Prince William, Duke of Cumberland

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Prince William
Duke of Cumberland
Cumberland-Reynolds.jpg
Portrait of William in the robes of the Order of the Garter by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1758
Born(1721-04-26)26 April 1721 (New Style)
Leicester House, London, England
Died31 October 1765(1765-10-31) (aged 44)
London, England
Burial10 November 1765
Full name
William Augustus
House Hanover
Father George II of Great Britain
Mother Caroline of Ansbach
Military career
Nickname(s)The Butcher
Sweet William
Martial boy
AllegianceUnion flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg  Kingdom of Great Britain
Service/branchNaval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg  Royal Navy
Flag of the British Army.svg  British Army
Years of service1740–1757
RankGeneral
Unit Grenadier Guards
Commands heldPragmatic Army
Government Army
Hanoverian Army of Observation
Commander-in-Chief of the Forces
Battles/wars War of the Austrian Succession

Jacobite rising of 1745

Seven Years' War

Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, KG , KB , FRS (26 April 1721 [ N.S. ] – 31 October 1765), was the third and youngest son of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland and his wife, Caroline of Ansbach. He was Duke of Cumberland from 1726. He is best remembered for his role in putting down the Jacobite Rising at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, which made him immensely popular throughout Britain. [1] [2] He is often referred to by the nickname given to him by his Tory opponents: 'Butcher' Cumberland. [3] [4] Despite his triumph at Culloden, he had a largely unsuccessful military career. Between 1748 and 1755 he attempted to enact a series of army reforms that were resisted by the opposition and by the army itself. [5] Following the Convention of Klosterzeven in 1757, he never again held active military command and switched his attentions to politics and horse racing.

Fellow of the Royal Society Elected Fellow of the Royal Society, including Honorary, Foreign and Royal Fellows

Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a 'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science, and medical science'.

Old Style and New Style dates 16th-century changes in calendar conventions

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first was to change the start of the year from Lady Day to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar in favour of the Gregorian calendar. Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates.

George II of Great Britain British monarch

George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.

Contents

Early life

William was born in Leicester House, in Leicester Fields (now Leicester Square), Westminster, London, where his parents had moved after his grandfather, George I, accepted the invitation to ascend the British throne. [3] His godparents included the King and Queen in Prussia (his paternal aunt), but they apparently did not take part in person and were presumably represented by proxy. [6] On 27 July 1726, [7] at only five years old, he was created Duke of Cumberland, Marquess of Berkhamstead in the County of Hertford, Earl of Kennington in the County of Surrey, Viscount of Trematon in the County of Cornwall, and Baron of the Isle of Alderney. [8]

Leicester Square square in London, United Kingdom

Leicester Square is a pedestrianised square in the West End of London, England. It was laid out in 1670 and is named after the contemporary Leicester House, itself named after Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester.

Westminster area of central London, within the City of Westminster

Westminster is an area in central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames. Westminster's concentration of visitor attractions and historic landmarks, one of the highest in London, includes the Palace of Westminster, Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Cathedral.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

The young prince was educated well; his mother appointed Edmond Halley as a tutor. [9] Another of his tutors (and occasional proxy for him) was his mother's favourite Andrew Fountaine. [10] At Hampton Court Palace, apartments were designed specially for him by William Kent. [11]

Edmond Halley English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist

EdmondHalley, FRS was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist. He was the second Astronomer Royal in Britain, succeeding John Flamsteed in 1720.

Hampton Court Palace historic royal palace in Richmond, Greater London

Hampton Court Palace is a royal palace in the borough of Richmond upon Thames, 12 miles south west and upstream of central London on the River Thames. Building of the palace began in 1515 for Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, a favourite of King Henry VIII. In 1529, as Wolsey fell from favour, the cardinal gave the palace to the King to check his disgrace; Henry VIII later enlarged it. Along with St James's Palace, it is one of only two surviving palaces out of the many owned by King Henry VIII.

William Kent painter, landscape architect

William Kent was an eminent English architect, landscape architect and furniture designer of the early 18th century.

