-conglomerate company, diversifying into multiple commercial and industrial activities such as international trade, shipbuilding, and both production and trade of East Indian spices, Formosan sugarcane, and South African wine. The Company was a transcontinental employer and an early pioneer of outward foreign direct investment. The Company's investment projects helped raise the commercial and industrial potential of many underdeveloped or undeveloped regions of the world in the early modern period. In the early 1600s, by widely issuing bonds and shares of stock to the general public, VOC became the world's first formally-listed public company. In other words, it was the first corporation to be listed on an official stock exchange. It was influential in the rise of corporate-led globalisation in the early modern period.

Antarctica Polar continent in the Earths southern hemisphere

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,000,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Crozet Islands commune in terres australes et antarctiques françaises, France

The Crozet Islands are a sub-antarctic archipelago of small islands in the southern Indian Ocean. They form one of the five administrative districts of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.

The first recorded landing on the islands was in 1799 by a group of French seal hunters of the Sally. [11] Another landing in late 1803 by a group of seal hunters led by American captain Henry Fanning of the Catharine found signs of earlier human occupation. [12] The islands were frequented by sealers until about 1810, when the local fur seal populations had been nearly eradicated. [11] The first scientific expedition to the islands was led by James Clark Ross, who visited in 1840 during his exploration of the Antarctic, but was unable to land. [11] Ross sailed along the islands on 21 April 1840. He made observations on vast numbers of penguins ("groups of many thousands each"), and other kinds of sea-birds. He also saw fur seals, which he supposed to be of the species Arctocephalus falklandicus. [13] The islands were finally surveyed during the Challenger Expedition, led by Captain George Nares, in 1873. [14]

James Clark Ross British explorer and naval officer

Sir James Clark Ross was a British Royal Navy explorer known for his exploration of the Arctic with Sir William Parry and Sir John Ross, his uncle, and in particular, his own expedition to Antarctica.

Ross expedition

The Ross expedition was a voyage of scientific exploration of the Antarctic in 1839 to 1843, led by James Clark Ross, with two unusually strong warships, HMS Erebus and HMS Terror. It explored what is now called the Ross Sea and discovered the Ross Ice Shelf. On the expedition, Ross discovered the Transantarctic Mountains and the volcanoes Erebus and Terror, named after his ships. The young botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker made his name on the expedition.

Fur seal subfamily of mammals

Fur seals are any of nine species of pinnipeds belonging to the subfamily Arctocephalinae in the family Otariidae. They are much more closely related to sea lions than true seals, and share with them external ears (pinnae), relatively long and muscular foreflippers, and the ability to walk on all fours. They are marked by their dense underfur, which made them a long-time object of commercial hunting. Eight species belong to the genus Arctocephalus and are found primarily in the Southern Hemisphere, while a ninth species also sometimes called fur seal, the northern fur seal, belongs to a different genus and inhabits the North Pacific.

The sealing era lasted from 1799 to 1913. During that period visits by 103 vessel are recorded, seven of which ended in shipwreck. [15] Sealing relics include iron trypots, the ruins of huts and inscriptions. The occasional modern sealing vessel visited from Cape Town, South Africa, in the 1920s.

Try pot

A try pot is a large pot used to remove and render the oil from blubber obtained from cetaceans and pinnipeds, and also to extract oil from penguins. Once a suitable animal such as a whale had been caught and killed, the blubber was stripped from the carcass in a process known as flensing. The raw blubber was then cut into pieces and heated in the try pots to extract the oil.

Cape Town Capital city of the Western Cape province and legislative capital of South Africa

Cape Town is the oldest city in South Africa, colloquially named the Mother City. It is the legislative capital of South Africa and primate city of the Western Cape province. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality.

The islands have been the location of other shipwrecks. In June 1849 the brig Richard Dart, with a troop of Royal Engineers under Lt. James Liddell, was wrecked on Prince Edward island; only 10 of the 63 on board survived to be rescued by elephant seal hunters from Cape Town. [16] In 1908 the Norwegian vessel Solglimt was shipwrecked on Marion Island, and survivors established a short-lived village at the north coast, before being rescued. [12] [17] The wreck of the Solglimt is the best-known in the islands, and is accessible to divers. [12]

In 2003, the South African government declared the Prince Edward Islands a Special Nature Reserve, and in 2013 declared 180,000 km2 (69,000 sq mi) of ocean waters around the islands a Marine Protection Area, thus creating one of the world's largest environmental protection areas. [5]

Marion Research Station

In 1908 the British government assumed ownership of the islands. In late 1947 and early 1948, South Africa, with Britain's agreement, annexed the islands and installed the meteorological station on Transvaal Cove on the north-east coast of Marion Island. [7] The research station was soon enlarged and today studies regional meteorology and the biology of the islands, in particular the birds (penguins, petrels, albatrosses, gulls) and seals.

