|Count of Paris|
|King of the French (disputed)|
|Reign||24 February 1848 – 26 February 1848 |
|Predecessor||Louis Philippe I|
|Successor|| Monarchy abolished |
Jacques Dupont de l'Eure
as Head of the Provisional Government
| Orléanist pretender to the French throne |
as Louis-Philippe II
|Pretence||24 February 1848 – 5 August 1873|
|Predecessor||Louis Philippe I|
| Orléanist-Unionist pretender|
to the French throne
as Philippe VII
|Pretence||24 August 1883 – 8 September 1894|
|Predecessor||Henri, Count of Chambord|
|Successor||Philippe, Duke of Orléans|
|Born||24 August 1838|
|Died||8 September 1894 56) (aged|
Stowe House, England
|Issue|| Amélie, Queen of Portugal |
Prince Philippe, Duke of Orléans
Princess Hélène, Duchess of Aosta
Princess Isabelle, Duchess of Guise
Louise, Infanta Carlos of Spain
Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Montpensier
|Father||Prince Ferdinand Philippe, Duke of Orléans|
|Mother||Duchess Helene of Mecklenburg-Schwerin|
Prince Philippe of Orléans, Count of Paris (Louis Philippe Albert; 24 August 1838 – 8 September 1894), was disputedly King of the French from 24 to 26 February 1848 as Louis Philippe II, although he was never officially proclaimed as such. He was the grandson of Louis Philippe I, King of the French. He was the Count of Paris as Orléanist claimant to the French throne from 1848 until his death. From 1883, when his cousin Henri, Count of Chambord died, he was often referred to by Orléanists as Philippe VII.
Prince Philippe became the Prince Royal, heir apparent to the throne, when his father, Prince Ferdinand-Philippe, Duc d'Orléans, died in a carriage accident in 1842. Although there was some effort during the days after the abdication of his grandfather in 1848 to put him on the throne under the name of Louis-Philippe II, with his mother (Helene of Mecklenburg-Schwerin) as Regent, this came to nothing. They fled, and the French Second Republic was proclaimed.
A historian, journalist and outspoken democrat, Philippe volunteered to serve as a Union Army officer in the American Civil War along with his younger brother, Prince Robert, Duke of Chartres. He was appointed as an assistant adjutant general with the rank of captain on 24 September 1861 and served under the name of Philippe d'Orléans, the Count of Paris. He served on the staff of the commander of the Army of the Potomac, Major General George B. McClellan, for nearly a year. He distinguished himself during the unsuccessful Peninsular Campaign. He resigned from the Union Army, along with his brother, on 15 July 1862. Philippe's History of the Civil War in America is considered a standard reference work on the subject.[ citation needed ]
During their stay in the United States, the princes were accompanied by their uncle, the Prince of Joinville, who painted many watercolours of their stay. On 10 November 1880 Philippe was elected as a companion of the first class (i.e. a veteran officer) of the Pennsylvania Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States – an organization of Union officers who had served during the American Civil War. He was assigned insignia number 2107. His eldest son, Philippe d'Orleans, was elected as a 2nd class member (i.e. an eldest son of a veteran officer) in 1890 and succeeded to first class membership in the Order upon Philippe's death.[ citation needed ]
On 30 May 1864 at St. Raphael's Church in Kingston upon Thames, England he married his paternal first cousin, Princess Marie Isabelle d'Orléans (1848–1919), Infanta of Spain. She was daughter of Infanta Luisa Fernanda of Spain and Prince Antoine, Duke of Montpensier (1824–1890), the youngest son of Louis-Philippe of France and Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily. They had eight children:
The Orleans family had been in exile in England since the Revolution of 1848 which toppled King Louis Philippe. During their early married life, the Count and Countess of Paris lived at York House, Twickenham. However, in 1871 after the Franco-Prussian War and the downfall of Napoleon III, they were allowed to return to France, and many of their properties were restored to them. In 1873, anticipating a restoration of the monarchy by the largely monarchist National Assembly that had been elected following the fall of Napoleon III, the Count of Paris withdrew his claims to the defunct French throne in favour of the legitimist claimant, Henri V, best known as the Comte de Chambord. It was assumed by most that the Count of Paris was Chambord's heir-presumptive, and would thus be able to succeed to the throne upon the childless Chambord's death, reuniting the two claims that had divided French monarchists since 1830. However, Chambord's refusal to recognize the tricolor as the French flag sabotaged hopes of a restoration, and Chambord died in 1883 without ever specifically recognizing his Orléanist rival as his heir-presumptive.
Upon the Count of Chambord's death, the Count of Paris was recognized by most monarchists as Philippe VII of France. This succession was disputed by the Carlist descendants of the Bourbon kings of Spain, who argued that being descended directly from Louis XIV their claim was greater than that of the Orléanists'; however, this argument pointedly ignored Philip V of Spain's renunciation of his and his descendants' claim to the French throne pursuant to the Treaty of Utrecht.
In 1886 the family was exiled again returning to the United Kingdom, where they first lived at Sheen House, near Richmond, where the young Rosa Lewis was a member of their household.In 1890 they moved to the much grander Stowe House, where he died in 1894. He was succeeded as claimant to the defunct French throne by his son Prince Philippe.
|Ancestors of Prince Philippe, Count of Paris|
Louis Philippe was King of the French from 1830 to 1848, and the penultimate monarch of France.
