Prince Edward Islands

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Prince Edward Islands
PrEdwIsl Map.png
Map of Prince Edward Islands
Orthographic projection centered on the Prince Edward Island.png
Orthographic projection centred on the Prince Edward Islands
Geography
Location Indian Ocean
Coordinates 46°52′48″S37°45′00″E / 46.88000°S 37.75000°E / -46.88000; 37.75000 Coordinates: 46°52′48″S37°45′00″E / 46.88000°S 37.75000°E / -46.88000; 37.75000
Area335 km2 (129 sq mi)
Highest elevation1,230 m (4040 ft)
Highest point Mascarin Peak
Administration
Province Western Cape
Municipality City of Cape Town
Demographics
Population0 (Uninhabited – Permanent)
50 (Research Staff – Non-Permanent)
Designations
Designated24 January 1997
Reference no.1688 [1]
Prince Edward Islands
Prince Edward Islands Marine Protected Area

The Prince Edward Islands are two small uninhabited islands in the sub-Antarctic Indian Ocean that are part of South Africa. The islands are named Marion Island (named after Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne, 1724–1772) and Prince Edward Island (named after Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, 1767–1820).

Contents

The islands in the group have been declared Special Nature Reserves under the South African Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, No. 57 of 2003, and activities on the islands are therefore restricted to research and conservation management. [2] [3] Further protection was granted when the area was declared a marine protected area in 2013. [4] [5] The only human inhabitants of the islands are the staff of a meteorological and biological research station run by the South African National Antarctic Programme on Marion Island.

History

Prince Edward, after whom the islands are named Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn by Sir William Beechey.jpg
Prince Edward, after whom the islands are named

The islands were discovered on 4 March 1663 by Barent Barentszoon Lam of the Dutch East India Company ship Maerseveen and were named Dina (Prince Edward) and Maerseveen (Marion), [6] but the islands were erroneously recorded to be at 41° South, and neither were found again by subsequent Dutch sailors. [7] [8] In January 1772, the French frigate Le Mascarin, captained by Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne, visited the islands and spent five days trying to land, thinking they had found Antarctica (then not yet proven to exist). [9] Marion named the islands Terre de l'Espérance (Marion) and Ile de la Caverne (Pr. Edward). [7] After failing to land, Le Mascarin continued eastward, discovering the Crozet Islands and landing at New Zealand, where Marion du Fresne and some of his crew were killed and eaten by Māori natives. Julien Crozet, navigator and second in command of Le Mascarin, survived the disaster, and happened to meet James Cook at Cape Town in 1776, at the onset of Cook's third voyage. [10] Crozet shared the charts of his ill-fated expedition, and as Cook sailed from Cape Town, he passed the islands on 13 December, but was unable to attempt a landing due to bad weather. [9] Cook named the islands after Prince Edward, the fourth son of King George III; and though he is also often credited with naming the larger island Marion, after Captain Marion, this name was adopted by sealers and whalers who later hunted the area, to distinguish the two islands. [11]

The first recorded landing on the islands was in 1799 by a group of French seal hunters of the Sally. [11] Another landing in late 1803 by a group of seal hunters led by American captain Henry Fanning of the Catharine found signs of earlier human occupation. [12] The islands were frequented by sealers until about 1810, when the local fur seal populations had been nearly eradicated. [11] The first scientific expedition to the islands was led by James Clark Ross, who visited in 1840 during his exploration of the Antarctic, but was unable to land. [11] Ross sailed along the islands on 21 April 1840. He made observations on vast numbers of penguins ("groups of many thousands each"), and other kinds of sea-birds. He also saw fur seals, which he supposed to be of the species Arctocephalus falklandicus. [13] The islands were finally surveyed during the Challenger Expedition, led by Captain George Nares, in 1873. [14]

The sealing era lasted from 1799 to 1913. During that period visits by 103 vessels are recorded, seven of which ended in shipwreck. [15] Sealing relics include iron trypots, the ruins of huts and inscriptions. The occasional modern sealing vessel visited from Cape Town, South Africa, in the 1920s.