A new research base was built from 2001 to 2011 to replace older buildings on the site. [18] The access to the station is either by boat or helicopter. [19] A helipad and storage hangar is located behind the main base structure. [18] [20]

As of 2017, the PRIZM experiment has operated on Marion island, searching for signatures of the Hydrogen line in the early universe. [21]

Geography and geology

The island group is about 955  nmi (1,769 km; 1,099 mi) south-east of Port Elizabeth in mainland South Africa. At 46 degrees latitude, the distance to the equator is only slightly longer than to the South Pole. Marion Island ( 46°54′45″S37°44′37″E / 46.91250°S 37.74361°E / -46.91250; 37.74361 (Marion Island) ), the larger of the two, is 25.03 km (15.55 mi) long and 16.65 km (10.35 mi) wide with an area of 290 km2 (112 sq mi) and a coastline of some 72 km (45 mi), most of which is high cliffs. The highest point on Marion Island is Mascarin Peak (formerly State President Swart Peak), reaching 1,242 m (4,075 ft) above sea level. [22] The topography of Marion Island includes many hillocks and small lakes, and boggy lowland terrain with little vegetation. [23]

Prince Edward Island. Prince Edward Island, South Africa, EO-1 ALI satellite image, 5 May 2009.jpg
Prince Edward Island.

Prince Edward Island ( 46°38′39″S37°56′36″E / 46.64417°S 37.94333°E / -46.64417; 37.94333 (Prince Edward Island) ) is much smaller—only about 45 km2 (17 sq mi), 10.23 km (6.36 mi) long and 6.57 km (4.08 mi) wide—and lies some 12 nmi (22.2 km; 13.8 mi) to the north-east of Marion Island. The terrain is generally rocky, with high cliffs (490 m or 1,608 ft) on its south western side. [23] At the van Zinderen Bakker Peak north-west of the center, it reaches a height of 672 metres (2,205 ft). [24] There are a few offshore rocks along the northern coast, like Ship Rock (100 m or 328 ft, north of northernmost point), Boot Rock, about 150 metres (492 ft) off the northern coast, and Ross Rocks (500 m or 1,640 ft, from the shore).

Marion Island. Marion Island, South Africa, EO-1 ALI satellite image, 5 May 2009.jpg
Marion Island.

Both islands are of volcanic origin. [23] Marion Island is one of the peaks of a large underwater shield volcano that rises some 5,000 metres (16,404 ft) from the sea floor to the top of Mascarin Peak. The volcano is active, with eruptions having occurred between 1980 and 2004. [22]

Climate

Despite being located inside the south temperate zone at 46 degrees latitude, the islands have a tundra climate. They lie directly in the path of eastward-moving depressions all year round and this gives them an unusually cool and windy climate. Strong regional winds, known as the roaring forties, blow almost every day of the year, and the prevailing wind direction is north-westerly. [23] Annual rainfall averages from 2,400 mm (94.5 in) up to over 3,000 mm (118.1 in) on Mascarin Peak. In spite of its very chilly climate it is located closer to the equator than mild northern hemisphere climates such as Paris and Seattle and only one degree farther south than fellow southern hemisphere climates such as Comodoro Rivadavia in Argentina and Alexandra in New Zealand. Many climates on lower latitudes in the opposite hemisphere have far colder winters than Prince Edward Islands due to their maritime moderation, even though temperatures in summer are way short of normal maritime climates.

It rains on average about 320 days a year (about 28 days a month) and the islands are among the cloudiest places in the world; about 1300 hours a year of sunshine occurs on the sheltered eastern side of Marion Island but only around 800 hours occur away from the coast on the wet western sides of Marion and Prince Edward Islands.

