Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester

Last updated

Prince Henry
Duke of Gloucester
Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester.jpg
Prince Henry c. 1945
11th Governor-General of Australia
In office30 January 1945 – 11 March 1947
Predecessor The Lord Gowrie
Successor Sir William McKell
Monarch George VI
Prime ministers
BornPrince Henry of York
(1900-03-31)31 March 1900
York Cottage, Sandringham
Died10 June 1974(1974-06-10) (aged 74)
Barnwell Manor, Northamptonshire
Burial14 June 1974
(m. 1935)
Henry William Frederick Albert
House Windsor (after 1917)
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (before 1917)
Father George V
Mother Mary of Teck
Military career
AllegianceFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Service/branchFlag of the British Army.svg  British Army
Years of active service1919–37
Rank Field Marshal
Unit King's Royal Rifle Corps
10th Royal Hussars
British Expeditionary Force
Battles/wars Second World War

Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (Henry William Frederick Albert; 31 March 1900 – 10 June 1974), was the third son and fourth child of King George V and Queen Mary. He served as Governor-General of Australia from 1945 to 1947, the only member of the British royal family to hold the post.


Henry was the first son of a British monarch to be educated at school, where he excelled at sports, and went on to attend Eton College, after which he was commissioned in the 10th Royal Hussars, a regiment he hoped to command. However, his military career was frequently interrupted by royal duties, and he was nicknamed "the unknown soldier". While big-game shooting in Kenya, he met the future pilot Beryl Markham, with whom he became romantically involved. The court put pressure on him to end the relationship, but he had to pay regular hush-money to avert a public scandal. In 1935, also under parental pressure, he married Lady Alice Montagu Douglas Scott, with whom he had two sons, Princes William and Richard.

From 1939 to 1940, Henry served in France as a liaison officer to Lord Gort. He performed military and diplomatic duties during the rest of the war, then in 1945 was appointed as Australia's governor-general at the request of Prime Minister John Curtin. The post had originally been offered to his younger brother, the Duke of Kent, who died in an air crash. Henry attended the coronation of his niece Queen Elizabeth II in 1953 and carried out several overseas tours, often accompanied by his wife. From 1965, he became incapacitated by a number of strokes. Upon his death, he was succeeded as the Duke of Gloucester by his only living son, Richard.

Prince Henry was the last surviving child of King George V and Queen Mary. His widow, who died at the age of 102, became the longest-lived ever member of the British royal family.

Early life

The royal children in 1912: (Back row l-r) Albert, Henry, and Edward.
(Front row l-r) John, Mary and George Princejohnandfamily.jpg
The royal children in 1912: (Back row l-r) Albert, Henry, and Edward.
(Front row l-r) John, Mary and George

Prince Henry was born on 31 March 1900, at York Cottage, on the Sandringham Estate during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria. [1] His father was the Duke of York (later King George V), the only surviving son of the Prince and Princess of Wales (later King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra). [1] His mother was the Duchess of York (later Queen Mary), the only daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Teck. [1] At the time of his birth, he was fifth in the line of succession to the throne, behind his grandfather, father and two elder brothers.

He was baptised at the private chapel of Windsor Castle on 17 May 1900, by Randall Thomas Davidson, Bishop of Winchester, and his godparents were: Queen Victoria (his great-grandmother); the German Emperor (his first cousin once removed, for whom Prince Albert of Prussia stood proxy); Princess Henry of Battenberg (his paternal great-aunt); the Duchess of Cumberland and Teviotdale (his paternal great-aunt, whose sister, his grandmother the Princess of Wales represented her); Prince George of Greece and Denmark (his first cousin once removed, for whom Prince Henry's paternal grandfather the Prince of Wales stood proxy); Princess Carl of Denmark (his paternal aunt, for whom her sister Princess Victoria of Wales stood proxy); Prince Alexander of Teck (his maternal uncle, for whom Prince Henry's great-uncle the Duke of Cambridge stood proxy); and Field Marshal The Earl Roberts (for whom General Sir Dighton Probyn stood proxy). [2] He was informally known to his family as Harry. [3]

Childhood and education

At Eton College in 1916 Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester circa 1916.jpg
At Eton College in 1916

