Princes Highway

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Princes Highway

South Australia
Location Princes Hwy.svg
General information
Type Highway
Length1,898 km (1,179 mi)
Opened1920
Route number(s) See Route allocation
Major junctions
East end
 
West end
Location(s)
Major settlements Wollongong, Batemans Bay, Eden, Orbost, Sale, Melbourne, Geelong, Warrnambool, Mount Gambier, Kingston SE, Tailem Bend, Murray Bridge, Crafers, Adelaide, Port Wakefield
Highway system

The Princes Highway (often pronounced and misspelt as "Princess Highway") is a major road in Australia, extending from Sydney to Adelaide via the coast through the states of New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. It has a length of 1,941 kilometres (1,206 mi) (along Highway 1) or 1,898 kilometres (1,179 mi) via the former alignments of the highway,[ citation needed ] although these routes are slower and connections to the bypassed sections of the original route are poor in many cases.

Sydney State capital of New South Wales and most populous city in Australia and Oceania

Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to approximately 65% of the state's population.

Adelaide City in South Australia

Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, and the fifth-most populous city of Australia. Adelaide is home to 77 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia.

New South Wales State of Australia

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In December 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.

Contents

The highway follows the coastline for most of its length, and thus takes quite an indirect and lengthy route. For example, it is 1,040 kilometres (650 mi) from Sydney to Melbourne on Highway 1 as opposed to 870 kilometres (540 mi) on the more direct Hume Highway (National Highway 31), and 915 kilometres (569 mi) from Melbourne to Adelaide compared to 730 kilometres (450 mi) on the Western and Dukes Highways (National Highway 8). Because of the rural nature and lower traffic volumes over much of its length, the Princes Highway is a more scenic and leisurely route than the main highways between these major cities.

Melbourne City in Victoria, Australia

Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2 (3,858.1 sq mi), comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, and is also the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of approximately 5 million, and its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians".

Highway 1 (Australia) circumnavigational highway in Australia

Australia's Highway 1 is a network of highways that circumnavigate the country, joining all mainland state capitals. At a total length of approximately 14,500 km (9,000 mi) it is the longest national highway in the world, surpassing the Trans-Siberian Highway and the Trans-Canada Highway. Every day more than a million people travel on a part of it.

Hume Highway highway in New South Wales and Victoria

The Hume Highway, inclusive of the sections now known as the Hume Freeway and Hume Motorway, is one of Australia's major inter-city national highways, running for 840 kilometres (520 mi) between Melbourne in the southwest and Sydney in the northeast. Upgrading of the route from Sydney's outskirts to Melbourne's outskirts to dual carriageway was completed on 7 August 2013.

Route allocation

Sections of the Princes Highway have different route allocations. These allocations, from its northern terminus in Sydney to its western terminus in Glen Osmond (Adelaide suburb), are:

Route allocations on the Princes Highway
Route
allocation
Road name(s)Start pointEnd pointDistanceCumulative
distance
Notes
kmmikmmi
New South Wales alphanumeric route A36.svg A36 City Road; King Street; Princes Highway Broadway Junction with President Avenue, Kogarah 11.37.011.37.0 [1]
New South Wales alphanumeric route A1.svg A1Princes HighwayJunction with President Avenue, KogarahSouth of Waterfall, with exit as the Princes Highway to Helensburgh 27.817.339.124.3 [2]
undesignatedPrinces Highway (superseded route)South of Waterfall Maddens Plains 20.913.06037 [3]
New South Wales alphanumeric route B65.svg B65Princes Highway (superseded route)Junction with Lawrence Hargrave Drive, Thirroul Junction with Memorial Drive, Bulli 2.91.862.939.1 [4]
undesignatedPrinces Highway (superseded route)Junction with Memorial Drive, Bulli Haywards Bay 33.620.996.560.0 [5]
New South Wales alphanumeric route M1.svg M1 Princes Motorway South of WaterfallNorth of Albion Park Rail; junction with the Illawarra Highway 55.334.494.458.7 [6]
New South Wales alphanumeric route A1.svg A1Princes HighwayNorth of Albion Park Rail Black-Allan Line, NSW/Victorian border422262516.4320.9 [7]
AUS Alphanumeric Route A1.svg A1Princes HighwayVictorian/NSW border Traralgon
AUS Alphanumeric Route M1.svg M1 Princes Freeway Traralgon Geelong
AUS Alphanumeric Route A1.svg A1Princes HighwayGeelongVictorian/South Australian border
AUS Alphanumeric Route A1.svg A1Princes HighwaySouth Australian/Victorian border Mount Gambier
AUS Alphanumeric Route B1.svg B1Princes HighwayMount Gambier Tailem Bend
AUS Alphanumeric Route A1.svg A1Princes HighwayTailem Bend Murray Bridge
AUS Alphanumeric Route M1.svg M1 South Eastern Freeway/Princes HighwayMurray Bridge Glen Osmond