William's elder brother Frederick, Prince of Wales, proposed dividing the king's dominions. Frederick would get Britain, while William would get Hanover. This proposal came to nothing. [12]

Frederick, Prince of Wales heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death

Frederick, Prince of Wales, KG, was heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death from a lung injury at the age of 44. He was the eldest but estranged son of King George II and Caroline of Ansbach, and the father of King George III.

Kingdom of Hanover German kingdom established in 1814

The Kingdom of Hanover was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and joined 38 other sovereign states in the German Confederation in June 1815. The kingdom was ruled by the House of Hanover, a cadet branch of the House of Welf, in personal union with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until 1837. Since its monarch resided in London, a viceroy handled the administration of the Kingdom of Hanover.

Early military career

From childhood, he showed physical courage and ability, and became his parents' favourite. [13] He was enrolled in the 2nd Foot Guards and made a Knight of the Bath aged four. [14] He was intended, by the King and Queen, for the office of Lord High Admiral, and, in 1740, he sailed, as a volunteer, in the fleet under the command of Sir John Norris, but he quickly became dissatisfied with the Navy, [15] and, instead secured the post of colonel of the First Regiment of Foot Guards on 20 February 1741. [16]

Admiralty British Government ministry responsible for the Royal Navy until 1964

The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy first in the Kingdom of England, later in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire. Originally exercised by a single person, the Lord High Admiral (1385–1628), the Admiralty was, from the early 18th century onwards, almost invariably put "in commission" and exercised by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, who sat on the Board of Admiralty.

John Norris (Royal Navy officer) British naval officer

Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Norris was a Royal Navy officer. After serving as a junior officer during the Nine Years' War and the Williamite War in Ireland, he was given command of a squadron sent to North America to protect British settlements on the banks of Hudson Bay in 1697. Although he developed a plan to recapture some territories in Newfoundland and Labrador taken by French forces the previous winter, he was prevented from implementing that plan when the local council overruled him.

Colonel is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks. However, in some small military forces, such as those of Monaco or the Vatican, colonel is the highest rank. It is also used in some police forces and paramilitary organizations.

War of the Austrian Succession

In December 1742, he became a major-general, and, the following year, he first saw active service in Germany. [3] George II and the "martial boy" shared in the glory of the Battle of Dettingen (27 June 1743), [17] where Cumberland was wounded in the leg by a musket ball. [3] After the battle he was made a lieutenant general. [15] [18]

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Battle of Dettingen battle

The Battle of Dettingen took place on 27 June 1743 at Dettingen on the River Main, Germany, during the War of the Austrian Succession. The British forces, in alliance with those of Hanover and Hesse, defeated a French army under the duc de Noailles. George II commanded his troops in the battle, and this marked the last time a British monarch personally led his troops on the field. The battle straddled the river about 18 miles east of Frankfurt, with guns on the Hessian bank but most of the combat on the flat Bavarian bank. The village of Dettingen is today the town of Karlstein am Main, in the extreme northwest of Bavaria.

Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar is a three-star military rank used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a captain general.

The Battle of Fontenoy in 1745 was Cumberland's first battle as commander. Battle-of-Fontenoy.jpg
The Battle of Fontenoy in 1745 was Cumberland's first battle as commander.

In 1745, Cumberland was given the honorary title of Captain-General of the British land forces and in Flanders became Commander-in-Chief of the allied British, Hanoverian, Austrian and Dutch troops despite his inexperience. [15] He initially planned to take the offensive against the French, in a move he hoped would lead to the capture of Paris, but was persuaded by his advisors that this was impossible given the vast numerical superiority of the enemy. [19]

Jacobite satire of the Duke of Cumberland in the Highlands Jacobite broadside - Courier.jpg
Jacobite satire of the Duke of Cumberland in the Highlands

As it became clear that the French intention was to take Tournai, Cumberland advanced to the relief of the town, which was besieged by Marshal Saxe. In the resulting Battle of Fontenoy on 11 May 1745, the Allies were defeated by the French. [20] Saxe had picked the battleground on which to confront the British, and filled the nearby woods with French marksmen. Cumberland ignored the threat of the woods when drawing up his battle plans, and instead concentrated on seizing the town of Fontenoy and attacking the main French army nearby. Despite a concerted Anglo-Hanoverian attack on the French centre, which led many to believe the Allies had won, the failure to clear the woods and of the Dutch forces to capture Fontenoy forced Cumberland's force onto the retreat. Following the battle Cumberland was frequently criticised for his tactics, particularly the failure to occupy the woods. [21] In the wake of the battle, Cumberland was forced to retreat to Brussels and was unable to prevent the fall of Ghent, Bruges and Ostend. [22]