As a young boy, Prince Henry suffered from ill health very much like his older brother Albert. He also had knocked knees, and had to wear painful leg splints. He was an extremely nervous child, and was often victim to spontaneous fits of crying or giggling, and also like his brother, Henry had a combination of speech disorders. [4] They both had rhotacism, which prevented them from pronouncing the sound r, but while Albert's pronunciation was slightly reminiscent of the "French r", Henry was completely unable to pronounce it, causing the intended r to sound like [w]. On top of this, Henry also had a nasal lisp and an unusually high-pitched tone, resulting in a very distinctive voice. [5]

By 1909, Henry's poor health had become a serious concern for his parents. He was very small for his age and was prone to get very aggressive colds. "You must remember that he is rather fragile and must be treated differently to his two elder brothers who are more robust", wrote Prince George to Henry's tutor, Henry Peter Hansell. [6]

On 6 May 1910, Prince George ascended the throne as George V, and Henry became the third in line to the throne. The King was persuaded by Hansell that it would be good for Henry's character to attend school, where he could interact with boys his age. The King, having previously rejected this proposition for his two elder sons, agreed on the basis that it would help him "behave like a boy and not like a little child". [6] Prince Henry thus became the first son of a British monarch to attend school. After three days at St Peter's Court in Broadstairs as a day boy, Hansell, noticing he liked it, asked the King to send him as a boarder, to which he agreed. [6]

Henry spent three years at St Peter's Court. Academically, he was not very bright, although he did show a particular aptitude in mathematics. Henry's sole interest became sports, particularly cricket and football. "All you write about is your everlasting football of which I am heartily sick", wrote his mother, answering a fully detailed letter from Henry about a match. [6]

In September 1913, Henry started at Eton College. [1] During the First World War, Crown Prince Leopold of Belgium, later Leopold III, was a member of his house (Mr Lubbock's [1] ). His studies did not improve, but his nerves and disposition did. He made friends through his enthusiasm for sports, and his masters were very pleased with him, noting in his report that he was "thoroughly willing, cheerful, modest & obedient". To his father, these values were the most important, having no time or interest in what he called "intellectuals". [6]

By the time he went up to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1919 with his brother Albert, Henry had outgrown all his brothers, both in height and size, and enjoyed very good health. Their stay at Cambridge lasted just one year and was very uneventful for both of them, as they were not allowed to live in college with the other undergraduates, due to their father's fear of their mixing with undesirable company. [6]

Military career

Unlike his brothers, Prince Henry joined the Army rather than the Royal Navy. He attended the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in 1919, [1] and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the King's Royal Rifle Corps on 16 July 1919. [7] On 16 July 1921 he was promoted to lieutenant in the 10th Royal Hussars, [8] [1] with whom he continued to serve. Though he desired to serve in more active roles as a soldier, his position as a senior member of the royal family effectively ruled out any such options. He retained an interest in sport and The Cricketer reported in August 1921 that the touring Philadelphians had had the honour of being presented to Prince Henry at The Oval. [9]

Prince Henry was promoted to captain on 11 May 1927, [10] and was appointed a personal aide-de-camp to his father on 2 August 1929. [11] On 3 March 1931, he was appointed a staff captain and was seconded for service with the 2nd Cavalry Brigade. [12] He was brevetted to major on 2 August 1934, [13] and upon his father's Silver Jubilee the following May, was appointed Colonel-in-Chief of the Gloucestershire Regiment. [14] On 6 July 1935, he was promoted to the substantive rank of major, his final rank as an actively serving officer. [15] On 23 June 1936, he was appointed a personal aide-de-camp to his eldest brother, Edward VIII. [16]

Following his brother's abdication and the accession of his brother the Duke of York as George VI, Prince Henry was effectively retired from active duty, and received a ceremonial promotion to major-general on 1 January 1937, skipping three ranks. [17] He continued to serve as a personal aide-de-camp to the new King, receiving this appointment on 1 February. [18] On 12 March, he received the colonelcy of his former regiment, the 10th Royal Hussars, along with the colonelcies of the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and the Gordon Highlanders. [19] On 28 May, he received an honorary appointment as a captain in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (RNVR), [20] followed by his appointment on 10 November to the honorary colonelcies of the Ceylon Planters' Rifle Corps and the Ceylon Light Infantry (now the Sri Lanka Light Infantry). [21]