The islands have been the location of other shipwrecks. In June 1849 the brig Richard Dart, with a troop of Royal Engineers under Lt. James Liddell, was wrecked on Prince Edward Island; only 10 of the 63 on board survived to be rescued by elephant seal hunters from Cape Town. [16] In 1908 the Norwegian vessel Solglimt was shipwrecked on Marion Island, and survivors established a short-lived village at the north coast, before being rescued. [12] [17] [18] The wreck of the Solglimt is the best-known in the islands, and is accessible to divers. [12]

On 22 September 1979, a US surveillance satellite known as Vela 6911 noted an unidentified double flash of light, known as the Vela incident, in the waters off the islands. There was and continues to be considerable controversy over whether this event was perhaps an undeclared nuclear test carried out by South Africa and Israel or some other event. [19] The cause of the flash remains officially unknown, and some information about the event remains classified. [20] Today, most independent researchers believe that the 1979 flash was caused by a nuclear explosion. [20] [21] [22] [23]

In 2003, the South African government declared the Prince Edward Islands a Special Nature Reserve, and in 2013 declared 180,000 km2 (69,000 sq mi) of ocean waters around the islands a Marine Protection Area, thus creating one of the world's largest environmental protection areas. [5]

Marion Research Station

In 1908, the British government assumed ownership of the islands. In late 1947 and early 1948, South Africa, with Britain's agreement, annexed the islands and installed the meteorological station on Transvaal Cove on the north-east coast of Marion Island. [7] The research station was soon enlarged and today studies regional meteorology and the biology of the islands, in particular the birds (penguins, petrels, albatrosses, gulls) and seals. [24]

A new research base was built from 2001 to 2011 to replace older buildings on the site. [25] The access to the station is either by boat or helicopter. [26] A helipad and storage hangar is located behind the main base structure. [25] [27]

In April 2017, the South African National Antarctic Programme launched a new astrophysical experiment on Marion Island called Probing Radio Intensity at high-Z from Marion (PRIZM), searching for signatures of the hydrogen line in the early universe. [28]

Geography and geology

The island group is about 955  nmi (1,769 km; 1,099 mi) south-east of Port Elizabeth in mainland South Africa. At 46 degrees latitude, its distance to the equator is only slightly longer than to the South Pole. Marion Island ( 46°54′45″S37°44′37″E / 46.91250°S 37.74361°E / -46.91250; 37.74361 (Marion Island) ), the larger of the two, is 25.03 km (15.55 mi) long and 16.65 km (10.35 mi) wide with an area of 290 km2 (112 sq mi) and a coastline of some 72 km (45 mi), most of which is high cliffs. The highest point on Marion Island is Mascarin Peak (formerly State President Swart Peak), reaching 1,242 m (4,075 ft) above sea level. [29] The topography of Marion Island includes many hillocks and small lakes, and boggy lowland terrain with little vegetation. [30]

Prince Edward Island ( 46°38′39″S37°56′36″E / 46.64417°S 37.94333°E / -46.64417; 37.94333 (Prince Edward Island) ) is much smaller—only about 45 km2 (17 sq mi), 10.23 km (6.36 mi) long and 6.57 km (4.08 mi) wide—and lies some 12 nmi (22.2 km; 13.8 mi) to the north-east of Marion Island. The terrain is generally rocky, with high cliffs (490 m (1,608 ft)) on its south western side. [30] At the van Zinderen Bakker Peak north-west of the center, it reaches a height of 672 m (2,205 ft). [31]

There are a few offshore rocks along the northern coast of Prince Edward Island, like Ship Rock 100 m (328 ft) north of northernmost point, and Ross Rocks 500 m (1,640 ft) from the shore. Boot Rock is about 500 m (1,640 ft) off the northern coast of Marion Island.

Both islands are of volcanic origin. [30] Marion Island is one of the peaks of a large underwater shield volcano that rises some 5,000 m (16,404 ft) from the sea floor to the top of Mascarin Peak. The volcano is active, with eruptions having occurred between 1980 and 2004. [29]

Climate

Despite being located inside the south temperate zone at 46 degrees latitude, the islands have a tundra climate. They lie directly in the path of eastward-moving depressions all year round and this gives them an unusually cool and windy climate. Strong regional winds, known as the roaring forties, blow almost every day of the year, and the prevailing wind direction is north-westerly. [30] Annual rainfall averages from 2,400 mm (94.5 in) up to over 3,000 mm (118.1 in) on Mascarin Peak. In spite of its very chilly climate it is located closer to the equator than mild northern hemisphere climates such as Paris and Seattle and only one degree farther south than fellow southern hemisphere climates such as Comodoro Rivadavia in Argentina and Alexandra in New Zealand. Many climates on lower latitudes in the Northern hemisphere have far colder winters than Prince Edward Islands due to the islands' maritime moderation, even though temperatures in summer are much cooler than those normally found in maritime climates.