Former routes

In 2013, New South Wales introduced a new alphanumeric route numbering system, replacing the former system of national and state routes. [8] The Princes Highway formerly entered Wollongong as State Route 60 down the Bulli Pass and ran a largely separate route from Bulli and Thirroul through to the southern suburbs from the parallel Princes Motorway, the later of which bears the 'M1' route designation. [9] The gazetted route of the Princes Highway differs from the route of State Route 60 (and from that shown on road signs). [10] [11] The gazetted route was designated State Route 60 for its length, but deviated from the road that is signposted as the Princes Highway between Bellambi and North Wollongong (part of Memorial Drive).

Bulli Pass mountain pass in New South Wales

Bulli Pass is a mountain pass with an elevation of 283 metres (928 ft) AHD  located northwest of Bulli, New South Wales, Australia. It is situated on the Illawarra escarpment west of the Illawarra coastal plain. It was built during the 19th century for use by loggers and locals transporting goods to and from Sydney. Beforehand sea travel was the only reliable method.

Bulli, New South Wales Suburb of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia

Bulli is a northern suburb of Wollongong situated on the south coast of New South Wales, Australia. Bulli is possibly derived from an Aboriginal word signifying "double or two mountains", but other derivations have been suggested.

Thirroul, New South Wales Suburb of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia

Thirroul is a northern seaside suburb of the city of Wollongong, Australia. Situated between Austinmer and Bulli, it is approximately 13 kilometres north of Wollongong, and 69 km south of Sydney. It lies between the Pacific Ocean and a section of the Illawarra escarpment known as Lady Fuller Park, adjacent to Bulli Pass Scenic Reserve.

History

The section of the Princes Highway between West Helensburgh and Bulli Tops the original coastal route between Sydney and Wollongong, first used in 1843.[ citation needed ] From Bulli Tops this route continued south along today's Mount Ousley Road as far south as Mount Keira Road, and then followed Mount Keira Road around the west of Mount Keira. This route replaced the inland route from Sydney via Liverpool , Campbelltown , Appin to Bulli Tops.

Mount Keira Suburb of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia

Mount Keira is a suburb and mountain in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia.

Liverpool, New South Wales Suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Liverpool is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located in South Western Sydney 27 kilometres (17 mi) south-west of the Sydney central business district. Liverpool is the administrative seat of the local government area of the City of Liverpool and is situated in the Cumberland Plain.

The Princes Highway as a named route came into being when pre-existing roads were renamed ‘Prince's Highway’ after the visit to Australia in 1920 of the Prince of Wales (later to become King Edward VIII and, after abdicating, the Duke of Windsor).

The original submissions in January 1920 were in order for the Prince to have the opportunity during his visit to make the trip from Melbourne to Sydney overland along the route. Different routes were considered, including the inland route via Yass. [12] This idea never came to fruition, due partly to the limited amount of time and the cost to construct the road to a suitable standard for him to undertake the trip. The Prince did, however, give his permission for the naming. [13]

Yass, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Yass is a town in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia in Yass Valley Council. The name appears to have been derived from an Aboriginal word, "Yarrh", said to mean 'running water'.