Following the outbreak of World War II, he joined the British Expeditionary Force, and was appointed as a Chief Liaison Officer on 4 September 1939. [22] [1] In January 1940, he was appointed to the colonelcies of the Ulster Anti-Aircraft Regiments, the Royal Artillery, and the Territorial Army. [23] He was slightly wounded in 1940 when his staff car was attacked from the air. [1] In August 1940, he was appointed Chief Liaison Officer, GHQ Home Forces. [24] He also became second-in-command of the 20th Armoured Brigade that year, [1] and was promoted to lieutenant-general on 17 September 1941. [25] On 27 October 1944, he was promoted to the rank of full general. [26]

He was appointed a Field Marshal in 1955 [1] and a Marshal of the Royal Air Force in 1958. [27]

Duke of Gloucester

Henry (far right) with his brothers the Prince of Wales and Prince George on Time magazine's cover, 8 August 1927 Princes Edward, Henry, and George Time cover 1927.jpg
Henry (far right) with his brothers the Prince of Wales and Prince George on Time magazine's cover, 8 August 1927

On 31 March 1928, his father created him Duke of Gloucester, Earl of Ulster, and Baron Culloden, three titles that linked him with three parts of the United Kingdom, namely England, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. [28] Prince Henry visited Canada in 1928. [29]

Before his marriage, Prince Henry's greatest ambition was to someday command his regiment, the 10th Royal Hussars, or at least spend as much time in the army as possible. Although he was a capable soldier, as the King's son he was prevented from joining his regiment abroad, and this meant he was generally seen as an outsider to his fellow officers. To his increasing despair, he had to fulfill the many royal duties his father assigned him. [30]

In September 1928, Henry left England with his brother Edward, Prince of Wales, to shoot big game in Africa. The brothers parted in Nairobi, where Henry was to stay for a while. There, he was entertained by Mansfield Markham and his wife Beryl Markham. Beryl and Henry soon started an affair (though sources differ over when the affair started; many say it was not until her visit to England). In November, the brothers were recalled to England due to their father's worsening health, and soon after Beryl returned too. At the Grosvenor Hotel, close to Buckingham Palace, the affair continued with Prince Henry openly hosting parties with her in her suite and drinking too much. [6]

The affair, widely known by the London society, shocked the Queen, to the delight of the Prince of Wales who remarked that "for once, Queen Mary's blue-eyed boy was in trouble instead of himself". The King stepped in, thinking that keeping Henry busy would be the best way to end the affair, as would keeping him from drinking too much, too often. That year, he arranged a series of tours for his son to undertake. [6]

In 1929, he went to Japan to confer the Garter on the Emperor, and a year later he attended the coronation of Haile Selassie of Ethiopia in Addis Ababa. [1] In 1934 George V made him a Knight of St Patrick, Ireland's chivalric order. It was the second to last time this order was awarded (the last appointment being the Duke of York, later George VI, in 1936); at the time of his death, the Duke of Gloucester was the only remaining knight. In 1934, he went to Australia and New Zealand where the people received him with overwhelming enthusiasm that one journalist wrote, "(amounted) to something very near adoration". [30]

He represented Queen Elizabeth II during the Malayan Declaration of Independence on 31 August 1957.

Marriage and family

George Handley (Mayor) and Duke of Gloucester on his visit to Wangaratta 22 Oct 1934 George Handley (Mayor), Duke of Gloucester, visit to Wangaratta 22 Oct 1934.jpg
George Handley (Mayor) and Duke of Gloucester on his visit to Wangaratta 22 Oct 1934
The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester with their two sons William (standing) and Richard in Canberra Duke and Duchess of Gloucester with sons.jpg
The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester with their two sons William (standing) and Richard in Canberra

When he returned from his trip to Japan in 1929, the affair with Markham ended. Her husband wanted a divorce and threatened to disclose Prince Henry's private letters to his wife if he did not "take care of Beryl". The Duke and Beryl never met again, although she did write to him when he visited Kenya in 1950 with his wife, but he did not write back. [31] Prince Henry's solicitors paid out an annuity until her death in 1985. [6]

After his tour of Australia and New Zealand, and pressured by his parents, Prince Henry decided it was time to settle down and proposed to Lady Alice Montagu Douglas Scott, sister of one of Henry's best friends Lord William Montagu Douglas Scott. The proposal, wrote Lady Alice many years later, was not at all romantic as "it was not his way", instead he just "mumbled it as we were on a walk one day". [32] They were married on 6 November 1935. The marriage was originally planned to take place at Westminster Abbey, but was moved to the more modest Private Chapel at Buckingham Palace due to the death of Lady Alice's father, on 19 October 1935, barely a fortnight before the wedding. After suffering two miscarriages, [33] the Duchess of Gloucester gave birth to two sons: [1]