British Royalty
House of Hanover
Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
George II
Frederick, Prince of Wales
Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange
Princess Amelia
Princess Caroline
Prince George William of Wales
Prince William, Duke of Cumberland
Mary, Landgravine of Hesse-Cassel
Louise, Queen of Denmark and Norway
Grandchildren
Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
George III
Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany
Princess Elizabeth of Wales
Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn
Princess Louisa of Wales
Prince Frederick of Wales
Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway
Great-grandchildren
Princess Sophia of Gloucester
Princess Caroline of Gloucester
Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
"The Highlanders Medley", or "The Duke Triumphant" William augustus duke of cumberland highlanders medley.jpg
"The Highlanders Medley", or "The Duke Triumphant"
Published according to Act of Parliament, 1749 William augustus duke of cumberland solomons glory.jpg
Published according to Act of Parliament, 1749
"The Tombstone", published October 1765 William augustus duke of cumberland tombstone.jpg
"The Tombstone", published October 1765

Jacobite rebellion – "The Forty-Five"

As the leading British general of the day, he was chosen to put a decisive stop to Prince Charles Edward Stuart, a direct descendant of James VII of Scotland and II of England (James VII/II was the last Stuart king on the male line), in the Jacobite rising of 1745. His appointment was popular, and caused morale to soar amongst the public and troops loyal to King George. [23]

Recalled from Flanders, Cumberland proceeded with preparations for quelling the Stuart (Jacobite) uprising. The Jacobite army had advanced southwards into England, hoping that English Jacobites would rise and join them. However, after receiving only limited support such as the Manchester Regiment, the followers of Charles decided to withdraw to Scotland. [24]

Cumberland joined the Midland army under Ligonier, and began pursuit of the enemy, as the Stuarts retreated northwards from Derby. [25] [3] On reaching Penrith, the advanced portion of his army was repulsed on Clifton Moor in December 1745, and Cumberland became aware that an attempt to overtake the retreating Highlanders would be hopeless. [26] Carlisle was retaken, and he was recalled to London, where preparations were in hand to meet an expected French invasion. [3] The defeat of his replacement as commander, Henry Hawley, roused the fears of the English people in January 1746, [25] when, under a hail of pistol fire, "eighty dragoons fell dead upon the spot" at Falkirk Muir. [27]

Culloden

Arriving in Edinburgh on 30 January 1746, he at once proceeded in search of Charles. He made a detour to Aberdeen, [28] where he spent some time training the well-equipped forces now under his command for the next stage of the conflict in which they were about to engage. [25] He trained his troops to hold their fire until the enemy came within effective firing range, fire once, and then bayonet the man to the right, thereby catching the enemy under their lifted sword arm. [29]

On 8 April 1746, he set out from Aberdeen for Inverness, and, on 16 April, he fought the decisive Battle of Culloden, in which the Stuart forces were completely destroyed. [25] [24] Cumberland ordered his troops to show no quarter against any remaining Jacobite rebels (French Army personnel, including those who were British-or Irish-born, were treated as legitimate combatants). His troops traversed the battlefield and stabbed any of the rebel soldiers who were still alive. [30] When Cumberland learned that a wounded soldier lying at his feet belonged to the opposing cause, he instructed a major to shoot him; when the major (James Wolfe) refused to do so, Cumberland commanded a private soldier to complete the required duty. [30]

The British Army then embarked upon the so-called 'pacification' of Jacobite areas of the Highlands. All those the troops believed to be 'rebels' were killed, as were non-combatants; 'rebellious' settlements were burned and livestock was confiscated on a large scale. [31] Over a hundred Jacobites were hanged. [32] Women were imprisoned, and droves of people were sent by ship to London for trial; as the journey took up to 8 months, many of them died on the way. [30]

"Butcher Cumberland"

