|Prince of Hanover|
Hereditary Prince of Brunswick
|Head of the House of Hanover|
|Tenure||30 January 1953 – 9 December 1987|
|Predecessor||Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick|
|Successor||Ernst August, Prince of Hanover|
|Born||18 March 1914|
Braunschweig, Brunswick, Germany
|Died||9 December 1987 73) (aged|
Schulenburg, Pattensen, Lower Saxony, Germany
|Burial||11 December 1987|
Schloss Marienburg, Germany
|Spouse|| Princess Ortrud of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg |
Countess Monika zu Solms-Laubach
|Issue|| Princess Marie, Countess von Hochberg |
Ernst August, Prince of Hanover
Prince Ludwig Rudolph
Alexandra, Princess of Leiningen
|Father||Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick|
|Mother||Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia|
Ernst August, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick, Prince of Hanover : Ernst August Prinz von Hannover; 18 March 1914 – 9 December 1987) was head of the House of Hanover from 1953 until his death.(German
German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.
The House of Hanover, whose members are known as Hanoverians, is a German royal house that ruled Hanover, Great Britain, and Ireland at various times during the 17th through 20th centuries. The house originated in 1635 as a cadet branch of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, growing in prestige until Hanover became an Electorate in 1692. George I became the first Hanoverian monarch of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714. At Victoria's death in 1901, the throne of the United Kingdom passed to her eldest son Edward VII, a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The last reigning members of the House lost the Duchy of Brunswick in 1918 when Germany became a republic.
He was born at Braunschweig, Germany, the eldest son of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick and Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia, the only daughter of Emperor Wilhelm II, Ernest Augustus's third cousin in descent from George III of the United Kingdom. Ernst August's parents were, therefore, third cousins, once removed. From his birth, he was the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick . He was also, shortly after birth in 1914, made a British prince by King George V of the United Kingdom,and was heir to the titles Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh which were suspended under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917.
Braunschweig, also called Brunswick in English, is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker River which connects it to the North Sea via the Aller and Weser Rivers. In 2016, it had a population of 250,704.
Ernest Augustus was the reigning Duke of Brunswick from 2 November 1913 to 8 November 1918. He was a grandson of George V of Hanover, whom the Prussians had deposed from the Hanoverian throne in 1866, and Christian IX of Denmark.
Wilhelm II was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, reigning from 15 June 1888 until his abdication on 9 November 1918 shortly before Germany's defeat in World War I. He was the eldest grandchild of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe, most notably his first cousin King George V of the United Kingdom and Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, whose wife, Alexandra, was Wilhelm and George's first cousin.
The christening of Ernst August in the summer of 1914 was the last great gathering of European monarchs before the start of World War I. He had an illustrious list of godparents: George V of the United Kingdom, Franz Joseph of Austria, Nicholas II of Russia, Ludwig III of Bavaria, Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Prince Adalbert of Prussia, Prince Oskar of Prussia, Prince Maximilian of Baden, the 1st Royal Bavarian Heavy Cavalry Regiment, and all four of his grandparents: the German Emperor and Empress and the Duke and Duchess of Cumberland.
World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II, known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw the fall of the Russian Empire from one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse. He was given the nickname Nicholas the Bloody or Vile Nicholas by his political adversaries due to the Khodynka Tragedy, anti-Semitic pogroms, Bloody Sunday, the violent suppression of the 1905 Russian Revolution, the execution of political opponents, and his perceived responsibility for the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905). Soviet historians portrayed Nicholas as a weak and incompetent leader whose decisions led to military defeats and the deaths of millions of his subjects.
Ludwig III was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918.
He ceased being heir to the duchy of Brunswick at the age of four, when his father abdicated in 1918. After his father's death in 1953, he became head of the House of Hanover.
During World War II, he fought at the Russian Front as Oberleutnant in the staff of Generaloberst Erich Hoepner. He was seriously injured near Charkov in spring 1943. After the 20 July plot in 1944, he was imprisoned for a few weeks by the Gestapo in Berlin.
Erich Hoepner was a German general during World War II. During the Sudeten Crisis, Hoepner joined the Oster Conspiracy to overthrow Adolf Hitler and the Nazi regime should Germany go to war with Czechslovakia. An early proponent of mechanisation and armoured warfare, he was a Wehrmacht army corps commander at the beginning of the war, leading his troops during the invasion of Poland and the Battle of France.
On 20 July 1944, Claus von Stauffenberg and other conspirators attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer of Nazi Germany, inside his Wolf's Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia. The name Operation Valkyrie—originally referring to part of the conspiracy—has become associated with the entire event.
In 1938 his sister, Princess Frederica had married king Paul I of the Hellenes and in 1946 his younger brother Prince George William married Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark, thus becoming the brother-in-law of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.
Frederica of Hanover was Queen consort of Greece as the wife of King Paul.
Prince George William of Hanover was the second eldest son of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick and his wife Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia, the only daughter of Wilhelm II, German Emperor and Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein.
Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark was the fourth child and youngest daughter of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg. The Duke of Edinburgh is her younger brother. Sophie was born at Villa Mon Repos on the island of Corfu in Greece.
Ernest Augustus was himself an heir to the British titles of Prince of Great Britain and Ireland, recognised ad personam for Ernst August's father as well as for him and his siblings by King George V of the United Kingdom on 17 June 1914,Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, Earl of Armagh, which however were all suspended under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917. In addition to being a German, he also held British nationality, after successfully claiming it under the Sophia Naturalization Act 1705 in the case of Attorney-General v. Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover . Nonetheless, a problem arose as foreign royal titles can't be entered into a British passport. Therefore, the titles Prince of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg could not be mentioned there, nor could the British titles due to the Titles Deprivation Act of 1917. The name which was finally entered into his British documents, was thus Ernest Augustus Guelph , with the addition of His Royal Highness . Guelph is thus also the British last name of his siblings and children, all styled Royal Highnesses in the United Kingdom.