The highway had opening ceremonies in both New South Wales and Victoria during 1920. The first section of road from Melbourne was opened on 10 August in Warragul. [13] The road from Sydney was opened on 19 October in Bulli, by the NSW Minister for Local Government, Thomas Mutch. [14]

The approval was given by the Victorian executive to extend the highway west from Melbourne through Geelong, Camperdown, Warrnambool and Portland to the South Australian border in January 1922. [15] The roads were renamed by the South Australian government from Adelaide east to the South Australian border in February 1922. [16] At that time, the route from Adelaide was via Aldgate, Mylor, Macclesfield, Strathalbyn, Langhorne Creek, crossing the Murray River at Wellington, then continuing along the present towns of Meningie, Kingston SE, Robe, Beachport, Millicent and Gambier Town (Mount Gambier). [17]

By 1928, the route went through Mount Barker and Wistow to Langhorne Creek. [18] By 1935, the Princes Highway passed through Nairne and Kanmantoo, [19] Murray Bridge and Tailem Bend (now known as the Old Princes Highway). This road was superseded by the South Eastern Freeway (Crafers-Murray Bridge in stages 1967-1979), Swanport Bridge (1979) and finally the South Eastern Freeway was extended from Crafers to Glen Osmond (2000). The section between Kingston SE and Millicent has also been replaced by a more direct inland route. The coastal route through Robe and Beachport is now route B101, the Southern Ports Highway.

In 1942, as part of wartime defence measures, a road was built from Mount Keira Road to Fairy Meadow. This route forms part of Mount Ousley Road.[ citation needed ]

In August 2011, the stretch of the highway in South Australia between Port Wakefield and Port Augusta (commonly referred to as "Highway 1") was renamed Augusta Highway as part of a process to standardise the rural property addressing system across the state. [20]

