Prince of Novgorod

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The Prince of Novgorod (Russian : Князь новгородский, knyaz novgorodskii) was the chief executive of Novgorod the Great. The office was originally an appointed one until the late eleventh or early twelfth century, then became something of an elective one until the fourteenth century, after which the Prince of Vladimir (who was almost always the Prince of Moscow) was almost invariably the Prince of Novgorod as well.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

<i>Knyaz</i> Historical Slavic title

Knyaz or knez is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands. It is usually translated into English as prince, duke or count, depending on specific historical context and the potentially known Latin equivalents of the title for each bearer of the name. In Latin sources the title is usually translated as comes or princeps, but the word was originally derived from the Proto-Germanic *kuningaz (king).

Vladimir-Suzdal Former East Slavic monarchy

Vladimir-Suzdal, also Vladimir-Suzdalian Rus' formally known as the Grand Duchy of Vladimir (1157–1331), was one of the major principalities that succeeded Kievan Rus' in the late 12th century, centered in Vladimir-on-Klyazma. With time the principality grew into a grand duchy divided into several smaller principalities. After being conquered by the Mongol Empire, the principality became a self-governed state headed by its own nobility. A governorship of principality, however, was prescribed by a Khan declaration (jarlig) issued from the Golden Horde to a noble family of any of smaller principalities.

Contents

The office began sometime in the ninth century when, according to tradition, the Viking (Varangian) chieftain Riurik and his brothers were invited to rule over the Eastern Slavs, [1] but real reliable information on the office dates only to the late tenth century when Vladimir the Great was prince of Novgorod. The office or title technically continued up until the abdication of Nicholas II in 1917 – among one of his titles (although his list of titles was rarely given in complete form) was Prince of Novgorod the Great.

Vladimir the Great 10th and 11th-century Grand Prince of Kiev and Novgorod

Vladimir the Great was a prince of Novgorod, grand Prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus' from 980 to 1015.

After the chief Rurikid prince moved to Kiev in the late ninth century, he usually sent either his son or a posadnik (mayor), to rule on his behalf. Thus Sviatoslav I sent his son Vladimir the Great to rule in Novgorod, and after Vladimir became Grand Prince of Kiev, he sent his son, Yaroslav the Wise to reign in Novgorod.

Kiev Capital of Ukraine

Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974, making Kiev the 7th most populous city in Europe.

Posadnik

Posadnik (Cyrillic: посадник, was the mayor in some East Slavic cities or towns. Most notably, the posadnik was the mayor of Novgorod and Pskov. The term comes from the Old Church Slavic "posaditi," meaning to put or place; they were so-called because the prince in Kiev originally placed them in the city to rule on his behalf. Beginning in the 12th century, they were elected locally.

Yaroslav the Wise Grand Prince of Rus

Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus', known as Yaroslav the Wise or Iaroslav the Wise was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. Yaroslav's Christian name was George (Yuri) after Saint George.

Republican period

From the early twelfth century to 1478, the prince's power in the Republic of Novgorod was more nominal. Imperial and Soviet-era scholars often argued that the office was ineffectual after 1136, when Prince Vsevolod Mstislavich was dismissed by the Novgorodians, and that Novgorod could invite and dismiss its princes at will. [2] In this way, the prince of Novgorod was no longer "ruler" of Novgorod but became an elective or appointed executive official of the city-state. [3]

That being said, the traditional view of the prince being invited in or dismissed at will is an oversimplification of a long and complex history of the office. In fact, from the late tenth century to the fall of Novgorod in 1478, the princes of Novgorod were dismissed and invited only about half the time, and the vast majority of these cases occurred between 1095 and 1293, and not consistently so during that period. That is, the office was elective for perhaps two centuries and even then it was not always elective. [4] Even during this period, the nadir of princely power in the city, more powerful princes could assert their power independently over the city, as did Mstislav the Bold in the early 13th century, Alexander Nevsky in the 1240s and 50s, his brother Iaroslav in the 1260s and 70s, and others. [5]

Alexander Nevsky political and military figure of the medieval Russia

St. Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky served as Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev (1236–52) and Grand Prince of Vladimir (1252–63) during some of the most difficult times in Kievan Rus' history.