Count of Paris was a title for the local magnate of the district around Paris in Carolingian times. After Hugh Capet was elected King of France in 987, the title merged into the crown and fell into disuse. However, it was later revived by the Orléanist pretenders to the French throne in an attempt to evoke the legacy of Capet and his dynasty.
Henri, Count of Chambord and Duke of Bordeaux was disputedly King of France from 2 to 9 August 1830 as Henry V, although he was never officially proclaimed as such. Afterwards, he was the Legitimist pretender to the throne of France from 1844 until his death in 1883.
Orléanist was a 19th-century French political label originally used by those who supported a constitutional monarchy expressed by the House of Orléans. Due to the radical political changes that occurred during that century in France, three different phases of Orléanism can be identified:
Henri, Count of Paris, Duke of France, was the Orléanist pretender to the defunct French throne as Henry VII.
The Legitimists are royalists who adhere to the rights of dynastic succession to the French crown of the descendants of the eldest branch of the Bourbon dynasty, which was overthrown in the 1830 July Revolution. They reject the claim of the July Monarchy of 1830–1848 which placed Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, head of the Orléans cadet branch of the Bourbon dynasty, on the throne until he too was dethroned and driven with his family into exile.
Philippe, Duke of Orléans was the Orléanist claimant to the throne of France from 1894 to 1926 as Philippe VIII.
Prince Jean of Orléans, Duke of Guise, was the third son and youngest child of Prince Robert, Duke of Chartres (1840–1910), grandson of Prince Ferdinand Philippe and great-grandson of Louis Philippe I, King of the French. His mother was Françoise of Orléans, daughter of François, Prince of Joinville, and Princess Francisca of Brazil. He was the Orléanist claimant to the throne of France as Jean III.
Henri of Orléans, Count of Paris, was the Orléanist claimant to the defunct throne of France as Henry VI from 1940 until his death in 1999. Henri was the direct descendant of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, son of Louis XIII. He was also a descendant of Louis XIV through a female line, from his legitimized daughter Françoise Marie de Bourbon; as well as the great-great-grandson of Louis Philippe I.
Charles Philippe Marie Louis d'Orléans is a member of the House of Orléans.
The 4th House of Orléans, sometimes called the House of Bourbon-Orléans to distinguish it, is the fourth holder of a surname previously used by several branches of the Royal House of France, all descended in the legitimate male line from the dynasty's founder, Hugh Capet. The house was founded by Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, younger son of Louis XIII and younger brother of Louis XIV, the "Sun King".
The Orléanist claimant to the throne of France is Prince Jean, Duke of Vendôme. He is the uncontested heir to the Orléanist position of "King of the French" held by Louis-Philippe, and is also King Charles X's heir as "King of France" if the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht was valid. According to the Family Compact of 1909, only the descendants of the then pretender's father are considered to be dynasts of the House of France. The founders of the cadet branches of Orleans-Braganza and Orléans-Galliera, by becoming foreigners, are considered under house law to have renounced their rights to the throne. If the current line were to become extinct, the Orleans-Braganza have, however, reserved their right to renew their claims.
Jean Carl Pierre Marie d'Orléans is the current head of the House of Orléans. Jean is the senior male descendant by primogeniture in the male-line of Louis-Philippe I, King of the French, and thus, according to the Orléanists, the legitimate claimant to the throne of France as Jean IV. Of France's three monarchist movements, Orléanism, Legitimism and Bonapartism, most royalists are Orléanists. Jean is the second son of the late Henri, Count of Paris (1933–2019) and his former wife Duchess Marie-Thérèse of Württemberg. With the death of his father, he has been using the style of Count of Paris since 2019.
Princess Isabelle of Orléans was a member of the French Orleanist royal family and by marriage Duchess of Guise.
Princess Marie Isabelle of Orléans was born an infanta of Spain and a Princess of Orléans and became the Countess of Paris by marriage.
Princess Anne of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Dowager Duchess of Calabria is the widow of Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria. She is the third daughter and fifth child of Henri, Count of Paris, Orléanist claimant to the defunct French throne, and his wife Princess Isabelle of Orléans-Braganza.
The House of Bourbon-Montpensier or Maison de Bourbon-Montpensier was a semi royal family. The name of Bourbon comes from a marriage between Marie de Valois, comtesse de Montpensier (1375–1434) who married Jean de Bourbon - the duc de Bourbon. The second name of Montpensier, comes from the title of the family.
Archduchess Maria Dorothea of Austria was a member of the Hungarian line of the House of Habsburg and an Archduchess of Austria by birth. Through her marriage to Philippe, Duke of Orléans, Maria Dorothea was also a member of the House of Orléans. Philippe was the Orléanist claimant to the throne of France from 1894 to 1926 and known to Orléanist monarchists as "Philippe VIII of France." Thus, to Orléanist monarchists, Maria Dorothea was titular Queen of France from 1896 to 1926, and Dowager Queen of France until her death in 1932.
Ferdinand d'Orléans, Duke of Montpensier was a member of the House of Orléans and a Prince of France.
Princess Hélène of Orléans was a member of the deposed Orléans royal family of France and, by marriage to the head of a cadet branch of the Italian royal family, the Duchess of Aosta. Although her hand in marriage was sought for the heirs to the thrones of both the United Kingdom and the Russian Empire, neither alliance materialized.