The couple lived first at the Royal Pavilion in Aldershot, near the barracks of the Duke's regiment. "It was a very simple cabin" recalled the Duchess of Gloucester, and "the only royal thing about it was my husband's presence". [32] After his father's death, the Duke bought Barnwell Manor in 1938. [34] As their London seat, they were given York House in St James's Palace. [35]

Abdication of Edward VIII

In December 1936, Henry's brother Edward VIII abdicated the throne to marry divorcée Wallis Simpson. His brother, Prince Albert, ascended the throne as King George VI. Although third in line to the throne, following his two nieces Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret, Henry became the first adult in line, meaning he would act as regent if anything were to happen to the King before Princess Elizabeth came of age on 21 April 1944, her 18th birthday. [36] Because of this, Prince Henry could not leave the UK at the same time as the King. Furthermore, he and his younger brother, the Duke of Kent, had to increase their royal engagements considerably to support the new King. [6]

Edward VIII, who became Duke of Windsor after abdicating, recalled that it was Henry who reacted least to the news of his abdication. The brothers had never been close and, apart from horses, they had not much in common. But Edward did admit regretting the implications the abdication would have on "The Unknown Soldier", a nickname he teasingly used to refer to Henry, owing to his low profile. [37]

The abrupt change in Prince Henry's somewhat carefree life up to that point was made clear by the new King on the very first evening of his reign. "If you two think that, now that I have taken this new job on, you can go on behaving just as you like, in the same old way, you are very much mistaken! You two have to pull yourselves together", the King warned his two younger brothers at dinner. [38]

Although the Duke of Gloucester supported his brother, and later his niece, tirelessly and dutifully, he had a fondness for whisky. On one occasion, Queen Mary wrote to the Duchess suggesting that if they were planning to visit, the Duke should bring his own supply of whisky, "as we have not got much left, and it is so expensive". Even Noble Frankland, who wrote the Duke's biography after his death at the request and under the supervision of the Duchess, wrote that: "He did not eschew a glass of whisky ... or the occasional blasphemous oath." [6] [39]

King George VI had great affection for his younger brother. Circumstances had made them closer following the abdication, and the King trusted Prince Henry with important matters, which he dutifully undertook. Sometimes, though, the organised King found his brother's less systematic manner irritating. On one occasion after a day of shooting at Balmoral Castle, the King found a mistake on his shot-game record, where there seemed to be a pair of grouse missing. A member of staff suggested that the King call and ask the Duke of Gloucester, who was staying at Birkhall. When the Duke confirmed he had taken the birds, the King's gruff warning to his brother that he should never again take birds without telling him surprised the member of staff. [40]

Second World War

After the outbreak of World War II, the Duke of Gloucester, as Chief Liaison Officer to Lord Gort, spent almost the entire first year of the war in France. Besides boosting the troops' morale, he was useful as a first-hand witness of the situation; he reported to government officials and to the King, to whom he continually wrote detailed and objective accounts of what was happening. Always eager to get involved, the Duke often found himself in dangerous situations, but did not seem overly worried. "Motoring about is not nice as many villages are being bombed", he wrote to his wife in his usual straightforward and dismissive manner. The Duke's two narrowest escapes both came in May 1940.

Having known King Leopold III of Belgium from school days, the Duke wanted to meet him personally to offer support after rumours began circulating that Belgium would surrender to Germany. On 14 May, he and his brother-in-law, Lord William Scott, drove from Hotel Univers in Arras into Belgium to see the King of the Belgians at a secret location. That night, Hotel Univers was bombed, resulting in several deaths, including those staying in the rooms next to the Duke's. The Duke wrote to his brother that King Leopold was "very depressed". As the Duke and Lord William Scott drove back, they were caught up in heavy enemy bombing in Tournai, where their car caught fire. They managed to get out and dive into an alleyway, although not unscathed as the Duke needed medical attention for a profusely bleeding wound. [41]

Although generally optimistic, Prince Henry did sometimes suffer from bouts of depression during his service in 1940, especially at the end of his occasional leaves. "My beloved Alice, I did hate leaving you yesterday so very much that I could hardly keep a straight face", he wrote to his wife after reporting back. The strains of living at the French front also diminished his resolve at times: "I think I hate this country and war more than ever... it is such an awful waste of everything", he told the Duchess. [41] [42]