Yaroslav of Tver Grand Prince of Vladimir

Yaroslav III Yaroslavich (1230–1271) was the first Prince of Tver and the tenth Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1264 to 1271. Yaroslav and his son Mikhail Yaroslavich presided over Tver's transformation from a sleepy village into one of the greatest centres of power in medieval Russia. All the later dukes of Tver descended from Yaroslav Yaroslavich.

According to a remark in the chronicles, Novgorod had the right, after 1196, to pick their prince of their own free will, [6] but again, the evidence indicates that even after that, princes were chosen and dismissed only about half the time, and Novgorod often chose the most powerful prince in Rus' as their prince. [7] That usually meant that the prince in Kiev, Vladimir or Moscow (who retained the title Grand Prince of Vladimir from about the 1320s onward, although there were several interruptions), either took the title himself or appointed his son or other relative to be prince of Novgorod. At times other princes, from Tver, Lithuania, and elsewhere, also vied for the Novgorodian throne. Thus Novgorod did not really choose its prince, but considering the political climate, they often very prudently went with the most senior or most powerful prince in the land if he did not impose himself (or his candidate) upon them.

Tver City of oblast significance in Tver Oblast, Russia

Tver is a city and the administrative centre of Tver Oblast, Russia. Population: 414,606 ; 403,606 ; 408,903 ; 450,941 (1989 Census). It is 180 kilometres (110 mi) northwest of Moscow.

Lithuania Republic in Northeastern Europe

Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. Lithuania is considered to be one of the Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, to the east of Sweden and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast to the southwest. Lithuania has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2019, and its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Other major cities are Kaunas and Klaipėda. Lithuanians are Baltic people. The official language, Lithuanian, is one of only two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family, the other being Latvian.

What was different about Novgorod, then, was not so much that Novgorod could freely choose its princes - it really couldn't. Rather, what was unique was that no princely dynasty managed to establish itself within the city and take permanent control over the city. Rather, while other Rus' cities had established dynasties, the more powerful princes vied for control of Novgorod the Great, a most-desirable city to control given the vast wealth (from trade in furs) that flowed into the city in the medieval period. [8]

In the absence of firmer princely control the local elites, the boyars, took control of the city and the offices of posadnik and tysyatsky became elective. [9] The veche (public assembly) played a not insignificant role in public life, although the precise makeup of the veche and its powers is uncertain and still contested among historians. The posadnik, tysiatsky, and even the local bishop or archbishop (after 1165) were elected at the veche, and it is said the veche invited and dismissed the prince as well.

List of princes

[10]

House of Rurik

Part of Kievan Rus'

RulerBornReignDeathConsortNotes
Rurik I Rurik titularnik.jpg ?862-879879Unknown
at least one son
Also Grand Prince of Rus'
Oleg the Seer Oleg of Novgorod.jpg ?879-912912UnknownVarangian kniaz of Holmgård (Novgorod) and Kønugård (Kiev). His relationship with the family is unknown. He was probably a regent, in name of Igor, son of Rurik. Also Grand Prince of Rus'
Igor I the Old
Igor Rurikovich
Igor the Old.jpg c.878
Son of Rurik I
912-945945
Iskorosten
aged 66–67
901 or 902
at least one son
Son of Rurik. Also Grand Prince of Rus'
Saint Olga of Kiev St Olga by Nesterov in 1892.jpg c.890
Pskov
945-96211 July 969
Kiev
aged 78–79
Regent on behalf of her minor son, she was baptized by Emperor Constantine VII but failed to bring Christianity to Kiev.
Sviatoslav I the Brave
Sviatoslav Igorevich
Svatoslav titularnik.png c.942
possibly Kiev
Son of Igor I and Olga
962-969March 972Predslava
c.954
two children

Malusha/Malfrida [11] [12]
c.958
at least one son
Also Grand Prince of Rus'
Vladimir I the Great
Vladimir Sviatoslavich
Vladimir-I-Sviatoslavich.jpg c.958
Budyatychi
Son of Sviatoslav I and Malusha/Malfrida
969-977

979-988
15 July 1015
Berestove, Kiev
aged 57–58
Olava/Allogia
c.977
at least one son

A Greek nun
(widow of his brother)
c.980
at least one son

Rogneda of Polotsk
c.978
(possibly in bigamy)
eight children

Adela (of Bulgaria?)
at least two children (maximum four)