Following Culloden, Cumberland was nicknamed "Sweet William" by his Whig supporters and "The Butcher" by his Tory opponents [33] the latter being a taunt first recorded in the City of London [34] and used for political purposes in England. Cumberland's own brother, the Prince of Wales (who had been refused permission to take a military role on his father's behalf), seems to have encouraged the virulent attacks upon the Duke. Cumberland preserved the strictest discipline in his camp. He was inflexible in the execution of what he deemed to be his duty, without favour to any man. In only a few cases he exercised his influence in favour of clemency. [25] [nb 1] The Duke's victorious efforts were acknowledged by his being voted an income of £25,000 per annum over and above his money from the civil list. [3] A thanksgiving service was held at St Paul's Cathedral, that included the first performance of Handel's oratorio Judas Maccabaeus , composed especially for Cumberland, which contains the anthem "See the Conquering Hero Comes". [35]

Return to the Continent

The Duke took no part in the Flanders campaign of 1746, during which the French made huge advances capturing Brussels and defeating the Allies at Rocoux. [25] In 1747, Cumberland returned to the Continent and he again opposed the still-victorious Marshal Saxe and received a heavy defeat at the Battle of Lauffeld, or Val, near Maastricht, on 2 July 1747. [36] This and the fall of Bergen-op-Zoom compelled the two sides to the negotiating table and in 1748 the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle was concluded and Cumberland returned home. [37]

Peacetime

Cumberland's unpopularity, which had steadily increased since Culloden, interfered greatly with his success in politics, and when the death of the Prince of Wales brought the latter's son, a minor, next in succession to the throne, the Duke was not able to secure for himself the contingent regency. [25] As a compromise, the regency was vested in the Dowager Princess of Wales, who considered him an enemy, but her powers were curtailed and she was to be advised by a committee of twelve men, headed by Cumberland. [38]

Attempts at army reform

Whilst in the office of Commander-in-Chief Cumberland attempted to reform the peacetime army with the support of his father. He wished to wrest control over promotions from the government to the army itself and to limit or curtail the practise of purchase. Cumberland further wished to create a special standing force which could be quickly deployed overseas in time of crisis. [39] The Whigs who only tolerated the army's existence in peacetime and only had confidence in their control over the militia, saw the expansion and further professionalisation of the army as absolutist. Critics such as Horace Walpole argued the institution of purchase was one of the safeguards of parliamentary sovereignty against Royalist insurrection. [39] Cumberland's opponent in government Charles Townshend wished to instead further reduce the peacetime army and reform the militia by creating a volunteer force for home defence, a precursor to the volunteers of the 19th century which would be under the direct control of civil authorities. [39]

Seven Years' War

North America

In 1754, the simmering colonial rivalry between Britain and France over competing territorial claims in North America developed into war. France asserted its claim to Ohio Valley by building a network of powerful fortifications. The government ministry led by Newcastle initially proposed a limited military response in which a Highland regiment supported by colonial forces would drive the French from the Ohio Valley. [40] [41] Cumberland believed the plan was not decisive enough to protect British interests in North America and expanded the plan to include a four pronged assault against New France, with forces striking simultaneously at Duquesne, Crown Point, Niagara, and Beauséjour. [42] Cumberland proposed that only overwhelming force would defeat France in America, which was contradictory to Newcastle's own proposals and previous government strategies which advocated limited offensive operations. [42] [41] Further he proposed a role of commander in chief for forces in America, who would have the power to levy local troops and direct local strategy. [40] A 3,500 strong mixed force of regulars, militia, and allied natives would be assembled and would cross the Virginia mountains and strike Duquesne, two regiments drawn from Ireland were given this task. [43] An officer who had impressed Cumberland on previous campaigns, Edward Braddock, was given command of all crown forces in America, to the surprise of many in the army as Braddock was relatively unknown. [41] Newcastle approved the bolder plan, which met with limited success. In his role as army Commander-in-Chief, Cumberland advised on the conduct of the war in North America. He believed the war should be principally conducted by the colonies themselves and that regular troops should only play a supporting role. [41] He was influential in the appointment of Loudoun, another favorite and an officer who had served in Cumberland's army during the Jacobite rebellion. [44] Cumberland advised Loudoun to expose his officers and soldiers to scouting expeditions, so that they might "learn to beat the woods". [45] Cumberland approved the plan to develop light infantry in the British army. [41]