In June, after the fall of Dunkirk, the Duke was ordered back to England by an embarrassed General Headquarters, which had not been able to assure the King's brother's safety. "Wherever I went or had been, I was bombed", the Duke explained to his mother, amused. [41]

In early 1942 the King arranged a four-month-long military and diplomatic mission for the Duke to the Middle East, India, and East Africa. [43] The mission came just after Prince Henry had become a father for the first time, and it was considered a dangerous trip, as the Germans were rapidly advancing toward some of the territories the Duke would visit. The King even wrote to his sister-in-law that he would act as guardian of the newly born Prince William if anything should happen to his brother. [41] [44]

After Prince Henry's younger brother, the Duke of Kent, died in a plane crash in Scotland in August 1942, it was decided that the Duke of Gloucester would not be sent on any further missions that could prove dangerous. [44]

Governor-General of Australia

The Duke of Gloucester when Governor-General of Australia in 1945 Duke of Gloucester in Canberra on August 1945.jpg
The Duke of Gloucester when Governor-General of Australia in 1945

In late 1944 the Duke was unexpectedly appointed Governor-General of Australia [1] after the death in 1942 of his younger brother, the Duke of Kent, who had previously been offered the position. [45]

The Duke had made a successful visit to Australia in 1934. Because the Duke was shy, [1] he sometimes appeared stiff and formal, but he and the Duchess travelled widely in Australia using his own plane during their time in office. When Prime Minister Curtin died in 1945, the Duke appointed Frank Forde as prime minister.

Gloucester left Australia in March 1947, after two years in the post, due to the need to act as Senior Counsellor of State during a visit by George VI and Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret to South Africa. [1] As a parting gift, he left his own plane for use by the government and people of Australia.

Later life

Stamp of Australia, 1945, showing the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, when the Duke became Governor-General Australia stamp Gloucesters 1945.jpg
Stamp of Australia, 1945, showing the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, when the Duke became Governor-General

In May 1949, May 1961, May 1962, and May 1963, the Duke served in the office of Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, which temporarily afforded him precedence in Scotland immediately below the King and Queen.

The Duke attended the coronation of his niece Elizabeth II in 1953. Both the Duke and Duchess carried out royal engagements, including several overseas tours. [1] In 1954 the Duke served as the Treasurer of the Honourable Society of Gray's Inn. He suffered a series of strokes in later years; [1] his first was in 1965 while he and his wife, Alice, were returning from Sir Winston Churchill's funeral ceremony in their vehicle, which resulted in a car crash. [46] This, together with later strokes, left him dependent on a wheelchair, and he was unable to speak in his last remaining years. [46] His last public appearance was at the unveiling of Queen Mary's plaque at Marlborough House in 1967, where he appeared weak and considerably older than the Duke of Windsor. In 1972, he was too ill to attend the funeral of the Duke of Windsor in May, or the wedding of his younger son, Prince Richard, in July. In August, the Duke's elder son, Prince William, died in a plane crash; [1] by that point, he was in such poor health that his wife hesitated about whether to tell him. She later wrote in her memoirs that she did not, but that he may have learned of their son's death from television coverage. [32]


He died on 10 June 1974 at the age of 74. He was the last surviving child of King George V and Queen Mary. His body was buried in the Royal Burial Ground, Frogmore.

His will was sealed in London after his death in 1981. His estate was valued at £734,262 (or £5.6 million in 2022 when adjusted for inflation). [47]

His second, and only living, son, Prince Richard, inherited the title of Duke of Gloucester. The Duke's widow, Alice, received permission from Queen Elizabeth II to be styled Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, to distinguish herself from Prince Richard's wife. She outlived her husband by 30 years until her death on 29 October 2004, becoming the longest-lived member of the British royal family in history. [48]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles




In 1921, Prince Henry was granted a personal coat of arms, being the royal arms, differenced by a label argent of three points, the centre bearing a lion rampant gules, and the outer points crosses gules. [59]

Coat of Arms of Henry, Duke of Gloucester.svg
Royal Standard of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester.svg
Royal Standard of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (in Scotland).svg
Prince Henry's coat of arms
Henry's banner of arms, a three-point label, the first and third points charged with the Cross of St. George, the second point charged with a lion passant guardant
Henry's personal banner of arms in Scotland