Timeline of significant upgrades and bypasses

Timeline of significant upgrades and bypasses
DateProject State LengthValueCommentsNotes
kmmi
1959–1963North–South Motorway (Pacific Motorway) NSW From North Wollongong to West Wollongong, the Motorway was opened in stages, replacing Princes Highway as main north-south route[ citation needed ]
1961Maltby By-pass Road (Werribee bypass) VIC 10.56.5 950,000Opened on 16 June 1961 by the Hon. Sir Thomas Maltby ED , MP , Minister of Public Works, the route was named the ‘Maltby By-pass Road’ by then Premier of Victoria, Henry Bolte MP . It was Victoria's first controlled-access highway, or ‘freeway’, as such roads are now generally known in Victoria. ‘It is a 4-lane divided highway, 6.5 miles in route length, with no access from adjoining property or cross roads over its entire length’. [21]
1964Connector roadNSWThe road, from Mount Ousley Road to the North–South Motorway at Gwynneville, was opened to traffic.[ citation needed ]
1967Princes Highway East, near Mount DrummerVIC8.95.5A ceremony, sponsored by Orbost Shire Council, at Genoa, was held on 17 January 1967. [22]
1967 South Eastern Freeway (Stage 1) SA Bypassed Crafers and Stirling.[ citation needed ]
1969 Moe bypassVIC6.13.8‘A single 24 ft. Carriageway has been provided, with earthworks and grade separated structures which can accommodate future duplicate pavements’. [23]
1972Haunted Hills sectionVIC4.22.6Second carriageway opened between Gunn's Gully and Hernes Oak. [24]
1973Road duplicationVIC6.44Dual carriageway from East Warrnambool to Allansford. [25]
1975NSWPrinces Highway from Waterfall to Bulli Tops, superseded by the opening of Southern Freeway.[ citation needed ]
1976Snowy River Bridge, Princes Freeway, Orbost VIC8.45.2A$2.4 millionOpened by the Hon. J A Rafferty, Minister for Transport, 25 November 1976. The bridge was the first of four bridges to be built as part of the freeway bypass of Orbost.
It's interesting to note the reference to a ‘freeway’, given that the entire bypass is a single two-lane carriageway and is not controlled access. The CRB's own definition of a freeway can be found in most of their annual reports dating back to the 1960s: ‘A freeway is a road having dual carriageways with no direct access from adjoining properties and side roads. All crossings of a freeway are by means of overpass or underpass bridges, and traffic enters or leaves the freeway carriageways by means of carefully designed ramps’.
[26] [27]
1979 Swanport Bridge SACompleted the South Eastern Freeway to bypass Murray Bridge.[ citation needed ]
1981 Drouin bypassVIC74.3A$12 millionFrom Robin Hood to the ‘existing’ highway east of Drouin, with ‘two lanes each direction, plus emergency stopping lanes’. Opened 12 February 1981, by the Hon. J C M Balfour, MP. [28]
1983 Berwick bypassVIC7.34.5A$19.6 millionOpened on 14 December 1983 by the Federal Minister for Transport, the Hon. Peter Morris MP, and the Victorian Assistant Minister of Transport, the Hon. Jack Simpson MP. This road bypass was from the Princes Highway, near Hessle Road, to Pink Hill, Beaconsfield. [29]
1987Road duplicationVIC95.6A$16 million Nar Nar Goon to Garfield duplication opened 10 April 1987. [30]
1989Road duplicationVICGarfield to Bunyip River duplication completed in June 1989. [31]
1992 Morwell bypassVICBypass opened to traffic in April 1992. [32]
1994 Longwarry section duplicationVIC7.84.8A$25 millionDuplication completed between Bunyip River and Robin Hood in January 1994. [33]
1995Road duplicationVICDuplicated section between Trafalgar East to Moe opened in August 1995. [34]
1997Road duplicationVIC74.3 Yarragon to Trafalgar duplication opened to traffic on 2 May 1997, completing a dual carriageway highway from Melbourne to Traralgon. [35]
2000 Heysen Tunnels SAThe tunnel replaced Mount Barker Road (through Eagle On The Hill), extending the Adelaide end of South Eastern Freeway from Crafers to Glen Osmond.[ citation needed ]
2002 Oak Flats InterchangeNSWThe project was opened on 29 October 2001. The interchange was designed to significantly improve traffic flow around the Albion Park/Oak Flats section of the Princes Highway by removing a railway level crossing and nearby traffic signals. ‘The interchange also connects with Shellharbour City Council's East-West Link Road’. [36]
2002Geelong Road upgradeVICUpgrades completed from the West Gate Bridge to Lara. The Hoppers Crossing to Corio section was widened from two lanes to three in each direction, improvements to interchanges and flood management were made, and central wire rope barriers were installed. The speed limit between Werribee and Corio was decreased from 110 km/h to 100 km/h. [37]
2005 Kiama bypassNSWA$179 millionOpened to traffic on 28 November 2005. The North Kiama Bypass linked the Kiama Bypass in the south and the Princes Highway near Dunmore in the north. [38]
2007 Pakenham bypassVIC2012A$242 millionOpened to traffic in December 2007, funded jointly by the state and federal governments. [39]
2008 Geelong Ring Road VIC Corio to Hamilton Highway, Fyansford opened 14 December 2008. [40]
2009Geelong Ring RoadVICA$380 millionHamilton Highway, Fyansford to Waurn Ponds opened 14 June 2009, six months ahead of schedule. The project from Corio to Waurn Ponds was funded jointly by the state and federal governments. [40]
2009Road duplicationNSWA$108 millionOak Flats to Dunmore dual carriageways opened to traffic in October 2009, completing a four-lane route between Sydney and south of Kiama. [41]
2013Geelong Ring RoadVICAnglesea Road to Princes Highway opened to traffic in February 2013. [42]
2013Road duplicationVIC42.5Wurruk to Sale duplication opened June 2013. [42]
2015Road duplicationVIC3019From Waurn Ponds to Winchelsea.[ citation needed ]

Projects

The NSW Government Roads & Maritime Services have identified the following major projects either completed, in progress or in planning, as of February 2014:

List of projects on the Princes Highway
ProjectLengthConstructionValueStatusNotes
kmmiStartComplete
Bulli Pass upgrade1.10.68In progress [43] [44]
Albion Park bypass9.86.1November 2018$630 millionIn planning [43]
Oak Flats to Dunmore upgradeJune 2007October 2009$108 millionComplete [43] [45]
North Kiama bypass7.64.7November 2003October 2005$141 millionComplete [43] [46]
Kiama On and Off Ramps (Northbound and Southbound)2008/2009$8 millionComplete [43]
Gerringong upgrade7.54.7July 2012August 2015$340 millionComplete [43] [47] [48]
Foxground and Berry bypass11.67.2January 2015Mid 2018$580 millionComplete [43] [49] [50] [51] [52]
Berry to Bomaderry upgrade11.57.1September 2018In progress [43] [53]
Nowra Bridge study (southbound)In planning [43]
South Nowra upgrade – Kingorne Street to Forest Road6.33.9November 2011March 2014$62 millionComplete [43] [54] [55] [56]
Forest Road to Jervis Bay Road23.514.6December 2008$23.5 millionComplete [43] [57]
Conjola Mountain realignment2.31.4September 2008April 2010$58 millionComplete [43] [58]
Burrill Lake Bridge replacementEarly 2018$58 millionComplete [43] [59]
Termeil Creek realignment1.60.99February 2015Mid 2016$21 millionComplete [43] [48] [60]
Nangudga Bridge replacementDecember 2011$3.7 millionComplete [43]
Victoria Creek upgrade3.22.0June 2011March 2013$35 millionComplete [43] [61]
Dignams Creek upgrade2.01.2Early 2017mid-2019 (estimated)$45 millionIn progress [43]
Bega bypass3.62.2June 2012December 2013$55 millionComplete [43] [62] [63]
Pambula River Bridge replacement3.52.2August 2006March 2008$17 millionComplete [43] [64]

Route

New South Wales

Princes Highway at Moruya. PrincesHighwayMoruya.jpg
Princes Highway at Moruya.
Princes Highway at Eden. Princes Highway at Eden, NSW.JPG
Princes Highway at Eden.

The Princes Highway starts at the junction of Broadway (Great Western Highway) and City Road in the Sydney suburb of Chippendale. City Road in fact forms the first section of the highway, and becomes King Street, Newtown, also part of the Princes Highway. Where King Street ends at Sydney Park Road, the Princes Highway continues in its own right.

The highway in this section is constructed as a six-lane divided carriageway, other than along King Street (four-lane undivided) and along the western edge of the Royal National Park, where it is built as four-lane dual carriageway.[ citation needed ]. The only major engineering structures along its route are the twin Tom Uglys Bridge across Georges River. The northbound bridge is of steel truss construction, opened in 1929, whilst the southbound bridge is of prestressed concrete girders, opened in 1987.

It runs through Sydney's southern suburbs (the St George area and Sutherland Shire), via Kogarah, Sutherland and Engadine to the village of Waterfall.

South of Waterfall the highway is paralleled by the 55-kilometre (34 mi) Princes Motorway (national route M1) to the top of Bulli Pass outside the city of Wollongong, which carries the majority of traffic. The Princes Highway then enters the northern suburbs of Wollongong and the Illawarra region via the Bulli Pass, whilst Mount Ousley Road, which is designated as part of national route 1, bypasses Wollongong's northern suburbs to meet the Princes Highway at Fairy Meadow, and carries inter-city traffic. Where Mount Ousley Road enters Wollongong, the Princes Motorway branches off Mount Ousley Road, and parallels the highway through the suburbs of Wollongong to Yallah. The Mount Ousley Road-Princes Motorway route is the inter-city and main urban arterial through Wollongong's southern suburbs, whereas the Princes Highway acts as a local arterial.

From the southern end of the Princes Motorway at Yallah, the Princes Highway is dual carriageway, mostly to freeway standard, to Kiama Heights, with the exception of the 3-kilometre (1.9 mi) section from the Illawarra Highway to Tongarra Road in Albion Park Rail, which is four lane undivided. Beyond Kiama Heights, 120 kilometres (75 mi) south of Sydney, the highway is single two lane carriageway to Cambewarra Road, Bomaderry. Design and preparation works are underway[ when? ] for the duplication of the highway from Kiama Heights to Cambewarra Road.[ citation needed ] This duplication is intended to include a bypass of Berry, but adheres to the extremely hilly route from the southern end of the Gerringong bypass to Berry, rather than the flat terrain immediately to the east, which the Illawarra railway line follows.

From Cambewarra Road the highway is four lane divided through Bomaderry and Nowra to near the junction with Warra Warra Road in South Nowra. Duplication to dual carriageway standard of a 6-kilometre (3.7 mi) length south from here to Forest Road was scheduled for completion in early 2014, following a three-month cessation of work while measures were put in place to protect a hitherto unknown area of habitat of the endangered green and golden bell frog. [65] Beyond this section is 4-kilometre (2.5 mi) of four lane single carriageway from Forest Road to the junction with Jervis Bay Road.