Invasion of Hanover

In 1757, the war having spread to the continent, Cumberland was placed at the head of the Hanoverian Army of Observation, intended to defend Hanover (of which George II was Elector) from a French invasion. [46] At the Battle of Hastenbeck, near Hamelin, on 26 July 1757, Cumberland's army was defeated by the superior forces of d'Estrées. [25] Despite seemingly having the advantage towards the end of the battle, Cumberland's forces began to retreat. Within a short time discipline had collapsed, and Cumberland's army headed northwards in total disorder. Cumberland hoped that the Royal Navy might bring him reinforcements and supplies which would allow him to regroup and counterattack, but the British mounted an expedition to Rochefort instead, despite suggestions that it should be sent to aid Cumberland. [47]

By September 1757 Cumberland and his forces had retreated to the fortified town of Stade on the North Sea coast. The King gave him discretionary powers to negotiate a separate peace. [48] Hemmed in by French forces led by the Duc de Richelieu, Cumberland agreed to the Convention of Klosterzeven, under which his army was to be disbanded and much of Hanover occupied by French forces, at the Zeven Convent on 8 September 1757. [49]

On Cumberland's return to London, he was treated badly by his father, despite the fact that he had previously been given permission to negotiate such an agreement. When they met, George II remarked "Here is my son who has ruined me and disgraced himself". [50] In response, Cumberland resigned all the military and public offices he held and retired into private life. [51]

The tabard of Blanc Coursier Herald, Cumberland's private officer of arms Blanc Coursier Tabard.jpg
The tabard of Blanc Coursier Herald, Cumberland's private officer of arms

Final years

Cumberland's final years were lived out during the first years of the reign of his nephew, George III, who acceded to the throne on the death of William's father on 25 October 1760: Cumberland became a very influential advisor to the King and was instrumental in establishing the First Rockingham Ministry. [3] Cabinet meetings were held either at Cumberland Lodge, his home in Windsor, or at Upper Grosvenor Street, his house in London. [3] Cumberland never fully recovered from his wound at Dettingen, and was obese. [3] In August 1760, he suffered a stroke [52] and, on 31 October 1765, he died at his home on Upper Grosvenor Street in London at age 44. [3] He was buried beneath the floor of the nave of the Henry VII Lady Chapel in Westminster Abbey. [53] He died unmarried. [3]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

The Duke's full style as proclaimed at his funeral by Garter King-of-Arms was: "the [...] most High, most Mighty, and most Illustrious Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, and Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburgh, Marquess of Berkhamstead, Earl of Kennington, Viscount Trematon, Baron of the Isle of Alderney, Knight of the most Noble Order of the Garter, and First and Principal Companion of the most Honourable Order of the Bath, third Son of His late most Excellent Majesty King George the Second". [54]

Honours

British Honours

Academic

Arms

On 20 July 1725, as a grandchild of the sovereign, William was granted use of the arms of the realm, differenced by a label argent of five points, the centre point bearing a cross gules, the first, second, fourth and fifth each bearing a canton gules. On 30 August 1727, as a child of the sovereign, William's difference changed to a label argent of three points, the centre point bearing a cross gules. [57]

Legacy

Prince William County, Virginia is named for him, [58] as well as Cumberland County, Maine [59] and Cumberland County, North Carolina. [60] Various other places in the American colonies were named after him, including the Cumberland River, [61] the Cumberland Gap [62] and the Cumberland Mountains. [63] In 2005 he was selected by the BBC History Magazine as the 18th century's worst Briton. [64]

There is a memorial obelisk to the Duke's military services in Windsor Great park. It is inscribed "THIS OBELISK RAISED BY COMMAND OF KING GEORGE THE SECOND COMMEMORATES THE SERVICES OF HIS SON WILLIAM DUKE OF CUMBERLAND THE SUCCESS OF HIS ARMS AND THE GRATITUDE OF HIS FATHER THIS TABLET WAS INSCRIBED BY HIS MAJESTY KING WILLIAM THE FOURTH". According to a local park guide, the obelisk was originally inscribed "Culloden" but Queen Victoria had "Culloden" removed. [65]