  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  2. "Yvonne's Royalty Home Page – Royal Christenings". Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  3. "30 Mar 1953 - Last respects to Queen Mary - Trove".
  4. Edwards, Anne Edwards, Anne (1984). Matriarch . William Morrow. p.  195. ISBN   0688035116. Matriarch
  5. Made on TV by Duke of Gloucester (Speech). Retrieved 9 April 2015.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Van der Kiste, John (2003). George V's children. Sutton Publishing LTD. ISBN   0750934689.
  7. "No. 31505". The London Gazette (Supplement). 14 August 1919. p. 10343.
  8. "No. 32392". The London Gazette (Supplement). 15 July 1921. p. 5702.
  9. "The Cricketer Vol I No 17 1922". Retrieved 20 March 2020.[ permanent dead link ]
  10. "No. 33273". The London Gazette. 10 May 1927. p. 3055.
  11. "No. 33522". The London Gazette. 2 August 1929. p. 5061.
  12. "No. 33697". The London Gazette. 10 March 1931. p. 1645.
  13. "No. 34075". The London Gazette. 3 August 1934. p. 4971.
  14. "No. 34166". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 May 1935. p. 3617.
  15. "No. 34177". The London Gazette. 5 July 1935. p. 4343.
  16. "No. 34297". The London Gazette. 23 June 1936. p. 4016.
  17. "No. 34356". The London Gazette. 1 January 1937. p. 11.
  18. "No. 34365". The London Gazette (Supplement). 29 January 1937. p. 687.
  19. "No. 34365". The London Gazette. 12 March 1937. p. 1642.
  20. "No. 34402". The London Gazette (Supplement). 28 May 1937. p. 3342.
  21. "No. 34456". The London Gazette. 19 November 1937. p. 7261.
  22. "No. 34675". The London Gazette (Supplement). 8 September 1939. p. 6174.
  23. "No. 34764". The London Gazette (Supplement). 29 December 1939. p. 7.
  24. "No. 34926". The London Gazette (Supplement). 16 August 1940. p. 5077.
  25. "No. 35294". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 September 1941. p. 5709.
  26. "No. 36765". The London Gazette (Supplement). 24 October 1944. p. 4907.
  27. "No. 41409". The London Gazette (Supplement). 3 June 1958. p. 3561.
  28. "No. 33371". The London Gazette . 30 March 1928. p. 2321.
  29. " "Royal Visits from 1786 to 1951"". Archived from the original on 12 July 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  30. 1 2 Royal Family: Years of Transition.
  31. Lovell, Mary S Lovell, Mary S (2012). Straight on Till Morning: The Life of Beryl Markham. Hachette UK. ISBN   978-1405517904.
  32. 1 2 3 The Memoirs of Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester.
  33. Davies, Caroline (13 December 2001). "Royal Family throws early 100th birthday party for princess who hated society life" . The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  34. "Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester – Marriage and family". The British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  35. "HRH Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester". The British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 1 March 2000. Retrieved 5 February 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  36. "House of Commons – A new Magna Carta? – Political and Constitutional Reform". Retrieved 31 October 2021. Crowned Portcullis.svg Text was copied from this source, which is available under the Open Parliament Licence v3.0. © UK Parliament.
  37. Bloch Bloch, Michael (2012). The Secret File of the Duke of Windsor. England. ISBN   978-0349001081.
  38. Cadbury Cadbury, Deborah (2015). Princes at War. England. ISBN   978-1610394031.
  39. Frankland Frankland, Noble (1975). Prince Henry Duke of Gloucester. England. ISBN   029777705X.
  40. Corbitt, Frederick John (1956). My Twenty Years in Buckingham Palace: a book of intimate memoirs. New York: David McKay Company Inc. ISBN   1258094002.
  41. 1 2 3 4 Cadbury
  42. Aronson Aronson, Theo (2014). The Royal Family at War. England. ISBN   978-1910198032.
  43. FO 954/5B/213, 30 March 1942, The National Archives, Kew, England
  44. 1 2 Aronson
  45. "From the Archives: The Crown and the people". The Sydney Morning Herald. 30 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  46. 1 2 "Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester". The Independent. London. 1 November 2004. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  47. Evans, Rob; Pegg, David (18 July 2022). "£187m of Windsor family wealth hidden in secret royal wills". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  48. "Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, Later years and death". Official website of the British monarchy. Royal Household. 2008.
  49. In 1898, Queen Victoria issued letters patent granting the children of the Duke and Duchess of York the style Royal Highness . Thus he was styled His Royal Highness Prince Henry of York from birth.
  50. Tozer, Charles W. (1975). The Insignia and Medals of the Grand Priory of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. London, GBR: J. B. Hayward and Son. p. 78.
  51. "No. 33831". The London Gazette . 31 May 1932. p. 3573.
  52. "Den kongelige norske Sanct Olavs Orden", Norges Statskalender for Aaret 1930 (in Norwegian), Oslo: Forlagt av H. Aschehoug & Co. (w. Nygaard), 1930, pp. 995–996 via
  53. "Insignia of the Order of the Chrysanthemum (Japan). George V's insignia: collar & badge 1900-20". Royal Collection. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  54. Bille-Hansen, A. C.; Holck, Harald, eds. (1933) [1st pub.:1801]. Statshaandbog for Kongeriget Danmark for Aaret 1933 [State Manual of the Kingdom of Denmark for the Year 1933](PDF). Kongelig Dansk Hof- og Statskalender (in Danish). Copenhagen: J.H. Schultz A.-S. Universitetsbogtrykkeri. p. 17. Retrieved 5 March 2020 via da:DIS Danmark.
  55. M. & B. Wattel (2009). Les Grand'Croix de la Légion d'honneur de 1805 à nos jours. Titulaires français et étrangers (in French). Paris: Archives & Culture. p. 463. ISBN   978-2-35077-135-9.
  56. Royal Thai Government Gazette (17 July 1939). "แจ้งความสำนักนายกรัฐมนตรี เรื่อง ส่งเครื่องราชอิสริยาภรณ์ไปพระราชทาน" (PDF) (in Thai). Retrieved 8 May 2019.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  57. Per Nordenvall (1998). "Kungl. Maj:ts Orden". Kungliga Serafimerorden: 1748–1998 (in Swedish). Stockholm. ISBN   91-630-6744-7.
  58. GLOUCESTER S.A.R. Duca di Glucester, Onorificenze, Palazzo Quirinale website
  59. Heraldica – British Royal Cadency
Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
Cadet branch of the House of Wettin
Born: 31 March 1900 Died: 10 June 1974
Government offices
Preceded by Governor-General of Australia
Succeeded by
Honorary titles
Preceded by Great Master of the Order of the Bath
Succeeded by
Preceded by Senior Privy Counsellor
Succeeded by
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New title
5th creation
Duke of Gloucester
Succeeded by