Malfrida (of Bohemia?)
Before 1000
two children

Anna Porphyrogenita of Byzantium
988
Cherson
three children

Regelindis (?) of Saxony (granddaughter of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor)
After 1011
one or two daughters

Unknown
two children
His early rule is characterized by a staunch pagan reaction but in 988 he was baptized into Orthodoxy and successfully converted Kievan Rus' to Christianity.
Yaropolk I
Yaropolk Sviatoslavich
06 History Of Russia by William Tooke.jpg c.950
Son of Sviatoslav I and Predslava
977-979980
Fort of Roden, near Kaniv
aged 29-30
A greek nun
at least one son
Also Grand Prince of Rus'
Viacheslav I
Viacheslav Vladimirovich
977
Son of Vladimir I and Olava/Allogia
988-1010c.1010
Novgorod
aged 32-33
Anna
before 1052
at least two children
Yaroslav I the Wise
Yaroslav Vladimirovich
Yaroslav the Wise.jpg c.978
Son of Vladimir I and Rogneda of Polotsk
1010-103420 February 1054
Vyshhorod
aged 75–76
Ingigerda of Sweden
1019
Novgorod
eight or nine children
During his reign Kievan Rus' reached the pinnacle of its power.
Vladimir II
Vladimir Yaroslavich
1020
Son of Yaroslav I and Ingigerda of Sweden
1034-10524 October 1052
Novgorod
aged 31-32
Anna
before 1052
at least two children
Iziaslav I
Iziaslav Yaroslavich
Minskizjaslav.jpg c.1024
Son of Yaroslav I and Ingigerda of Sweden
1052-10543 October 1078
Nizhyn
aged 53–54
Gertrude of Poland
1043
three children
First King of Rus', Pope Gregory VII sent him a crown from Rome in 1075.
Mstislav I
Mstislav Iziaslavich
before 1054
Son of Iziaslav I and Gertrude of Poland
1054-10671069
aged at least 14-15
Unknown
one child
Gleb I
Gleb Sviatoslavich
Knyaz gleb ubivaet volhva.jpg 1052
Son of Sviatoslav II of Kiev and Cecilia
1067-107830 May 1078
Novgorod
aged 25-26
Unmarried
Sviatopolk I
Sviatopolk Iziaslavich
14 History Of Russia by William Tooke.jpg 8 November 1050
Son of Iziaslav I and Gertrude of Poland
1078-108826 April 1113
Vyshhorod
aged 62
(Barbara?) of Bohemia [13]
c.1085
three children

Olenna of the Kipchaks
c.1094
four children
Also Grand Prince of Rus'
Mstislav II the Great
Mstislav Vladimirovich
Mstislav I of Kiev (Tsarskiy titulyarnik).jpg 1 June 1076
Turov
Son of Vladimir II Monomakh and Gytha of Wessex
1088-1094

1095-1117
14 April 1132
Kiev
aged 55
Christina of Sweden
1095
ten children

Liubava Dmitrievna of Novgorod
1122
two children
After his reign Kievan Rus' fell into recession starting a rapid decline.
David I
David Sviatoslavich
Death of David Sviatoslavich of Chernigov; Ascension of his brother, Yaroslav Sviatoslavich.jpg 1050
Son of Sviatoslav II of Kiev and Cecilia
1094-10951123
Chernigov
aged 72-73
Teodosia
five children
Son of Sviatoslav II of Kiev.

Feudal Period

(Note: as the seat of this principality was elective (non-hereditary, the princes will be presented with their patronymic)