It rains on average about 320 days a year (about 28 days a month), and the islands are among the cloudiest places in the world; about 1300 hours a year of sunshine occur on the sheltered eastern side of Marion Island, but only around 800 hours occur away from the coast on the wet western sides of Marion and Prince Edward Islands.

Summer and winter have fairly similar climates with cold winds and threat of snow or frost at any time of the year. However, the mean temperature in February (midsummer) is 7.7 °C (45.9 °F) and in August (midwinter) it is 3.9 °C (39.0 °F). [32] [33]

Climate data for Marion Island (1961–1990, extremes 1949–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)25.6
(78.1)
22.9
(73.2)
22.2
(72.0)
19.3
(66.7)
18.4
(65.1)
18.2
(64.8)
18.6
(65.5)
16.5
(61.7)
17.0
(62.6)
17.7
(63.9)
19.2
(66.6)
21.9
(71.4)
25.6
(78.1)
Average high °C (°F)10.6
(51.1)
10.9
(51.6)
10.6
(51.1)
9.2
(48.6)
7.9
(46.2)
7.3
(45.1)
6.6
(43.9)
6.3
(43.3)
6.6
(43.9)
7.7
(45.9)
8.8
(47.8)
9.8
(49.6)
8.5
(47.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)7.2
(45.0)
7.7
(45.9)
7.4
(45.3)
6.2
(43.2)
5.1
(41.2)
4.7
(40.5)
4.1
(39.4)
3.7
(38.7)
3.8
(38.8)
4.5
(40.1)
5.3
(41.5)
6.3
(43.3)
5.5
(41.9)
Average low °C (°F)4.8
(40.6)
5.3
(41.5)
5.0
(41.0)
3.8
(38.8)
2.8
(37.0)
2.2
(36.0)
1.7
(35.1)
1.2
(34.2)
1.4
(34.5)
2.0
(35.6)
2.8
(37.0)
3.8
(38.8)
3.1
(37.6)
Record low °C (°F)−1.5
(29.3)
−1.4
(29.5)
−2.5
(27.5)
−2.2
(28.0)
−3.0
(26.6)
−6.0
(21.2)
−6.0
(21.2)
−5.5
(22.1)
−6.9
(19.6)
−4.7
(23.5)
−3.9
(25.0)
−1.5
(29.3)
−6.9
(19.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)219
(8.6)
195
(7.7)
216
(8.5)
219
(8.6)
232
(9.1)
204
(8.0)
194
(7.6)
187
(7.4)
183
(7.2)
170
(6.7)
170
(6.7)
203
(8.0)
2,399
(94.4)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)211819202223232221191920247
Average relative humidity (%)83848484858685848382828384
Mean monthly sunshine hours 160.4134.7114.290.882.157.565.991.7103.9137.7159.1159.91,357.9
Source 1: NOAA [34]
Source 2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows) [35]

Flora and fauna

View from Marion island of the South African icebreaker SA Agulhas, with a penguin swimming in the water and kelp on the shore SA Agulhas with bull kelp and penguin.jpg
View from Marion island of the South African icebreaker SA Agulhas, with a penguin swimming in the water and kelp on the shore

The islands are part of the Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra ecoregion that includes a small number of subantarctic islands. Because of the paucity of land masses in the Southern Ocean, the islands host a wide variety of species and are critical to conservation. [5] In the cold subantarctic climate, plants are mainly limited to grasses, mosses, and kelp, while lichens are the most visible fungi. The main indigenous animals are insects along with large populations of seabirds, seals [36] and penguins. [37]