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester</span> Youngest grandchild of George V and Queen Mary

Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester, is a member of the British royal family. He is the second son of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, and the youngest of the nine grandchildren of King George V and Queen Mary. He is currently 30th in the line of succession to the British throne, and the highest person on the list who is not a descendant of George VI, who was his uncle. At the time of his birth, he was 5th in line to the throne.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester</span> Daughter-in-law of George V

Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, was the wife of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, the third son of King George V and Queen Mary. She was the mother of Prince William of Gloucester and Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prince George, Duke of Kent</span> Son of King George V (1902–1942)

Prince George, Duke of Kent, was a member of the British royal family, the fourth son of King George V and Queen Mary. He was a younger brother of kings Edward VIII and George VI.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prince Edward, Duke of Kent</span> Member of the British royal family (born 1935)

Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, is a member of the British royal family. Queen Elizabeth II and Edward were first cousins through their fathers, King George VI, and Prince George, Duke of Kent. Edward's mother Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark was also a first cousin of the Queen's husband Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, making him both a second cousin and first cousin once removed to King Charles III. He is currently 40th in the line of succession to the British throne.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge</span> Duchess of Teck

Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, later known as the Duchess of Teck, was a member of the British royal family. She was one of the first royals to patronise a wide range of charities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Francis, Duke of Teck</span> Duke of Teck

Francis, Duke of Teck, known as Count Francis von Hohenstein until 1863, was an Austrian-born nobleman who married into the British royal family. His wife, Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, was a first cousin of Queen Victoria. He was the father of Queen Mary, the consort of King George V. Francis held the Austrian title of Count of Hohenstein, and the German titles of Prince (Fürst) and later Duke of Teck, and was given the style of Serene Highness in 1863. He was granted the British style of Highness in 1887.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone</span> British Army general and colonial administrator (1874–1957)