Summer and winter have fairly similar climates with cold winds and threat of snow or frost at any time of the year. However, the mean temperature in February (midsummer) is 7.7 °C (45.9 °F) and in August (midwinter) it is 3.9 °C (39.0 °F). [25] [26]

Climate data for Marion Island (1961–1990, extremes 1949–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)25.6
(78.1)
22.9
(73.2)
22.2
(72.0)
19.3
(66.7)
18.4
(65.1)
18.2
(64.8)
18.6
(65.5)
16.5
(61.7)
17.0
(62.6)
17.7
(63.9)
19.2
(66.6)
21.9
(71.4)
25.6
(78.1)
Average high °C (°F)10.6
(51.1)
10.9
(51.6)
10.6
(51.1)
9.2
(48.6)
7.9
(46.2)
7.3
(45.1)
6.6
(43.9)
6.3
(43.3)
6.6
(43.9)
7.7
(45.9)
8.8
(47.8)
9.8
(49.6)
8.5
(47.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)7.2
(45.0)
7.7
(45.9)
7.4
(45.3)
6.2
(43.2)
5.1
(41.2)
4.7
(40.5)
4.1
(39.4)
3.7
(38.7)
3.8
(38.8)
4.5
(40.1)
5.3
(41.5)
6.3
(43.3)
5.5
(41.9)
Average low °C (°F)4.8
(40.6)
5.3
(41.5)
5.0
(41.0)
3.8
(38.8)
2.8
(37.0)
2.2
(36.0)
1.7
(35.1)
1.2
(34.2)
1.4
(34.5)
2.0
(35.6)
2.8
(37.0)
3.8
(38.8)
3.1
(37.6)
Record low °C (°F)−1.5
(29.3)
−1.4
(29.5)
−2.5
(27.5)
−2.2
(28.0)
−3.0
(26.6)
−6.0
(21.2)
−6.0
(21.2)
−5.5
(22.1)
−6.9
(19.6)
−4.7
(23.5)
−3.9
(25.0)
−1.5
(29.3)
−6.9
(19.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)219
(8.6)
195
(7.7)
216
(8.5)
219
(8.6)
232
(9.1)
204
(8.0)
194
(7.6)
187
(7.4)
183
(7.2)
170
(6.7)
170
(6.7)
203
(8.0)
2,399
(94.4)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)211819202223232221191920247
Average relative humidity (%)83848484858685848382828384
Mean monthly sunshine hours 160.4134.7114.290.882.157.565.991.7103.9137.7159.1159.91,357.9
Source #1: NOAA [27]
Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows) [28]

Flora and fauna

View from Marion island of the South African icebreaker SA Agulhas, with a penguin swimming in the water and kelp on the shore SA Agulhas with bull kelp and penguin.jpg
View from Marion island of the South African icebreaker SA Agulhas, with a penguin swimming in the water and kelp on the shore

The islands are part of the Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra ecoregion that includes a small number of subantarctic islands. Because of the paucity of land masses in the Southern Ocean, the islands host a wide variety of species and are critical to conservation. [5] In the cold subantarctic climate, plants are mainly limited to grasses, mosses, and kelp, while lichens are the most visible fungi. The main indigenous animals are insects along with large populations of seabirds, seals [29] and penguins. [30] At least twenty-nine different species of birds are thought to breed on the islands, and it is estimated the islands support upwards of 5 million breeding seabirds, and 8 million seabirds total. [5] Five species of albatross (of which all are either threatened or endangered) are known to breed on the islands, including the wandering albatross, dark-mantled, light-mantled, Indian yellow-nosed and grey-headed albatross. [5] The islands also host fourteen species of petrel, four species of prion, the Antarctic tern, and the brown skua, among others seabirds. [5] [30] Four penguin species are found, including king penguins, Eastern rockhoppers, gentoos and macaroni penguins. [30]

A wandering albatross Diomedea exulans 3 - SE Tasmania.jpg
A wandering albatross

Three species of seal breed on the islands, including the southern elephant seal, the Antarctic fur seal, and the Subantarctic fur seal. [5] The waters surrounding the islands are often frequented by several species of whale, especially orcas, which prey on penguins and seals. [31] Large whales such as southern rights and southern humpbacks, and leopard seals are seen more sporadically, and it remains unclear how large or stable their current local populations are, though it is thought their numbers are significantly down compared to the time of first human contact with the islands. [32] The area saw heavy sealing and whaling operations in the nineteenth century and continued to be subject to mass illegal whaling until the 1970s, with the Soviet Union and Japan allegedly continuing whaling operations into the 1990s. [33] Currently, the greatest ecological threat is the longline fishing of Patagonian toothfish, which endangers a number of seabirds that dive into the water after baited hooks. [5]

Invasive species

The wildlife is particularly vulnerable to introduced species and the historical problem has been with cats and mice. House mice arrived to Marion Island with whaling and sealing ships in the 1800s and quickly multiplied, so much so that in 1949, five domestic cats were brought to the research base to deal with them. [34] The cats multiplied quickly, and by 1977 there were approximately 3,400 cats on the island, feeding on burrowing petrels in addition to mice, and taking an estimated 455,000 petrels a year. [35] Some species of petrels soon disappeared from Marion Island, and a cat eradication programme was established. [34] A few cats were intentionally infected with the highly specific feline panleukopenia virus, which reduced the cat population to about 600 by 1982. [36] The remaining cats were killed by nocturnal shooting, and in 1991 only eight cats were trapped in a 12-month period. [34] [37]