From Jervis Bay Road southward the highway is mostly single two lane carriageway along the NSW South Coast, passing through Ulladulla, Batemans Bay (where the 1-kilometre (0.62 mi) town centre bypass is built as dual carriageway), Moruya, Narooma, then bypassing Bega and Merimbula and passing through Eden, before crossing the border at the Black-Allen Line into Victoria, 550 kilometres (340 mi) from Sydney and 515 kilometres (320 mi) from Melbourne.

A substandard alignment at Victoria Creek 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) south of Narooma was upgraded in 2012-13, as well as the 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) Bega bypass. Realignments with associated new bridges are also proposed at Termeil Creek, some 30 kilometres (19 mi) south of Ulladulla, and Dignams Creek, some 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of Narooma. Current identified future projects are a bypass of Nowra-Bomaderry (definite route identified only for section south of Shoalhaven River), and a bypass of Ulladulla-Milton.

In 2007 the NRMA claimed that the Princes Highway was a dangerous road [66] with ten fatalities and 729 people injured on the highway between Sydney and the state border in 2006. [67]

Victoria

The Princes Highway is beautified in some towns, such as Bairnsdale, Victoria, where the median strip has been made a garden. From-Rotunda-Looking-West-Bairnsdale-Vic.jpg
The Princes Highway is beautified in some towns, such as Bairnsdale, Victoria, where the median strip has been made a garden.

In Victoria, the Princes Highway follows a very long and complex route. The route within Metropolitan Melbourne carries the original individual names of sections of the Princes Highway (on signage, each road section has "Princes Highway" in bold and then the individual name in brackets, such as "(Dandenong Road)" or "(Geelong Road)").

Apart from the routes "National Alternative Route 1", "C101" and "C109" (in the outer metropolitan areas – such as Berwick and Werribee), the M1 Freeway route intersects (Monash Freeway/CityLink/West Gate Freeway/Princes Freeway) and this carries the much higher volume of traffic, including congestion in the peak periods, serving as the major, most direct and quickest route for the "1" route in Australia.

In Victoria, the length from the South Australian border to the New South Wales border is 955 kilometres (593 mi); the highway passes (from east to west, from the border with New South Wales) through Orbost, Bairnsdale and Sale in the Gippsland region. The highway then passes through the Latrobe Valley, and from here the highway continues west, bypassing Morwell, Warragul and Pakenham to Dandenong and into the south-eastern suburbs of Melbourne. Most of this section is to freeway standard, with the main outstanding work being the freeway bypass of Traralgon, although the highway through Traralgon has already been built to urban dual carriageway standard.

As the road passes through Melbourne, it first follows the route of Lonsdale Street (through Dandenong), then Dandenong Road to St Kilda, and Queens Road through Albert Park (this section of highway is shown in the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan as part of the F14 freeway corridor). Closer to Melbourne city centre, it follows the route of Kings Way, and then King Street through central Melbourne. It then follows Curzon Street after leaving the central business district to enter North Melbourne, and then follows Flemington Road northwest from Curzon Street, then Racecourse Road, Smithfield Road and Ballarat Road, in that order, before it starts again as Geelong Road where Geelong Road branches southwest off Ballarat Road, and Ballarat Road leads onto the Western Freeway. This reason for this confusing naming of the highway through Melbourne is that it follows streets and roads which were already named when the highway was named in 1920 and which were not renamed.

As mentioned above, through much of Melbourne and its suburbs, the route of National Route 1 is not the Princes Highway, but rather the Monash Freeway, which intersects the Princes Highway on the eastern outskirts of Melbourne, and then the West Gate Freeway which bypasses central Melbourne. These two freeways have been linked by the southern link of the CityLink tollway. This avoids the confusing and congested arrangement of roads that is the Princes Highway in central Melbourne. The M1'carries an advanced and compiles 'Freeway Management System' for its entire 75 kilometres (47 mi) urban length, between Narre Warren and Werribee. Along with freeway sensors and associated data stations, overhead LUMS gantries which show speed and lane availability, electronic message boards, real-time drive time signs and arterial road real-time Information signs (before the on-ramps); there are the 64+ Ramp Signal/Metering sites. Hence, the majority of the on-ramps are traffic light controlled, depending on the density and speed of the traffic.