Major General Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone, was a British Army commander and major-general who served as Governor-General of the Union of South Africa and as Governor General of Canada.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife</span> Princess Arthur of Connaught

Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife,, born Lady Alexandra Duff and known as Princess Arthur of Connaught after her marriage, was the eldest surviving grandchild of King Edward VII. Alexandra and her younger sister, Maud, had the distinction of being the only female-line descendants of a British sovereign officially granted both the title of Princess and the style of Highness.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Adolphus Cambridge, 1st Marquess of Cambridge</span> British peer and soldier (1868–1927)

Adolphus Cambridge, 1st Marquess of Cambridge,, born Prince Adolphus of Teck and later the Duke of Teck, was a relative of the British Royal Family, a great-grandson of King George III and younger brother of Queen Mary, the wife of King George V. In 1900, he succeeded his father as Duke of Teck in the Kingdom of Württemberg. He relinquished his German titles in 1917 to become Marquess of Cambridge.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Princess Augusta of Cambridge</span> Grand Duchess consort of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Princess Augusta of Cambridge was a member of the British royal family, a granddaughter of George III. She married into the Grand Ducal House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and became the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">George V of Hanover</span> Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale

George V was the last King of Hanover, the only child and successor of King Ernest Augustus. George V's reign was ended by the Austro-Prussian War, after which Prussia annexed Hanover.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh</span> Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh

Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh,, was a grandson of King George II and a younger brother of George III of the United Kingdom.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">British prince</span> Royal title in the United Kingdom

Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a royal title normally granted to sons and grandsons of reigning and past British monarchs. The title is granted by the reigning monarch, who is the fount of all honours, through the issuing of letters patent as an expression of the royal will.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">British princess</span> Princess of the United Kingdom

The use of the title of Princess of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is entirely at the will of the sovereign as expressed in letters patent. Individuals holding the title of princess are styled "Her Royal Highness" (HRH). On 18 April 1917, the newest granddaughter of Wilhelm II, German Emperor was styled a British princess from birth, even though Germany and Britain were fighting in WWI. Before the First World War, British Princesses also held additional German titles, such as Princesses of Hanover by virtue of being male line descendants of George III; or Princesses of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of Saxony, by virtue of being male line descendants of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. George V issued Letters Patent on 30 November 1917, to restrict the automatic assignment of the title "Princess" and the use of the style "Royal Highness" to the following persons:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Princess Sophia of Gloucester</span>

Princess Sophia of Gloucester was a great-granddaughter of King George II of Great Britain and niece of King George III.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh</span> Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh

Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh was the eleventh child and fourth daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lord Leopold Mountbatten</span> British noble and army officer

Lord Leopold Arthur Louis Mountbatten was a British Army officer and a descendant of the Hessian princely Battenberg family and the British Royal Family. A grandson of Queen Victoria, he was known as Prince Leopold of Battenberg from his birth until 1917, when the British Royal Family relinquished their German titles during World War I, and the Battenberg family changed their name to Mountbatten.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edward VIII</span> King of the United Kingdom in 1936

Edward VIII, later known as the Duke of Windsor, was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire and Emperor of India from 20 January 1936 until his abdication in December of the same year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle</span> Royal chapel in Windsor Castle, England

St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in England is a castle chapel built in the late-medieval Perpendicular Gothic style. It is both a Royal Peculiar and the Chapel of the Order of the Garter. St George's Chapel was founded in the 14th century by King Edward III and extensively enlarged in the late 15th century. It is located in the Lower Ward of the castle. The castle has belonged to the monarchy for almost 1,000 years and was a principal residence of Elizabeth II before her death. The chapel has been the scene of many royal services, weddings and burials – in the 19th century, St George's Chapel and the nearby Frogmore Gardens superseded Westminster Abbey as the chosen burial place for the British royal family. The running of the chapel is the responsibility of the dean and Canons of Windsor who make up the College of Saint George. They are assisted by a clerk, verger and other staff. The Society of the Friends of St George's and Descendants of the Knights of the Garter, a registered charity, was established in 1931 to assist the college in maintaining the chapel.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alice Saxby</span> Matron to King Edward VIIs Hospital for Officers

Alice Saxby MVO was a British nurse who was matron to King Edward VII's Hospital for Officers, London, from 1948 to 1969. She was previously in charge of an officer's wing at Botleys Mansion during the Second World War and cared for many casualties from the Normandy landings.