The Prince of Transylvania (German : Fürst von Siebenbürgen, Hungarian : erdélyi fejedelem, Latin : princeps Transsylvaniae. Romanian : principele Transilvaniei) was the head of state of the Principality of Transylvania from the last decades of the 16th century until the middle of the 18th century. John Sigismund Zápolya was the first to adopt the title in 1570, but its use only became stable[ clarification needed ] from 1576.
The integration of Transylvania into the newly established Kingdom of Hungary began around 1003.The province became subject to intensive colonization, leading to the arrival and settlement of colonists of diverse origin, including the Hungarian-speaking Székelys and the Ethnic Germans. The territory of Transylvania was divided for administrative purposes into territorial units called "counties" and "seats".
The seven Transylvanian counties (Doboka/Dăbâca, Fehér/Alba, Hunyad/Hundedoara, Kolozs/Cluj, Küküllő/Târnava, Szolnok/Solnoc, and Torda/Turda) were institutions primarily run by local noblemen. [ citation needed ], customarily at Torda/Turda. These assemblies primarily functioned as courts-of-justice, but judges for the counties were also elected by them.However, their heads or ispáns were subject to the authority of a higher official, the voivode who was appointed by the kings of Hungary. The Voivode of Transylvania had a number of administrative, military and judicial responsibilities. For instance, joint general assemblies of the seven counties were convoked and headed by the voivode or his deputy
Instead of counties, the Transylvanian Saxon community was primarily organized into seats and districts.They were independent of the authority of the voivodes. In 1469, King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary authorized all Saxons' seats to elect their own heads. Seven years later, the same monarch set up the "Saxon University" unifying all Saxon seats and districts in Transylvania, which was headed by the elected major of Hermannstadt (Nagyszeben, Sibiu). Initially, the Székelys were likewise independent of the authority of the voivodes, since they were led by their own count, an official appointed by the sovereign.
Although the Saxons and the Székelys endeavoured to preserve their direct connection to the monarchs, "the first institutional contacts between the nobility, the Székelys and the Saxons were established through the voivode" from the early 14th century. century, thus the two offices were united by custom. In contrast with the representatives of the noblemen, the Saxons and the Székelys, Romanian cneazes were only twice (in 1291 and in 1355) invited to the general assemblies.For instance, the representatives of the Saxons and the Székelys were often present at the general assemblies of the noblemen headed by the voivodes. Furthermore, voivodes were also appointed Count of the Székelys by the monarch from the middle of the 15th
The leaders of the noblemen from the seven counties, the Saxons, and the Székelys formed an alliance against "all internal and external threat to the province"in the days of the Budai Nagy Antal Revolt in 1437. This formal alliance of the "Three Nations of Transylvania" was confirmed in 1459, aimed primarily against Michael Szilágyi, the regent-governor of the Kingdom of Hungary. During the rebellion of peasants led by György Dózsa in 1514, Voivode John Zápolya convoked the assembly of the Three Nations.
In 1526, in the Battle of Mohács, the Ottoman Empire defeated the royal army of Hungary and killed King Louis II. The Ottomans then withdrew.[ citation needed ]
The throne was claimed by Louis' brother-in-law Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, and by John Zápolya, both backed by factions of Hungarian magnates. Ferdinand drove John out of Hungary, whereupon John offered allegiance to Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in return for support. Suleiman invaded Austria while John regained his throne. Suleiman was repulsed from Austria, and by a treaty in 1533, Ferdinand became King of Hungary, holding the western parts, while John became King, holding the eastern parts, including Transylvania (called by historians the "Eastern Hungarian Kingdom").[ citation needed ]
Thus from being a fully sovereign kingdom, Hungary had become either a possession of the House of Habsburg or an Ottoman vassal state.[ citation needed ]
In 1538, John named Ferdinand his successor as King. But he had a son, John Sigismund Zápolya, just before he died in 1540. The Hungarian Diet elected him King as John II Sigismund, and when Ferdinand invaded, the Regent Bishop Martinuzzi called on Suleiman to protect his vassal. Suleiman drove out Ferdinand, then put central Hungary under direct Turkish rule. He allocated Transylvania and eastern Royal Hungary to John II Sigismund.
In 1551, Bishop Martinuzzi arranged for John II Sigismund to abdicate his royal title in favor of Ferdinand, in return for being recognized as vassal lord of the "East Hungarian" lands.