Heading towards Geelong in a south-west direction, the West Gate Freeway and Geelong Road join together in a junction to become the Princes Freeway, which, unusually for an Australian inter-city freeway, carries enough traffic to merit four to three lanes in either direction (often still being congested in the morning and afternoon peaks). On the northern outskirts of Geelong, the highway reverts from freeway to three lane dual carriageway through Geelong and its suburbs, with traffic light-controlled at-grade intersections. Through Geelong the highway is often heavily congested.

With the completion (2008-2009) of the freeway standard Geelong Ring Road, the M1 route follows the freeway-standard road from Winchelsea to Traralgon, without encountering any traffic lights (with the exception of Yarragon and Trafalgar, which are yet to be bypassed). The ring road rejoins the original highway at Waurn Ponds on the western edge of Geelong.

Within Geelong, the Princes Highway starts at the junction of Princes Freeway in the northern Geelong suburb of Corio, and runs along Geelong's northern and southern suburbs via the inner-city western bypass of the Geelong City Centre, to the current Highway 1 segment of the Princes Highway at Waurn Ponds in Geelong's southern suburbs. The highway is six lane dual carriageway from Corio to Latrobe Terrace, continuing as a four-lane dual carriageway to Waurn Ponds. The 1989 re-alignment of the Princes Highway (as La Trobe Terrace) provides a dual carriageway, fout-lane limited access road to replace the original route along Moorabool Street in South Geelong and High Street in Belmont. Upon the completion of the final section of the Geelong Ring Road, another section of the Princes Highway was superseded in 2013 at Waurn Ponds.

After Geelong the highway heads in a generally western direction, continuing with the 'M1' designation as a dual carriageway road to Winchelsea (opened 2015). West of Winchelsea, it is being reconstructed to dual carriageway standard, passing through Colac, before reaching Camperdown -ultimately reaching the port of Warrnambool. The section from Geelong to Warrnambool runs inland, and so avoids the slower, but scenic Great Ocean Road. From here, the Princes Highway passes through Portland before crossing the border into South Australia. At this point the highway is 1,530 kilometres (950 mi) from Sydney, 465 kilometres (289 mi) from Melbourne and 510 kilometres (320 mi) from Adelaide.

South Australia

At Mount Gambier the highway takes a more northward tack as the coast curves to the northwest, passing the Coorong National Park. After Kingston SE, it turns inland (north) to avoid the lakes at the mouth of the River Murray. Shortly before Tailem Bend it is joined by the Dukes Highway, part of the main route between Melbourne and Adelaide. The highway then turns north-west and becomes the South Eastern Freeway, crosses the Murray River, bypasses Murray Bridge and continues to Glen Osmond on Adelaide's southeastern outskirts.

At this point the Princes Highway is 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from Adelaide and 2,055 kilometres (1,277 mi) from Sydney. It continues north-west via Glen Osmond Road to Adelaide city centre, where it runs west along South Terrace then turns north along King William Street through the city centre and then follows Main North Road to Port Wakefield Road where it rejoins the coast. From Port Wakefield it continues as the Augusta Highway, and follows the coast, skirting Port Pirie to continue on to Port Augusta, where it terminates at the intersection of the Eyre Highway and Stuart Highway.

See also

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The National Highway is a system of roads connecting all mainland states and territories of Australia, and is the major network of highways and motorways connecting Australia's capital cities and major regional centres.

Highways in Australia describes the highways of Australia

Highways in Australia are generally high capacity roads managed by state and territory government agencies, though Australia's federal government contributes funding for important links between capital cities and major regional centres. Prior to European settlement, the earliest needs for trade and travel were met by narrow bush tracks, used by tribes of Indigenous Australians. The formal construction of roads began in 1788, after the founding of the colony of New South Wales, and a network of three major roads across the colony emerged by the 1820s. Similar road networks were established in the other colonies of Australia. Road construction programs in the early 19th century were generally underfunded, as they were dependent on government budgets, loans, and tolls; while there was a huge increase in road usage, due to the Australian gold rushes. Local government authorities, often known as Road Boards, were therefore established to be primarily responsible for funding and undertaking road construction and maintenance. The early 1900s saw both the increasingly widespread use of motorised transportation, and the creation of state road authorities in each state, between 1913 and 1926. These authorities managed each state's road network, with the main arterial roads controlled and maintained by the state, and other roads remaining the responsibility of local governments. The federal government became involved in road funding in the 1920s, distributing funding to the states. The depression of the 1930s slowed the funding and development of the major road network until the onset on World War II. Supply roads leading to the north of the country were considered vital, resulting in the construction of Barkly, Stuart, and Eyre Highways.