It is believed that no cats remain on Marion Island today, and with the cats gone, the mouse population has sharply increased to "plague like" levels. [35] In 2003, ornithologists discovered that in the absence of other food sources, the mice were attacking albatross chicks and eating them alive as they sat helplessly on their nests. [35] A similar problem has been observed on Gough Island, where a mouse eradication programme is currently planned to begin in 2019, with the island expected to be mouse free by 2021. [38] A programme to eradicate invasive rats on South Georgia Island was completed in 2015, and as of 2016 the island appears to be completely rat free. [39] The geography of Marion Island presents certain obstacles not found on either Gough or South Georgia islands, particularly its large size, high elevations and variable weather. [35] An assessment of the island was completed in May 2015, led by noted invasive species ecologist John Parkes, with the general conclusion that an eradication program is feasible, but will require precise planning. [40]

Both Gough Island and the Prince Edward Islands also suffer from invasive procumbent pearlwort (Sagina procumbens), which is transforming the upland ecosystem and is now considered beyond control. [41]

Logo of Marion Island Marion Island.png
Logo of Marion Island

Marion Island and Prince Edward Island were claimed for South Africa on 29 December 1947 and 4 January 1948 respectively, by a South African Navy force from HMSAS Transvaal under the command of John Fairbairn. [12] On 1 October 1948 the annexation was made official when Governor-General Gideon Brand van Zyl signed the Prince Edward Islands Act, 1948. In terms of the Act, the islands fall under the jurisdiction of the Cape Town Magistrate's Court, and South African law as applied in the Western Cape applies on them. The islands are also deemed to be situated within the electoral district containing the Port of Cape Town; as of 2016 this is ward 115 of the City of Cape Town.

Amateur radio

Cloud Patterns Over the Prince Edward Islands Cloud Patterns Over the Prince Edward Islands.jpg
Cloud Patterns Over the Prince Edward Islands

As of 2014, Marion Island, prefix ZS8, was the third most wanted DXCC "entity" by the amateur radio community. By the end of 2014, it had dropped to 27th, after simultaneous activity by three licencees in the 2013/2014 team. However, their activity was mainly on voice. On Morse telegraphy, the Islands remain the second most wanted entity after North Korea, while on data they are sixth out of 340. [42]

See also

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The Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra is a tundra ecoregion that includes several subantarctic islands in the southern Indian Ocean.

Geography of Tristan da Cunha

Tristan da Cunha is an archipelago of five islands in the southern Atlantic Ocean, the largest of which is the island of Tristan da Cunha itself and the second-largest the remote bird haven Gough Island. It forms part of a wider territory called Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha which includes Saint Helena and Ascension Island.

Introduced mammals on seabird breeding islands

Seabirds include some of the most threatened taxa anywhere in the world. For example, of extant albatross species, 82% are listed as threatened, endangered, or critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The two leading threats to seabirds are accidental bycatch by commercial fishing operations and introduced mammals on their breeding islands. Mammals are typically brought to remote islands by humans either accidentally as stowaways on ships, or deliberately for hunting, ranching, or biological control of previously introduced species. Introduced mammals have a multitude of negative effects on seabirds including direct and indirect effects. Direct effects include predation and disruption of breeding activities, and indirect effects include habitat transformation due to overgrazing and major shifts in nutrient cycling due to a halting of nutrient subsidies from seabird excrement. There are other invasive species on islands that wreak havoc on native bird populations, but mammals are by far the most commonly introduced species to islands and the most detrimental to breeding seabirds. Despite efforts to remove introduced mammals from these remote islands, invasive mammals are still present on roughly 80% of islands worldwide.

Michael John "Mike" Imber was a New Zealand ornithologist known for his research work and expertise on petrels.

Île aux Cochons island in the Crozet archipelago

Île aux Cochons, or Pig Island, is an uninhabited island in the subantarctic Crozet Archipelago. With an area of 67 km2 (26 sq mi) it is the third largest island of the group. Administratively, it is part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.

Île des Pingouins island in the Crozet archipelago

Île des Pingouins, or Penguin Island, is an uninhabited island in the subantarctic Crozet Archipelago of the southern Indian Ocean. With an area of only 3 km2 (1 sq mi) it is one of the smaller islands of the group. Administratively, it is part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands. It is an important nesting site for seabirds.

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Sources