RulerBornReignDeathConsortNotes
Vsevolod Mstislavich Vsevolod of Pskov.jpg 11031117-113211 February 1138Anna
before 1125
four children
Son of Mstislav the Great. 1st time.
Sviatopolk Mstislavich After 1096113220 February 1154Euphemia of Olomouc [14]
1143 or 1144
no children
Also Prince of Polotsk and Pskov. Son of Mstislav the Great. 1st time.
Vsevolod Mstislavich Vsevolod of Pskov.jpg 11031132-113611 February 1138Anna
before 1125
four children
2nd time.
Sviatoslav Olgovich March to Chernigov; Sviatoslav Olgovich in his deathbed, with his wife and sons.jpg 1106/11071136-11381164Unknown
six children
Son of Oleg I of Chernigov. 1st time.
Sviatopolk Mstislavich After 1096113820 February 1154Euphemia of Olomouc [15]
1143 or 1144
no children
2nd time.
Rostislav Yurevich ?1138-11406 April 1151Unknown
before 1151
three children
Son of Yuri Dolgoruki. 1st time.
Sviatoslav Olgovich March to Chernigov; Sviatoslav Olgovich in his deathbed, with his wife and sons.jpg 1106/11071140-11411164Unknown
six children
2nd time.
Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich Sviatoslav III.jpg 1123114125 July 1194Maria of Polotsk
1143
eight children
Son of Vsevolod II of Kiev.
Rostislav Yurevich ?1141-11426 April 1151Unknown
before 1151
three children
2nd time.
Sviatopolk Mstislavich After 10961142-114820 February 1154Euphemia of Olomouc [16]
1143 or 1144
no children
3rd time.
Yaroslav Iziaslavich Iaroslav Iziaslavovich.png 11321148-11541180'Unknown
1149
four children
Son of Iziaslav II of Kiev.
Rostislav Mstislavich Rostislav I.jpg 1110115414 March 1167Unknown
eight children
Son of Mstislav the Great.
David Rostislavich 11401154-115523 April 1197Unknown
before 1197
seven children
Son of the predecessor.
Mstislav Yurevich Strong rain; Assassination of tsyatsyky Andrey Glebov; Marriage of Mstislav Yurevich of Novgorod and a daughter of Petr of Novgorod.jpg ?1155-1158after 1161UnknownSon of Yuri Dolgoruki.
Sviatoslav Rostislavich ?1158-11601170UnknownSon of Rostislav Mstislavich. 1st time.
Mstislav Rostislavich the Eyeless before 11511160-116120 April 1178Unknown
two children

Unknown
no children
Son of Rostislav Yurevich. 1st time
Sviatoslav Rostislavich ?1161-11681170Unknown2nd time.
Roman Mstislavich the Great Roman Mstislavich , Roman of Halych, Roman the Great.jpg 11521168-117019 June 1205 Predslava of Kiev
1170 or 1180
two children

Anna Angelina of Byzantium
c.1197
two children
Son of Mstislav II of Kiev. Also King of Galicia-Volhynia.
Rurik Rostislavich Rurik II.jpg before 11571170-11711215Unknown
1163

Anna of Turov [17]
before 1176
six children
Son of Rostislav Mstislavich.
Yuri Andreevich I Bogolyubsky c.11601171-1175c.1194 Tamar I of Georgia
1185
(annulled 1187)
no children
Son of Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky.
Sviatoslav Mstislavich ?1175after 1176UnknownSOn of Mstislav Rostislavich.
Mstislav Rostislavich the Eyeless before 11511175-117620 April 1178Unknown
two children

Unknown
no children
2nd time.
Yaroslav Mstislavich the Red ?1176-11771199UnmarriedSon of Mstislav Yurevich.
Mstislav Rostislavich the Eyeless before 11511177-117820 April 1178Unknown
two children

Unknown
no children
3rd time.
Yaropolk Rostislavich ?11781182 or after 1196UnknownSon of Rostislav Mstislavich.
Roman Rostislavich RomanI.jpg before 11491178-117914 June 1180Maria of Novgorod
9 January 1149
three children
Son of Rostislav Mstislavich.
Mstislav Rostislavich the Brave Fearlessness of Mstislav.jpeg 11431179-118013 July 1180Two unknown wives
three children
Son of Rostislav Mstislavich.
Vladimir Sviatoslavich after 11431180-11811200Maria of Vladimir-Suzdal
1178
five children
Son of Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich.
Yaroslav Vladimirovich ?1182-1184after 1176Unknown Alanian wife
three children
Son of Vladimir III of Kiev. 1st time.
Mstislav Davidovich ?1184-11871189UnknownSon of David Rostislavich.
Yaroslav Vladimirovich ?1187-1196after 1176Unknown Alanian wife
three children
2nd time.
Yaropolk Yaroslavich after 11741197between 1212 and 1223Vasilissa (of Chernigov?)
no children
Son of Yaroslav II of Chernigov.
Yaroslav Vladimirovich ?1197-1199after 1176Unknown Alanian wife
three children
3rd time.
Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich 29 History of the Russian state in the image of its sovereign rulers - fragment.jpg 27 March 11961200-12053 Februaray 1252Eudokia of Murom
one child
Son of Grand Duke Vsevolod the Big Nest. Also Grand Duke of Vladimir. 1st time.
Konstantin Vsevolodovich 24 History Of Russia by William Tooke.jpg 18 May 11851205-12072 Februaray 1218Agafia of Kiev
three children
Son of Grand Duke Vsevolod the Big Nest. Also Grand Duke of Vladimir.
Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich 29 History of the Russian state in the image of its sovereign rulers - fragment.jpg 27 March 11961207-12103 Februaray 1252Eudokia of Murom
one child
2nd time.
Mstislav Mstislavich the Bold Mstislav Mstislavovich (sleva) i Danila Galitskii.jpg 11761210-12151228Maria of Cumania
nine children
Son of Mstislav Rostislavich. 1st time.
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich 26 History Of Russia by William Tooke.jpg 8 February 11911215-121630 September 1246Unknown
1205
no children

