Prince Philippe, Count of Paris

Last updated

Philippe
Count of Paris
Philippe d'Orleans comte de Paris.jpg
King of the French (disputed)
Reign24 February 1848 – 26 February 1848
(Unproclaimed)
Predecessor Louis Philippe I
Successor Monarchy abolished
Jacques Dupont de l'Eure
as Head of the Provisional Government
Orléanist pretender to the French throne
as Louis-Philippe II
Pretence24 February 1848 – 5 August 1873
Predecessor Louis Philippe I
SuccessorClaim ended
Orléanist-Unionist pretender
to the French throne

as Philippe VII
Pretence24 August 1883 – 8 September 1894
Predecessor Henri, Count of Chambord
Successor Philippe, Duke of Orléans
Born(1838-08-24)24 August 1838
Tuileries Palace
Died8 September 1894(1894-09-08) (aged 56)
Stowe House, England
Burial
Chapel of St. Charles Borromeo, Weybridge (18941958)
Royal Chapel of Dreux (since 1958)
Spouse
(m. 1864)
Issue Amélie, Queen of Portugal
Prince Philippe, Duke of Orléans
Princess Hélène, Duchess of Aosta
Princess Isabelle, Duchess of Guise
Louise, Infanta Carlos of Spain
Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Montpensier
Names
Louis Philippe Albert d'Orléans
House Orléans
Father Prince Ferdinand Philippe, Duke of Orléans
Mother Duchess Helene of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature Signature of Prince Louis Philippe of Orleans, Count of Paris.png

Prince Philippe of Orléans, Count of Paris (Louis Philippe Albert; 24 August 1838 – 8 September 1894), was disputedly King of the French from 24 to 26 February 1848 as Louis Philippe II, although he was never officially proclaimed as such. He was the grandson of Louis Philippe I, King of the French. He was the Count of Paris as Orléanist claimant to the French throne from 1848 until his death. From 1883, when his cousin Henri, Count of Chambord died, he was often referred to by Orléanists as Philippe VII.

Contents

Early life

Prince Philippe became the Prince Royal, heir apparent to the throne, when his father, Prince Ferdinand-Philippe, Duc d'Orléans, died in a carriage accident in 1842. Although there was some effort during the days after the abdication of his grandfather in 1848 to put him on the throne under the name of Louis-Philippe II, with his mother (Helene of Mecklenburg-Schwerin) as Regent, this came to nothing. They fled, and the French Second Republic was proclaimed.

American Civil War

Philippe d'Orleans (first from right) with staff and dignitaries of General McClellan (center). To his right, his uncle Francois d'Orleans GeorgeMcClellan1861a.jpg
Philippe d'Orléans (first from right) with staff and dignitaries of General McClellan (center). To his right, his uncle François d'Orléans

A historian, journalist and outspoken democrat, Philippe volunteered to serve as a Union Army officer in the American Civil War along with his younger brother, Prince Robert, Duke of Chartres. He was appointed as an assistant adjutant general with the rank of captain on 24 September 1861 and served under the name of Philippe d'Orléans, the Count of Paris. He served on the staff of the commander of the Army of the Potomac, Major General George B. McClellan, for nearly a year. He distinguished himself during the unsuccessful Peninsular Campaign. He resigned from the Union Army, along with his brother, on 15 July 1862. Philippe's History of the Civil War in America is considered a standard reference work on the subject.[ citation needed ]

During their stay in the United States, the princes were accompanied by their uncle, the Prince of Joinville, who painted many watercolours of their stay. On 10 November 1880 Philippe was elected as a companion of the first class (i.e. a veteran officer) of the Pennsylvania Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States – an organization of Union officers who had served during the American Civil War. He was assigned insignia number 2107. His eldest son, Philippe d'Orleans, was elected as a 2nd class member (i.e. an eldest son of a veteran officer) in 1890 and succeeded to first class membership in the Order upon Philippe's death.[ citation needed ]

Marriage and issue

On 30 May 1864 at St. Raphael's Church in Kingston upon Thames, England he married his paternal first cousin, Princess Marie Isabelle d'Orléans (1848–1919), Infanta of Spain. She was daughter of Infanta Luisa Fernanda of Spain and Prince Antoine, Duke of Montpensier (1824–1890), the youngest son of Louis-Philippe of France and Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily. They had eight children:

Restoration of French monarchy

The Orleans family had been in exile in England since the Revolution of 1848 which toppled King Louis Philippe. During their early married life, the Count and Countess of Paris lived at York House, Twickenham. However, in 1871 after the Franco-Prussian War and the downfall of Napoleon III, they were allowed to return to France, and many of their properties were restored to them. In 1873, anticipating a restoration of the monarchy by the largely monarchist National Assembly that had been elected following the fall of Napoleon III, the Count of Paris withdrew his claims to the defunct French throne in favour of the legitimist claimant, Henri V, best known as the Comte de Chambord. It was assumed by most that the Count of Paris was Chambord's heir-presumptive, and would thus be able to succeed to the throne upon the childless Chambord's death, reuniting the two claims that had divided French monarchists since 1830. However, Chambord's refusal to recognize the tricolor as the French flag sabotaged hopes of a restoration, and Chambord died in 1883 without ever specifically recognizing his Orléanist rival as his heir-presumptive.