All the territories of the Kingdom of Hungary which had remained free of direct Ottoman occupation were thus reunited under Ferdinand's rule in 1551.But Ottoman attacks continued, and Ferdinand could not protect "Eastern Hungary". In 1556, the Diet invited "King John's son" (that is, John II Sigismund) and his mother to resume the government of the territories east of the Tisza. John II Sigismund continued to style himself "elected king" of Hungary until 1570.
In 1570, John II Sigismund again abdicated as King in favor of Ferdinand's successor, Emperor Maximilian II. This was expressed in the treaty of Speyer. John II Sigismund adopted the new style "Prince of Transylvania and Lord of parts of Hungary".
John Sigismund's successor, Stephen Báthory, however, adopted the title the one-time royal governors of Transylvania used and styled himself voivode. [ citation needed ] was also confirmed by King Maximilian I's successor, Emperor Rudolph II on January 28, 1595.Furthermore, he secretly swore allegiance to King Maximilian I of Hungary. Stephen Báthory only adopted the style Prince when he was elected King of Poland in 1576. Upon his death in 1586, his princely title was inherited by his nephew, Sigismund Báthory. The new style of the rulers of Transylvania and the Partium
Transylvanian monarchs used the following style and titles: "His Excellency, by the grace of God,Prince of Transylvania, Lord of parts of Hungary, and Count of the Székelys ". In addition, Sigismund Báthory adopted the title of "Prince of Wallachia and Moldavia" in 1595.
From 1570 to 1699, the princes of Transylvania were not recognized as independent monarchs. At times they acknowledged Ottoman suzerainty, and at other times accepted the rule of the Kingdom of Hungary. According to the teachings of the Hanafi school of Islamic jurisprudence, Transylvania was part of the "House of Agreement" (Dâr al ahd'), that is a territory with a transitory status between the lands fully integrated in the Ottoman Empire and independent states.Accordingly, when ascending the throne each prince received an official document from the sultan which described the prince's rights and obligations. These documents or ahidnâmes confirmed the right of the Transylvanian estates to elect their princes freely, "guaranted the territorial integrity of the principality", and promised military assistance to the Prince in case of invasion by his enemies. On the other hand, the princes were obliged to pay a yearly tribute and to assist the Ottomans in their military operations.
After the Rákóczi's War of Independence the princes were effectively replaced with governors. The last prince Francis II Rákóczi spent the rest of his life in exile.
Christopher Báthory was voivode of Transylvania from 1576 to 1581. He was a younger son of Stephen Báthory of Somlyó. Christopher's career began during the reign of Queen Isabella Jagiellon, who administered the eastern territories of the Kingdom of Hungary on behalf of her son, John Sigismund Zápolya, from 1556 to 1559. He was one of the commanders of John Sigismund's army in the early 1560s.
Sigismund Báthory was Prince of Transylvania several times between 1586 and 1602, and Duke of Racibórz and Opole in Silesia in 1598. His father, Christopher Báthory, ruled Transylvania as voivode of the absent prince, Stephen Báthory. Sigismund was still a child when the Diet of Transylvania elected him voivode at his dying father's request in 1581. Initially, regency councils administered Transylvania on his behalf, but Stephen Báthory made János Ghyczy the sole regent in 1585. Sigismund adopted the title of prince after Stephen Báthory died.
The Middle Ages in Romania began with the withdrawal of the Mongols, the last of the migrating populations to invade the territory of modern Romania, after their attack of 1241–1242. It came to an end with the reign of Michael the Brave (1593–1601) who managed, for a short time in 1600, to rule Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania, the three principalities whose territories were to be united some three centuries later to form Romania.
Litovoi, also Litvoy, was a Vlach/Romanian voivode in the 13th century whose territory comprised northern Oltenia in today's Romania.
Bărbat was the brother and successor of voivode Litovoi whose territory had comprised northern Oltenia (Romania).
John Sigismund Zápolya or Szapolyai was King of Hungary as John II from 1540 to 1551 and from 1556 to 1570, and the first Prince of Transylvania, from 1570 to his death. He was the only son of John I, King of Hungary, and Isabella of Poland. John I ruled parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, with the support of the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman; the remaining areas were ruled by Ferdinand I, who also claimed Hungary. The two kings concluded a peace treaty in 1538 acknowledging Ferdinand's right to reunite Hungary after John I's death, but shortly after John Sigismund's birth, and on his deathbed, John I bequeathed his realm to his son. The late king's staunchest supporters elected the infant John Sigismund king, but he was not crowned with the Holy Crown of Hungary.