Birds

A wandering albatross Diomedea exulans 3 - SE Tasmania.jpg
A wandering albatross

The islands have been designated an Important Bird Area (IBA) by BirdLife International for their significant seabird breeding populations. [38] At least thirty different species of birds are thought to breed on the islands, and it is estimated the islands support upwards of 5 million breeding seabirds, and 8 million seabirds total. [5] Five species of albatross (of which all are either threatened or endangered) are known to breed on the islands, including the wandering albatross, dark-mantled, light-mantled, Indian yellow-nosed and grey-headed albatross. [5] The islands also host fourteen species of petrel, four species of prion, the Antarctic tern, and the brown skua, among others seabirds. [5] [37] Four penguin species are found: king penguins, Eastern rockhoppers, gentoos and macaroni penguins. [37]

Mammals

Three species of seal breed on the islands: the southern elephant seal, the Antarctic fur seal, and the Subantarctic fur seal. [5] The waters surrounding the islands are often frequented by several species of whale, especially orcas, which prey on penguins and seals. [39] Large whales such as southern rights and southern humpbacks, and leopard seals are seen more sporadically, and it remains unclear how large or stable their current local populations are, though it is thought their numbers are significantly down compared to the time of first human contact with the islands. [40] The area saw heavy sealing and whaling operations in the nineteenth century and continued to be subject to mass illegal whaling until the 1970s, with the Soviet Union and Japan allegedly continuing whaling operations into the 1990s. [41] Currently, the greatest ecological threat is the longline fishing of Patagonian toothfish, which endangers a number of seabirds that dive into the water after baited hooks. [5]

Invasive species

The wildlife is particularly vulnerable to introduced species and the historical problem has been with cats and mice. House mice arrived to Marion Island with whaling and sealing ships in the 1800s and quickly multiplied, so much so that in 1949, five domestic cats were brought to the research base to deal with them. [42] The cats multiplied quickly, and by 1977 there were approximately 3,400 cats on the island, feeding on burrowing petrels in addition to mice, and taking an estimated 455,000 petrels a year. [43] Some species of petrels soon disappeared from Marion Island, and a cat eradication programme was established. [42] A few cats were intentionally infected with the highly specific feline panleukopenia virus, which reduced the cat population to about 600 by 1982. [44] The remaining cats were killed by nocturnal shooting, and in 1991 only eight cats were trapped in a 12-month period. [42] [45] [46]

It is believed that no cats remain on Marion Island today, and with the cats gone, the mouse population has sharply increased to "plague like" levels. [43] In 2003, ornithologists discovered that in the absence of other food sources, the mice were attacking albatross chicks and eating them alive as they sat helplessly on their nests. [43] A similar problem has been observed on Gough Island, where a mouse eradication programme is currently planned to begin in 2019, with the island expected to be mouse free by 2021. [47] A programme to eradicate invasive rats on South Georgia Island was completed in 2015, and as of 2016 the island appears to be completely rat free. [48] The geography of Marion Island presents certain obstacles not found on either Gough or South Georgia islands, particularly its large size, high elevations and variable weather. [43] An assessment of the island was completed in May 2015, led by noted invasive species ecologist John Parkes, with the general conclusion that an eradication programme is feasible, but will require precise planning. [49]

Both Gough Island and the Prince Edward Islands also suffer from invasive procumbent pearlwort (Sagina procumbens), which is transforming the upland ecosystem and is now considered beyond control. [50]

Logo of Marion Island Marion Island.png
Logo of Marion Island

Marion Island and Prince Edward Island were claimed for South Africa on 29 December 1947 and 4 January 1948 respectively, by a South African Navy force from HMSAS Transvaal under the command of John Fairbairn. [12] On 1 October 1948 the annexation was made official when Governor-General Gideon Brand van Zyl signed the Prince Edward Islands Act, 1948. In terms of the Act, the islands fall under the jurisdiction of the Cape Town Magistrate's Court, and South African law as applied in the Western Cape applies on them. The islands are also deemed to be situated within the electoral district containing the Port of Cape Town; as of 2016 this is ward 115 of the City of Cape Town.