In 1961 he sold his remaining properties at Herrenhausen Gardens, including the site of Herrenhausen Palace which had been destroyed by a British bombing raid in 1943. He kept however the Princely House, a small palace built in 1720 by George I of Great Britain for his daughter Anna Louise. Ernest Augustus converted Marienburg Castle into a museum in 1954, after having moved to nearby Calenberg Demesne, which caused a row with his mother who was forced to move out. He also sold the family's exile seat, Cumberland Castle at Gmunden, Austria, to the state of Upper Austria in 1979, but his family foundation based in Liechtenstein kept vast forests, a game park, a hunting lodge, The Queen's Villa and other property at Gmunden. The family property is now managed by his grandson Ernst August.
On 5 September 1951, Ernest Augustus married Princess Ortrud of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (1925–1980).The wedding was attended by many important royal figures, including his sister Queen Frederica and her husband King Paul I of Greece, and the heads of the houses of Saxony, Hesse, Mecklenburg, Oldenburg, and Baden. The wedding was followed with a reception in the Gallery Building at Herrenhausen Gardens, the only part of the House of Hanover's former summer palace still intact, as the palace itself had been burned down during World War II.
His childrenby his first wife are:
Princess Ortrud died in 1980.
Ernest Augustus married again in 1981, Countess Monika zu Solms-Laubach (1929–2015),daughter of Georg, 9th Count of Solms-Laubach, and Johanna, princess of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich.
He died at Schulenburg, Pattensen, Lower Saxony, Germany, aged 73, and was buried next to his first wife on a round bastion of Marienburg Castle (Hanover).
He was portrayed by Daniel Betts in the first season of the Netflix series The Crown .
|Ancestors of Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (1914–1987)|
Patrilineal descent, descent from father to son, is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations - which means that the historically accurate royal house of monarchs of the House of Hanover was the House of Lucca (or Este, or Welf).
This is the descent of the primary male heir. For the complete expanded family tree, see List of members of the House of Hanover.
Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (1914–1987)
Cadet branch of the House of WelfBorn: 18 March 1914 Died: 9 December 1987
|Titles in pretence|
Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick
|— TITULAR —|
King of Hanover
30 January 1953 – 9 December 1987
Reason for succession failure:
Hanover annexed by Prussia in 1866
Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover
|— TITULAR —|
Duke of Brunswick
30 January 1953 – 9 December 1987
Reason for succession failure:
Duchy abolished in 1918
George V was the last king of Hanover, the only child and successor of King Ernest Augustus. George V's reign was ended during the Unification of Germany.
Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, was the eldest child and only son of George V of Hanover and his wife, Marie of Saxe-Altenburg. Ernst August was deprived of the thrones of Hanover upon its annexation by Prussia in 1866 and later the Duchy of Brunswick in 1884. Although he was the senior male-line great-grandson of George III, the Duke of Cumberland was deprived of his British peerages and honours for having sided with Germany in World War I. Ernst August was the last Hanoverian prince to hold a British royal title and the Order of the Garter. His descendants are in the line of succession to the British throne.
Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a German princess who became, by marriage, princess of Prussia, princess of Solms-Braunfels, Duchess of Cumberland in Britain and Queen of Hanover as the consort of Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover.
Ernst August, Prince of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg is head of the royal House of Hanover which held the thrones of the United Kingdom until 1901, of the former Kingdom of Hanover until 1866, and of the sovereign Duchy of Brunswick from 1913 to 1918. As the husband of Princess Caroline of Monaco, he is the brother-in-law of Albert II, Prince of Monaco.
Princess Thyra of Denmark, Danish pronunciation: [ˈtyːʁə], was the youngest daughter and fifth child of Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel. In 1878, she married Ernest Augustus, the exiled heir to the Kingdom of Hanover. As the Kingdom of Hanover had been annexed by Prussia in 1866, she spent most of her life in exile with her husband in Austria.
Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a royal title normally granted to sons and grandsons of reigning and past British monarchs. It is also held by the Duke of Edinburgh, husband of Queen Elizabeth II. The title is granted by the reigning monarch, who is the fount of all honours, through the issuing of letters patent as an expression of the royal will.
The King of Hanover was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the Kingdom of Hanover, beginning with the proclamation of the King of the United Kingdom George III, as "King of Hanover" during the Congress of Vienna, on 12 October 1814 at Vienna, and ending with the kingdom's annexation by Prussia on 20 September 1866.
Ernst August, Hereditary Prince of Hanover is the eldest child of Ernst August, Prince of Hanover, and his former wife Chantal Hochuli.
Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg, VA was Queen of Hanover and the consort of George V, a grandson of George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte.
The following is the Line of succession to the former Hanoverian throne:
Prince Heinrich of Hanover is a historian and publisher in Göttingen with publishing firm MatrixMedia.
Princess Marie Louise of Hanover and Cumberland was the eldest child of Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, and Princess Thyra of Denmark, the youngest daughter of Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Through her father, Marie Louise was a great-great-granddaughter of George III of the United Kingdom and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Princess Alexandra of Hanover and Cumberland was the wife of Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, the last ruling Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
Princess Ortrud of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, was a Princess and a member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg by birth, and through her marriage to Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (1914–1987), a member of the House of Hanover.
Princess Alexandra of Hanover, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Princess of Leiningen, is the wife of Andreas, 8th Prince of Leiningen.
Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg was the wife of Prince Albert of Prussia, Regent for the duchy of Brunswick.