The Transylvanian peasant revolt, also known as the peasant revolt of Bábolna or Bobâlna revolt, was a popular revolt in the eastern territories of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1437. The revolt broke out after George Lépes, bishop of Transylvania, had failed to collect the tithe for years because of a temporary debasement of the coinage, but then demanded the arrears in one sum when coins of higher value were again issued. Most commoners were unable to pay the demanded sum, but the bishop did not renounce his claim and applied interdict and other ecclesiastic penalties to enforce the payment.
Gabriel Báthory was Prince of Transylvania from 1608 to 1613. Born to the Roman Catholic branch of the Báthory family, he was closely related to four rulers of the Principality of Transylvania. His father, Stephen Báthory, held estates in the principality, but never ruled it. Being a minor when his father died in 1601, Gabriel became the ward of the childless Stephen Báthory, from the Protestant branch of the family, who converted him to Calvinism. After inheriting his guardian's most estates in 1605, Gabriel became one of the wealthiest landowners in Transylvania and Royal Hungary.
George Martinuzzi, O.S.P., was a Croatian nobleman, Pauline monk and Hungarian statesman who supported King John Zápolya and his son, King John Sigismund Zápolya. He was Bishop of Nagyvárad, Archbishop of Esztergom and a cardinal.
The Early Modern Times in Romania started after the death of Michael the Brave, who ruled in a personal union, Wallachia, Transylvania and Moldavia – three principalities in the lands that now form Romania – for three months, in 1600. The three principalities were subjected to the Ottoman Empire, and paid a yearly tribute to the Ottoman Sultans, but they preserved their internal autonomy. In contrast, Dobruja and the Banat were fully incorporated into the Ottoman Empire.
The eastern Hungarian Kingdom is a modern term used by historians to designate the realm of John Zápolya and his son John Sigismund Zápolya, who contested the claims of the House of Habsburg to rule the Kingdom of Hungary from 1526 to 1570. The Zápolyas ruled over an eastern part of Hungary, while the Habsburg kings ruled the west. The Habsburgs tried several times to unite all Hungary under their rule, but the Ottoman Empire prevented this by supporting the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom.
The history of the Székely people can be documented from the 12th century. According to medieval chronicles, the Székelys were descended from the Huns who settled in the Carpathian Basin in the 5th century. This theory was refuted by modern scholars, but no consensual view about the origin of the Székelys exists. They fought in the vanguard of the Hungarian army, implying that they had been a separate ethnic group, but their tongue does not show any trace of a language shift.
Andrew Báthory was the Cardinal-deacon of Sant'Adriano al Foro from 1584 to 1599, Prince-Bishop of Warmia from 1589 to 1599, and Prince of Transylvania in 1599. His father was a brother of Stephen Báthory, who ruled the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1575. He was the childless Stephen Báthory's favorite nephew. He went to Poland at his uncle's invitation in 1578 and studied at the Jesuit college in Pułtusk. He became canon in the Chapter of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Warmia in 1581, and provost of the Monastery of Miechów in 1583.
Moses Székely was Prince of Transylvania in 1603.
The Voivode of Transylvania was the highest-ranking official in Transylvania within the Kingdom of Hungary from the 12th century to the 16th century. Appointed by the monarchs, the voivodes – themselves also the heads or ispáns of Fehér County – were the superiors of the ispáns of all the other counties in the province.
Farcaş, also Farkas, Farkaş or Farcas, was a cneaz mentioned in the Diploma of the Joannites issued by king Béla IV of Hungary (1235–1270) on 2 July 1247; the diploma granted territories to the Knights Hospitaller in the Banate of Severin and Cumania. Farcaş held a kenazate which was given to the knights by the king. His kenazate lay in the northeast of modern Oltenia.
The Transylvanian Diet was an important legislative, administrative and judicial body of the Principality of Transylvania between 1570 and 1867. The general assemblies of the Transylvanian noblemen and the joint assemblies of the representatives of the "Three Nations of Transylvania"—the noblemen, Székelys and Saxons—gave rise to its development. After the disintegration of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary in 1541, delegates from the counties of the eastern and northeastern territories of Hungary proper also attained the Transylvanian Diet, transforming it into a legal successor of the medieval Diets of Hungary.
The Count of the Székelys was the leader of the Hungarian-speaking Székelys in Transylvania, in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. First mentioned in royal charters of the 13th century, the counts were the highest-ranking royal officials in Székely Land. From around 1320 to the second half of the 15th century, the counts' jurisdiction included four Transylvanian Saxon districts, in addition to the seven Székely seats.
The boyars of Fogaras were a group of Vlach conditional nobles in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and the Principality of Transylvania.
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