Amateur radio

Cloud patterns over the Prince Edward Islands Cloud Patterns Over the Prince Edward Islands.jpg
Cloud patterns over the Prince Edward Islands

As of 2014, Marion Island, prefix ZS8, was the third most wanted DXCC "entity" by the amateur radio community. By the end of 2014, it had dropped to 27th, after simultaneous activity by three licencees in the 2013/2014 team. However, their activity was mainly on voice. On Morse telegraphy, the Islands remain the second most wanted entity after North Korea, while on data they are sixth out of 340. [51]

See also

Citations

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General and cited sources

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The Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands (HIMI) is an Australian external territory comprising a volcanic group of mostly barren Antarctic islands, about two-thirds of the way from Madagascar to Antarctica. The group's overall size is 372 km2 (144 sq mi) in area and it has 101.9 km (63 mi) of coastline. Discovered in the mid-19th century, the islands lie on the Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian Ocean and have been an Australian territory since 1947. They contain Australia's only two active volcanoes. The summit of one, Mawson Peak, is higher than any mountain in all other Australian states or territories, except Dome Argus, Mount McClintock and Mount Menzies in the Australian Antarctic Territory.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kerguelen Islands</span> French-administered sub-Antarctic archipelago

The Kerguelen Islands, also known as the Desolation Islands, are a group of islands in the sub-Antarctic constituting one of the two exposed parts of the Kerguelen Plateau, a large igneous province mostly submerged in the southern Indian Ocean. They are among the most isolated places on Earth, located more than 3,300 kilometres from Madagascar. The islands, along with Adélie Land, the Crozet Islands, Amsterdam and Saint Paul islands, and France's Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean, are part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands and are administered as a separate district.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands</span> British Overseas Territory in the South Atlantic

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean. It is a remote and inhospitable collection of islands, consisting of South Georgia and a chain of smaller islands known as the South Sandwich Islands. South Georgia is 165 kilometres (103 mi) long and 35 kilometres (22 mi) wide and is by far the largest island in the territory. The South Sandwich Islands lie about 700 kilometres (430 mi) southeast of South Georgia. The territory's total land area is 3,903 km2 (1,507 sq mi). The Falkland Islands are about 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) west from its nearest point.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Auckland Islands</span> Volcanic archipelago of New Zealands subantarctic islands

The Auckland Islands are an archipelago of New Zealand, lying 465 kilometres (290 mi) south of the South Island. The main Auckland Island, occupying 510 km2 (200 sq mi), is surrounded by smaller Adams Island, Enderby Island, Disappointment Island, Ewing Island, Rose Island, Dundas Island, and Green Island, with a combined area of 626 km2 (240 sq mi). The islands have no permanent human inhabitants.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Macquarie Island</span> Sub-Antarctic island of Australia

Macquarie Island is an island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, about halfway between New Zealand and Antarctica. Regionally part of Oceania and politically a part of Tasmania, Australia, since 1900, it became a Tasmanian State Reserve in 1978 and was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Crozet Islands</span> Archipelago in the subantarctic French territories

The Crozet Islands are a sub-Antarctic archipelago of small islands in the southern Indian Ocean. They form one of the five administrative districts of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Île Amsterdam</span> Island in the southern Indian Ocean

Île Amsterdam, also known as Amsterdam Island, New Amsterdam, or Nouvelle Amsterdam, is an island of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands in the southern Indian Ocean that together with neighbouring Île Saint-Paul 90 km to the south forms one of the five districts of the territory.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gough Island</span> Island in the South Atlantic

Gough Island, also known historically as Gonçalo Álvares, is a rugged volcanic island in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is a dependency of Tristan da Cunha and part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. It is about 400 km (250 mi) south-east of the Tristan da Cunha archipelago, 2,400 km (1,500 mi) north-east from South Georgia Island, 2,700 km (1,700 mi) west from Cape Town, and over 3,200 km (2,000 mi) from the nearest point of South America.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Campbell Island, New Zealand</span> Island in New Zealand

Campbell Island / Motu Ihupuku is an uninhabited subantarctic island of New Zealand, and the main island of the Campbell Island group. It covers 112.68 square kilometres (43.51 sq mi) of the group's 113.31 km2 (43.75 sq mi), and is surrounded by numerous stacks, rocks and islets like Dent Island, Folly Island, Isle de Jeanette-Marie, and Jacquemart Island, the latter being the southernmost extremity of New Zealand. The island is mountainous, rising to over 500 metres (1,640 ft) in the south. A long fiord, Perseverance Harbour, nearly bisects it, opening out to sea on the east coast.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antipodes Islands</span> Subantarctic archipelago of New Zealand