Rostislava of Novgorod
1214
(annulled 1216)
no children

Theodosia of Ryazan
1218
twelve children
Son of Grand Duke Vsevolod the Big Nest. Also Grand Duke of Vladimir. 1st time.
Mstislav Mstislavich the Bold Mstislav Mstislavovich (sleva) i Danila Galitskii.jpg 11761216-12171228Maria of Cumania
nine children
2nd time.
Sviatoslav Mstislavich ?1217-12181239UnknownSon of Mstislav III of Kiev.
Vsevolod Mstislavich  [ ru ]?1218-12211239UnknownSon of Mstislav III of Kiev.
Vsevolod Yurevich 1212 or 121312217 February 1238Marina of Kiev
1230
no children
Son of Yuri II of Vladimir. 1st time.
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich 26 History Of Russia by William Tooke.jpg 8 February 11911221-122330 September 1246Unknown
1205
no children

Rostislava of Novgorod
1214
(annulled 1216)
no children

Theodosia of Ryazan
1218
twelve children
2nd time.
Vsevolod Yurevich 1212 or 12131223-12247 February 1238Marina of Kiev
1230
no children
2nd time.
Saint Michael Vsevolodovich Michael of Chernigov 1688.jpg 11851224-122620 September 1246Helena of Galicia-Volhynia
1210 or 1211 [18]
seven children
Son of Vsevolod IV of Kiev. 1st time.
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich 26 History Of Russia by William Tooke.jpg 8 February 11911226-122830 September 1246Unknown
1205
no children

Rostislava of Novgorod
1214
(annulled 1216)
no children

Theodosia of Ryazan
1218
twelve children
3rd time.
Saint Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky Alexander Nevsky, Russian School 19th-20th century.jpg 13 May 12211228-122914 November 1263Praskovia-Alexandra of Polotsk
1239
five children

Vassilissa
before 1263
no children
Son of the predecessor. 1st time.
Saint Michael Vsevolodovich Michael of Chernigov 1688.jpg 1185122920 September 1246Helena of Galicia-Volhynia
1210 or 1211 [18]
seven children
2nd time.
Rostislav Mikhailovich after 12101229-12301262 Anna of Hungary
1243
five children
Son of the predecessor.
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich 26 History Of Russia by William Tooke.jpg 8 February 11911230-123630 September 1246Unknown
1205
no children

Rostislava of Novgorod
1214
(annulled 1216)
no children

Theodosia of Ryazan
1218
twelve children
4th time.
Saint Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky Alexander Nevsky, Russian School 19th-20th century.jpg 13 May 12211236-124014 November 1263Praskovia-Alexandra of Polotsk
1239
five children

Vassilissa
before 1263
no children
2nd time.
Andrey Yaroslavich Andrei2.jpg 12201240-12411264Justina of Galicia
three children
Son of Yaroslav Vsevolodovich.
Saint Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky Alexander Nevsky, Russian School 19th-20th century.jpg 13 May 12211241-125214 November 1263Praskovia-Alexandra of Polotsk
1239
five children

Vassilissa
before 1263
no children
3rd time.
Vasily Alexandrovich ?1252-12551271UnmarriedSon of Alexander Yaroslavich.
Yaroslav Yaroslavich 28 History Of Russia by William Tooke.jpg 1230125516 September 1272Natalia
before 1252
two children