Upon the Count of Chambord's death, the Count of Paris was recognized by most monarchists as Philippe VII of France. This succession was disputed by the Carlist descendants of the Bourbon kings of Spain, who argued that being descended directly from Louis XIV their claim was greater than that of the Orléanists'; however, this argument pointedly ignored Philip V of Spain's renunciation of his and his descendants' claim to the French throne pursuant to the Treaty of Utrecht.

In 1886 the family was exiled again returning to the United Kingdom, where they first lived at Sheen House, near Richmond, where the young Rosa Lewis was a member of their household. [1] In 1890 they moved to the much grander Stowe House, where he died in 1894. [2] He was succeeded as claimant to the defunct French throne by his son Prince Philippe.

Honours

Ancestry

Bibliography

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Louis Philippe I</span> King of the French from 1830 to 1848

Louis Philippe was King of the French from 1830 to 1848, and the penultimate monarch of France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Count of Paris</span> French noble title

Count of Paris was a title for the local magnate of the district around Paris in Carolingian times. After Hugh Capet was elected King of France in 987, the title merged into the crown and fell into disuse. However, it was later revived by the Orléanist pretenders to the French throne in an attempt to evoke the legacy of Capet and his dynasty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Henri, Count of Chambord</span> Pretender to the French throne as Henry V (1844-83)

Henri, Count of Chambord and Duke of Bordeaux was disputedly King of France from 2 to 9 August 1830 as Henry V, although he was never officially proclaimed as such. Afterwards, he was the Legitimist pretender to the throne of France from 1844 until his death in 1883.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Orléanist</span> French monarchist faction in support of the House of Orléans

Orléanist was a 19th-century French political label originally used by those who supported a constitutional monarchy expressed by the House of Orléans. Due to the radical political changes that occurred during that century in France, three different phases of Orléanism can be identified:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Henri, Count of Paris (1933–2019)</span> French noble

Henri, Count of Paris, Duke of France, was the Orléanist pretender to the defunct French throne as Henry VII.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Legitimists</span> French royalist faction

The Legitimists are royalists who adhere to the rights of dynastic succession to the French crown of the descendants of the eldest branch of the Bourbon dynasty, which was overthrown in the 1830 July Revolution. They reject the claim of the July Monarchy of 1830–1848 which placed Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, head of the Orléans cadet branch of the Bourbon dynasty, on the throne until he too was dethroned and driven with his family into exile.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prince Philippe, Duke of Orléans (1869–1926)</span> Duke of Orléans

Philippe, Duke of Orléans was the Orléanist claimant to the throne of France from 1894 to 1926 as Philippe VIII.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prince Jean, Duke of Guise</span> Duke of Guise

Prince Jean of Orléans, Duke of Guise, was the third son and youngest child of Prince Robert, Duke of Chartres (1840–1910), grandson of Prince Ferdinand Philippe and great-grandson of Louis Philippe I, King of the French. His mother was Françoise of Orléans, daughter of François, Prince of Joinville, and Princess Francisca of Brazil. He was the Orléanist claimant to the throne of France as Jean III.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Henri, Count of Paris (1908–1999)</span> Count of Paris

Henri of Orléans, Count of Paris, was the Orléanist claimant to the defunct throne of France as Henry VI from 1940 until his death in 1999. Henri was the direct descendant of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, son of Louis XIII. He was also a descendant of Louis XIV through a female line, from his legitimized daughter Françoise Marie de Bourbon; as well as the great-great-grandson of Louis Philippe I.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charles-Philippe d'Orléans</span> Duke of Anjou

Charles Philippe Marie Louis d'Orléans is a member of the House of Orléans.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">House of Orléans</span> French noble family, a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon

The 4th House of Orléans, sometimes called the House of Bourbon-Orléans to distinguish it, is the fourth holder of a surname previously used by several branches of the Royal House of France, all descended in the legitimate male line from the dynasty's founder, Hugh Capet. The house was founded by Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, younger son of Louis XIII and younger brother of Louis XIV, the "Sun King".