The Antipodes Islands are inhospitable and uninhabited volcanic islands in subantarctic waters to the south of – and territorially part of – New Zealand. The 21 km2 archipelago lies 860 km to the southeast of Stewart Island/Rakiura, and 730 km to the northeast of Campbell Island. They are very close to being the antipodal point to Normandy in France, meaning that the city farthest away is Cherbourg-en-Cotentin, France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Île Saint-Paul</span>

Île Saint-Paul is an island forming part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands in the Indian Ocean, with an area of 6 km2. The island is located about 90 km (56 mi) south of the larger Île Amsterdam, 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) northeast of the Kerguelen Islands, and 3,000 km (1,900 mi) southeast of Réunion.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Seal Island, South Africa</span> Island in False Bay, South Africa

Seal Island is a small land mass located 5.7 kilometres off the northern beaches of False Bay, near Cape Town in South Africa. The island is so named because of the great number of Cape fur seals that occupy it. It is 5 acres in area and home to 64,000 cape fur seals. It is also home to seabirds, and it is likely that non-marine species fly there to breed as well. The island is an outcrop of the Cape granite, and rises no more than about 4 to 6 metres above the high tide mark. The island is long and narrow – 800 by 50 metres. There is no vegetation, soil of any significance, or beach.

Saint Helena, Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha, as well the other uninhabited islands nearby, are a haven for wildlife in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. The islands are or were home to much endemic flora and fauna, especially invertebrates, and many endemic fish species found in the reef ecosystems off the islands. The islands have been identified by BirdLife International as Important Bird Areas for both their endemic landbirds and breeding seabirds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mascarin Peak</span> Mountain on Marion Island

Mascarin Peak, is the highest mountain on Marion Island, with a height of 1,230 metres (4,040 ft). Marion Island is the largest island of the Prince Edward Islands in the sub-Antarctic Indian Ocean. The islands belong to South Africa and are administered by the South African National Antarctic Programme.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra</span> Ecoregion of several subantarctic islands in the southern Indian Ocean

The Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra is a tundra ecoregion that includes several subantarctic islands in the southern Indian Ocean.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Passage Island (Tasmania)</span> Island in Tasmania, Australia

The Passage Island, part of the Passage Group within the Furneaux Group, is a 253-hectare (630-acre) granite and dolerite island, located in Bass Strait south of Cape Barren Island, in Tasmania, in south-eastern Australia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Great Dog Island (Tasmania)</span> Island in Tasmania, Australia

The Great Dog Island, also known as Big Dog Island, and part of the Great Dog Group within the Furneaux Group, is a 354-hectare (870-acre) granite island, located in Bass Strait, lying south of the Flinders Island and north of the Cape Barren Island, in Tasmania, in south-eastern Australia.

<i>S. A. Agulhas</i> South African ice-strengthened training ship and former polar research vessel

S. A. Agulhas is a South African ice-strengthened training ship and former polar research vessel. She was built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Shimonoseki, Japan, in 1978. S. A. Agulhas was used to service the three South African National Antarctic Programme research bases, Gough Island, Marion Island in the Southern Ocean and SANAE IV in Antarctica, as well as various research voyages.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Geography of Tristan da Cunha</span>

Tristan da Cunha is an archipelago of five islands in the southern Atlantic Ocean, the largest of which is the island of Tristan da Cunha itself and the second-largest, the remote bird haven, Gough Island. It forms part of a wider territory called Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha which includes Saint Helena and Ascension Island.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Introduced mammals on seabird breeding islands</span>

Seabirds include some of the most threatened taxa anywhere in the world. For example, of extant albatross species, 82% are listed as threatened, endangered, or critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The two leading threats to seabirds are accidental bycatch by commercial fishing operations and introduced mammals on their breeding islands. Mammals are typically brought to remote islands by humans either accidentally as stowaways on ships, or deliberately for hunting, ranching, or biological control of previously introduced species. Introduced mammals have a multitude of negative effects on seabirds including direct and indirect effects. Direct effects include predation and disruption of breeding activities, and indirect effects include habitat transformation due to overgrazing and major shifts in nutrient cycling due to a halting of nutrient subsidies from seabird excrement. There are other invasive species on islands that wreak havoc on native bird populations, but mammals are by far the most commonly introduced species to islands and the most detrimental to breeding seabirds. Despite efforts to remove introduced mammals from these remote islands, invasive mammals are still present on roughly 80% of islands worldwide.