Saint Xenia of Tarusa
1265
four children
Son of Yaroslav Vsevolodovich. 1st time.
Vasily Alexandrovich ?1255-12571271Unmarried2nd time.
Saint Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky Alexander Nevsky, Russian School 19th-20th century.jpg 13 May 12211257-125914 November 1263Praskovia-Alexandra of Polotsk
1239
five children

Vassilissa
before 1263
no children
4th time.
Dmitry Alexandrovich 33 History of the Russian state in the image of its sovereign rulers - fragment.jpg 12501259-12631294Unknown
four children
Son of Alexander Yaroslavich. 1st time.
Yaroslav Yaroslavich 28 History Of Russia by William Tooke.jpg 12301264-127216 September 1272Natalia
before 1252
two children

Saint Xenia of Tarusa
1265
four children
2nd time.
Dmitry Alexandrovich 33 History of the Russian state in the image of its sovereign rulers - fragment.jpg 12501272-12731294Unknown
four children
2nd time.
Vasily Yaroslavich Vasily Yaroslavich Grand Dukes of Vladimir.jpg 1236 or 12411273-12761276Unknown3rd time.
Dmitry Alexandrovich 33 History of the Russian state in the image of its sovereign rulers - fragment.jpg 12501276-12811294Unknown
four children
3rd time.
Andrey Alexandrovich Andreygorodetsky.jpg 12551281-128527 July 1304Vasilissa of Rostov
1294
three children
Son of Alexander Yaroslavich. 1st time.
Dmitry Alexandrovich 33 History of the Russian state in the image of its sovereign rulers - fragment.jpg 12501285-12921294Unknown
four children
4th time.
Andrey Alexandrovich Andreygorodetsky.jpg 12551292-130427 July 1304Vasilissa of Rostov
1294
three children
2nd time.
Saint Michael Yaroslavich 33 History Of Russia by William Tooke.jpg 12551304-131427 July 1304 Saint Anna of Rostov
1294
five children
Son of Yaroslav Yaroslavich. 1st time.
Afanasi Danilovich ?1314-13151322Anna
no children
Son of Daniel of Moscow. 1st time.
Saint Michael Yaroslavich 33 History Of Russia by William Tooke.jpg 12551315-131627 July 1304 Saint Anna of Rostov
1294
five children
2nd time.
Afanasi Danilovich ?1316-13221322Anna
no children
2nd time.
Yuri Danilovich 34 History Of Russia by William Tooke.jpg 12811322-132521 November 1325Unknown
1297
one child

Konchaka of Mengu-Timur (baptised Agafia)
1317
no children
Son of Daniel of Moscow.
Alexander Mikhailovich 35 History Of Russia by William Tooke.jpg 7 October 13011325-132729 October 1339Anastasia of Galicia
1320
eight children
Son of Michael Yaroslavich.

Part of Moscow

Gediminids

House of Rurik

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The Novgorod Republic or Novgorodian Rus' was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Gulf of Finland in the west to the northern Ural Mountains in the east, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia. Citizens referred to their city-state as "His Majesty Lord Novgorod the Great", or more often as "Lord Novgorod the Great". The Republic prospered as the easternmost port of the Hanseatic League and its Slavic, Baltic and Finnic people were much influenced by the culture of the Viking-Varangians and Byzantine people.

Pskov Republic former country

Pskov, known at various times as the Principality of Pskov or the Pskov Republic, was a medieval state on the south shore of Lake Pskov. The capital city, also named Pskov, was located at the southern end of the Peipus–Pskov Lake system at the southeast corner of Ugandi, about 150 miles (240 km) southwest of Nevanlinna, and 100 miles (160 km) west-southwest of Great Novgorod. It was originally known as Pleskov, and is now roughly equivalent geographically to the Pskov Oblast of Russia. It was a principality ca. 862–1230, after which it was joined to the Novgorod Republic. From 1348, Pleskov became again independent from Novgorod and established an aristocratic oligarchy.

Battle of Lipitsa

The Battle of Lipitsa was the decisive battle in the succession struggle over the Grand Princely throne of Vladimir-Suzdal following the death of Vsevolod the Big Nest. In the battle, fought on April 22, 1216, the forces of Mstislav the Daring and Konstantin Vsevolodovich defeated those of Konstantin's younger brothers Yuri Vsevolodovich and Yaroslav. Konstantin took the throne of Vladimir and reigned as grand prince until his death two years later.