An equestrian statue of the Duke was erected in London's Cavendish Square in 1770, but was removed in 1868 since by that time the 'butcher of Culloden' was generally reviled. The original plinth remained. [66]

Cumberland Obelisk, Great Windsor Park CumberlandObelisk.jpg
Cumberland Obelisk, Great Windsor Park
Elegy on the much lamented death of His Royal Highness William, Duke of Cumberland.. Jacobite broadside - Elegy on the much lamented death of His Royal Highness William, Duke of Cumberland, who died suddenly on Thursday, October 31, 1765, at his house in Grosvenor-Square, in the 46th year of his age..jpg
Elegy on the much lamented death of His Royal Highness William, Duke of Cumberland..

Notes

  1. One of these is described in Walter Scott's 1829 introduction to Waverley (1805): "At length Colonel Whitefoord applied to the Duke of Cumberland in person [for a pardon for Alexander Stewart of Invernahyle, whose life Whitefoord had spared at the battle of Preston in 1745]. From him, also, he received a positive refusal. He then limited his request, for the present, to a protection for Stewart's house, wife, children, and property. This was also refused by the Duke; on which Colonel Whitefoord, taking his commission from his bosom, laid it on the table before his Royal Highness with much emotion, and asked permission to retire from the service of a sovereign who did not know how to spare a vanquished enemy. The Duke was struck, and even affected. He bade the Colonel take up his commission, and granted the protection he required."

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Lord George Murray (1694-1760), sixth son of John Murray, 1st Duke of Atholl, was a Scottish nobleman and soldier who took part in the Jacobite rebellions of 1715 and 1719. Pardoned in 1725, he returned to Scotland, where he married and in 1739 took the Oath of Allegiance to George II.

Siege of Carlisle (December 1745)

The Second Siege of Carlisle took place in December 1745 during the 1745 Rising. The Jacobite army that invaded England in November 1745 captured the city in the first Siege of Carlisle. They reached Derby before turning back and re-entering Carlisle on 19 December; leaving a garrison of 400 men, they left on the morning of 20 December and crossed the border into Scotland.

Jacobite rising of 1745 attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for the exiled House of Stuart

The Jacobite rising of 1745, also known as the Forty-five Rebellion or simply the '45, was an attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for his father, James Francis Edward Stuart. It took place during the War of the Austrian Succession, when the bulk of the British Army was fighting in mainland Europe, and proved to be the last in a series of revolts that began in 1689, with major outbreaks in 1708, 1715 and 1719.

Lieutenant-General Edward Harvey (1718–1778) of Cleveland Court, Westminster was a British Army officer who served as Adjutant-General to the Forces.

Siege of Stirling Castle (1746)

The Siege of Stirling Castle took place from 8 January to 1 February 1746, during the 1745 Rising, when a Jacobite force besieged Stirling Castle, held by a government garrison under William Blakeney.

Events from the year 1745 in Scotland.

Atholl raids

The Atholl raids of 14 - 17 March 1746 were a series of raids carried out by Jacobite rebels against the British-Hanoverian Government during the Jacobite rising of 1745.

References

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Sources

Attribution:

Further reading

Prince William, Duke of Cumberland
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 15 April 1721 Died: 31 October 1765
Military offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Scarbrough
Colonel of the Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards
1740–1742
Succeeded by
The Duke of Marlborough
Preceded by
Sir Charles Wills
Colonel of the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards
1742–1757
Succeeded by
The Viscount Ligonier
Vacant
Title last held by
The Duke of Marlborough
(1714–1717)
Captain-General of the British Army
1744–1757
Vacant
Title next held by
The Duke of York and Albany
(1799–1809)
Preceded by
George Wade
Commander-in-Chief of the Forces
1745–1757
Succeeded by
The Viscount Ligonier
Academic offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Chandos
Chancellor of the University of St Andrews
1746–1765
Succeeded by
The Earl of Kinnoull
Preceded by
The Prince of Wales
Chancellor of the University of Dublin
1751–1765
Succeeded by
The Duke of Bedford