The Orléanist claimant to the throne of France is Prince Jean, Duke of Vendôme. He is the uncontested heir to the Orléanist position of "King of the French" held by Louis-Philippe, and is also King Charles X's heir as "King of France" if the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht was valid. According to the Family Compact of 1909, only the descendants of the then pretender's father are considered to be dynasts of the House of France. The founders of the cadet branches of Orleans-Braganza and Orléans-Galliera, by becoming foreigners, are considered under house law to have renounced their rights to the throne. If the current line were to become extinct, the Orleans-Braganza have, however, reserved their right to renew their claims.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jean, Count of Paris</span> Pretender to the French throne

Jean Carl Pierre Marie d'Orléans is the current head of the House of Orléans. Jean is the senior male descendant by primogeniture in the male-line of Louis-Philippe I, King of the French, and thus, according to the Orléanists, the legitimate claimant to the throne of France as Jean IV. Of France's three monarchist movements, Orléanism, Legitimism and Bonapartism, most royalists are Orléanists. Jean is the second son of the late Henri, Count of Paris (1933–2019) and his former wife Duchess Marie-Thérèse of Württemberg. With the death of his father, he has been using the style of Count of Paris since 2019.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Princess Isabelle of Orléans (1878–1961)</span> Duchess of Guise

Princess Isabelle of Orléans was a member of the French Orleanist royal family and by marriage Duchess of Guise.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Princess Marie Isabelle of Orléans</span> Countess of Paris

Princess Marie Isabelle of Orléans was born an infanta of Spain and a Princess of Orléans and became the Countess of Paris by marriage.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Princess Anne, Duchess of Calabria</span> Dowager Duchess of Calabria

Princess Anne of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Dowager Duchess of Calabria is the widow of Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria. She is the third daughter and fifth child of Henri, Count of Paris, Orléanist claimant to the defunct French throne, and his wife Princess Isabelle of Orléans-Braganza.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">House of Bourbon-Montpensier</span>

The House of Bourbon-Montpensier or Maison de Bourbon-Montpensier was a semi royal family. The name of Bourbon comes from a marriage between Marie de Valois, comtesse de Montpensier (1375–1434) who married Jean de Bourbon - the duc de Bourbon. The second name of Montpensier, comes from the title of the family.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Archduchess Maria Dorothea of Austria</span> Duchess of Orléans

Archduchess Maria Dorothea of Austria was a member of the Hungarian line of the House of Habsburg and an Archduchess of Austria by birth. Through her marriage to Philippe, Duke of Orléans, Maria Dorothea was also a member of the House of Orléans. Philippe was the Orléanist claimant to the throne of France from 1894 to 1926 and known to Orléanist monarchists as "Philippe VIII of France." Thus, to Orléanist monarchists, Maria Dorothea was titular Queen of France from 1896 to 1926, and Dowager Queen of France until her death in 1932.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Montpensier</span> Duke of Montpensier

Ferdinand d'Orléans, Duke of Montpensier was a member of the House of Orléans and a Prince of France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Princess Hélène of Orléans</span> Duchess of Aosta

Princess Hélène of Orléans was a member of the deposed Orléans royal family of France and, by marriage to the head of a cadet branch of the Italian royal family, the Duchess of Aosta. Although her hand in marriage was sought for the heirs to the thrones of both the United Kingdom and the Russian Empire, neither alliance materialized.

References

  1. Hanson, The Wandering Princess, 37, 78.
  2. Hanson, The Wandering Princess, 66, 86
  3. Staatshandbuch für das Großherzogtum Sachsen / Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1869), "Großherzogliche Hausorden" p. 15
  4. Bille-Hansen, A. C.; Holck, Harald, eds. (1893) [1st pub.:1801]. Statshaandbog for Kongeriget Danmark for Aaret 1893 [State Manual of the Kingdom of Denmark for the Year 1893](PDF). Kongelig Dansk Hof- og Statskalender (in Danish). Copenhagen: J.H. Schultz A.-S. Universitetsbogtrykkeri. p. 5. Retrieved 26 June 2020 via da:DIS Danmark.
  5. Flers, Le comte de Paris
  6. Stéphane Bern (ed.). Moi Amélie, dernière reine de Portugal (in French). pp. 112–113.
Prince Philippe, Count of Paris
Cadet branch of the House of Bourbon
Born: 24 August, 1838 Died: 8 September, 1894
Regnal titles
Preceded by King of the French
(disputed)

24 – 26 February 1848
Vacant
Title next held by
Napoleon III
as emperor
Titles in pretence
Preceded by TITULAR 
King of the French
Orléanist pretender
24 February 1848 – 5 August 1873
Succeeded by
Claim ended
Preceded by TITULAR 
King of France
Orléanist-Unionist pretender
24 August 1883 – 8 September 1894
Succeeded by
French royalty
Preceded by Heir to the Throne
as Heir apparent
13 July 1842 – 24 February 1848
Succeeded by
French nobility
Preceded by Duke of Orléans
(Never used)

13 July 1842 – 6 February 1869
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Title created
Count of Paris
24 August 1838 – 8 September 1894
Succeeded by