The Treaty of Yazhelbitsy was a peace treaty signed by Vasili II, Grand Prince of Moscow and Vladimir, and the government of Novgorod the Great in the village of Yazhelbitsy in February 1456. This treaty was a significant setback for Novgorod, which would culminate, almost quarter of a century later, in the city being brought under the direct control of the Muscovite Grand Prince in 1478.

A tysyatsky, sometimes translated dux or herzog, was a military leader in ancient Rus' who commanded a people's volunteer army called a thousand. In the Novgorod Republic, the tysyatsky evolved into a judicial or commercial official and was elected from boyars at a veche for a period of one year. In cities with no veche, tysyatskies were appointed by the knyazs or prince from among the noble boyars and could hand down their post to their sons.

Valentin Lavrentievich Yanin is a leading Russian historian who has authored 700 books and articles. He has also edited a number of important journals and primary sources, including works on medieval Russian law, sphragistics and epigraphy, archaeology and history. His expertise is medieval Rus' especially Novgorod the Great, where he has headed archaeological digs beginning in 1962.

Vsevolod of Pskov Russian prince and saint

Vsevolod Mstislavich, the patron saint of the city of Pskov, ruled as Prince of Novgorod in 1117–32, Prince of Pereslavl (1132) and Prince of Pskov in 1137–38.

Yuriev Monastery monastery

The St. George's (Yuriev) Monastery is usually cited as Russia's oldest monastery. It stands in 5 kilometers south of Novgorod on the left bank of the Volkhov River near where it flows out of Lake Ilmen. The monastery used to be the most important in the medieval Novgorod Republic. It is part of the World Heritage Site named Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings.

Ontsifor Lukinich was a posadnik of Novgorod the Great in 1350–1354. He came from a Novgorodian boyar family that gave a number of posadniks to the city. He is most famous for reforming the office in 1359, increasing the number of posadniks and creating a ruling collective in the city.

Vasilii Kalika was Archbishop of Novgorod the Great and Pskov from 1330 to 1352. He is in large part responsible for reinvigorating the office after it had fallen into decline to some extent following the Mongol Invasion.

Yaroslavs Court

Yaroslav's Court was the princely compound in the city of Novgorod the Great. Today it is roughly the area around the Trade Mart, the St. Nicholas Cathedral, the Church of St. Procopius, and the Church of the Myrrh-bearing Women. The Trade Mart renovated and heavily modified in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, is all that is left of the princely palace itself. The prince also had a compound called the Riurik's Court south of the marketside of the city.

Novgorod veche

According to the traditional scholarship, the veche was the highest legislative and judicial authority in Veliky Novgorod until 1478, when the Novgorod Republic was brought under the direct control of the Grand Duke of Moscow, Ivan III.

The Council of Lords or Sovet Gospod was, according to the traditional scholarship, the executive organ of the Novgorodian and Pskovian veches.

The Treaty of Bolotovo was concluded in 1348 between the northwestern Russian cities of Novgorod the Great and Pskov and recognized Pskov's political independence from Novgorod. Up until that point, Pskov had, at least nominally, been part of the Novgorodian Land and subordinate to Novgorod, although it had invited in its own princes and been de facto independent for perhaps a century before that. Valentin Yanin argues Pskov became politically independent in 1329, but they had also invited in several princes, including Vsevolod Mstislavich and the Lithuanian prince Dovmont (1266–1299).

The Novgorod Judicial Charter was an Old Russian legal code of the Novgorod Republic, issued in 1440, although the current version was supplemented in 1471 under the auspices of Grand Prince Ivan III, and his son, Ivan Ivanovich [1458-90; predeceased his father and never reigned] and

according to the blessing of the hieromonk Feofil who was named to the archbishopric of Novgorod the Great and Pskov, so [then] the mayors of Novgorod, and the Novgorod millenariuses, and boyars, and ranking men, and merchants, and taxpaying townsmen, all five boroughs (kontsy) [of Novgorod], [and] all Lord Novgorod the Great at assembly (veche) in Iaroslav's court

Battle of the Novgorodians with the Suzdalians

The Battle of the Novogorodians with the Suzdalians is a twelfth-century episode in which the city of Novgorod the Great was said to have been miraculously delivered from a besieging army from Suzdalia In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the episode became the basis for several hagiographic tales in the Russian church, as well as two large icons executed in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries

Veliky Novgorod City in Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Veliky Novgorod, also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the oldest and most important historic cities in Russia, with more than 1000 years of history. The city serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast. The city lies along the Volkhov River just downstream from its outflow from Lake Ilmen and is situated on the M10 federal highway connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg. UNESCO recognized Novgorod as a World Heritage Site in 1992. The city has a population of 218,717 (2010 Census);

Simeon Olelkovich

Simeon (Simon) Olelkovich was the last Prince of Kiev from 1454 to 1470 and the Prince of Slutsk from 1443 to 1455.

References

  1. Dmitry Likhachev, ed. and trans., Povest Vremennikh Let (Moscow and Augsburg: Im Werden Verlag, 2003), 7.
  2. Boris Grekov, “Revoliutsiia v Novgorode v XII veke,” Uchenye zapiski Instituta Istorii Rossiiskoi assotsiatsii nauchno-issledovatel’skikh institutov obshchestvennykh nauk (RANION) vol. 4 (1929): 13-21; V. L. (Valentin Lavrent’evich) Yanin, “Problemy sotsial'noi organizatsii novgorodskoi respubliki,” Istoriia SSSR, 1 (1970), 44; Valentin Yanin, Novgoroskie Posadniki (Moscow: Yazyki Slavianskoi kul'tury, 2003), 64-135.
  3. Michael C. Paul, "Was the Prince of Novgorod a 'Third-rate bureaucrat' after 1136?" Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas 56, No. 1 (Spring 2008): 72-113.
  4. Paul, "Was the Prince of Novgorod a 'Third-rate bureaucrat' after 1136?" 94-97.
  5. Michael C. Paul, “The Iaroslavichi and the Novgorodian Veche 1230-1270: A Case Study on Princely Relations with the Veche,” Russian History/ Histoire Russe 31, No. 1-2 (Spring-Summer, 2004): 39-59.
  6. Arseny Nasonov, ed., Novgorodskaia Pervaia Letopis Starshego i mladshego izvodov (Moscow and Leningrad, ANSSSR, 1950), 43, 236; Novgorodskaia chetvertaia letopis, vol. 4 of Polnoe Sobranie Russkikh Letopisei (Moscow: Iazyki russkoi kul'tury, 2000), 177; George Vernadsky, Kievan Russia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1948), 197.
  7. N. L. (Natalia L’vovna) Podvigina, Ocherki sotsial’no-ekonomicheskoi i politicheskoi istorii Novgoroda Velikogo v XII-XIII vv. (Moscow: Vysshaia shkola, 1976), 114; Paul, "Was the Prince of Novgorod a 'Third-rate bureaucrat' after 1136?" 82-94.
  8. On the fur trade, see Janet Martin, Treasure of the Land of Darkness: The Fur Trade and Its Significance for Medieval Russia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985); Paul, "Was the Prince of Novgorod a 'Third-Rate Bureaucrat' after 1136?"; see also the relevant sections (re: Novgorod) in Janet Martin, Medieval Russia: 980-1584, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
  9. See Yanin, Novgoroskie Posadniki.
  10. See also the list in Paul, "Was the Prince of Novgorod a 'Third-rate bureaucrat' after 1136?" 109-113.
  11. Vladimir Plougin: Russian Intelligence Services: The Early Years, 9th-11th Centuries, Algora Publ., 2000
  12. History of Ukraine-Rus': From prehistory to the eleventh century, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 1997
  13. According to A. Nazarenko. It was thought not long ago that the first wife of Sviatopolk was Barbara Komnene, a supposed daughter of Alexios I Komnenos. However, the lack of tradition of such a name in the Byzantine Empire led to doubt. Today she may be considered fictional.
  14. Л.Войтович КНЯЗІВСЬКІ ДИНАСТІЇ СХІДНОЇ ЄВРОПИ
  15. Л.Войтович КНЯЗІВСЬКІ ДИНАСТІЇ СХІДНОЇ ЄВРОПИ
  16. Л.Войтович КНЯЗІВСЬКІ ДИНАСТІЇ СХІДНОЇ ЄВРОПИ
  17. Template:ВТ-МЭСБЕ
  18. 1 2 Thurston, Herbert (Editor). Butler’s Lives of the Saints - September.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)