Pacific Highway (Australia) highway in New South Wales and Queensland

The Pacific Highway is a 790-kilometre-long (490 mi) national highway and major transport route along the central east coast of Australia, with the majority of it being part of Australia's national route 1.

Sturt Highway Australian national highway in New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia

The Sturt Highway is an Australian national highway in New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia. The Sturt Highway is an important road link for the transport of passengers and freight between Sydney and Adelaide and the regions situated adjacent to the route.

The South Gippsland Highway is a partially divided highway in Victoria, Australia which connects the city of Melbourne with the South Gippsland region of Victoria, ending in the town of Sale. The highway begins at Lonsdale Street, Dandenong. At the Greens Road intersection, it adopts State Route 12 until Pound Road, then continues until the South Gippsland Freeway / Western Port Highway interchange where it becomes the M420. The M420 continues through Cranbourne and Koo Wee Rup until the Bass Highway turnoff, at which point the road is then designated A440 onwards to Sale. From the Bass Highway junction, the highway is undivided. The South Gippsland Highway is the gateway from Melbourne to many attractions including Wilsons Promontory and Phillip Island as well as being an important road for farmers in Gippsland.

West Gate Freeway freeway in Melbourne, Victoria

The West Gate Freeway is a major freeway in Melbourne, the busiest urban freeway and the busiest road in Australia, carrying upwards of 200,000 vehicles per day. It links Geelong and the Western suburbs to the Melbourne CBD and beyond. It is also a link between Melbourne and the west and linking industrial and residential areas west of the Yarra River with the city and port areas. The West Gate Bridge is a part of the freeway.

The Monash Freeway is a major urban freeway in Victoria, Australia, linking Melbourne's CBD to its south-eastern suburbs and beyond to the Gippsland region. It carries up to 180,000 vehicles per day and is one of Australia's busiest freeways. The entire stretch of the Monash Freeway bears the designation M1. The freeway was originally shown in the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan as part of the F9 and F14 Freeway corridors.

Calder Highway highway in Victoria

Calder Highway is a highway in Australia, linking Melbourne in Victoria, to Bendigo and Mildura and the Victoria/New South Wales border on the way to Broken Hill. It continues through New South Wales to Broken Hill, Tibooburra and the New South Wales/Queensland border as the Silver City Highway, posted as route B79 as far as Broken Hill.

Princes Freeway freeway in Victoria, Australia

The Princes Freeway is a 159-kilometre (99 mi) Australian freeway, divided into two sections both located in Victoria, Australia. The freeway links Melbourne to Geelong on the west and Traralgon on the east. It continues beyond these extremities as the Princes Highway towards Adelaide to the west and Sydney to the northeast. The freeway bears the designation M1.

Princes Motorway motorway in New South Wales

The Princes Motorway is a 55-kilometre (34 mi) predominately dual carriage untolled motorway that links Sydney to Wollongong and further south through the Illawarra region to Albion Park Rail. Part of the Australian Highway 1 network, the motorway is designated with the route number M1.

Western Highway (Victoria) highway in Victoria

The Western Highway is the Victorian part of the principal route linking the Australian cities of Melbourne and Adelaide with a length of approximately 314 kilometres (195 mi) of single carriageway then 156 kilometres (97 mi) of dual carriageway known as the Western Freeway. It is a part of the National Highway network and designated as National Highway A8 and M8. The western end continues in South Australia as the Dukes Highway, the next section of the Melbourne–Adelaide National Highway. The Western Freeway joins Melbourne's freeway network via the Western Ring Road, in the middle western suburbs of Melbourne.

Roads & Traffic Authority government agency in New South Wales, Australia

The Roads & Traffic Authority (RTA) is a former Australian government agency in New South Wales that was responsible for major road infrastructure, licensing of drivers, and registration of motor vehicles. The RTA directly managed State roads and provided funding to local councils for regional and local roads. In addition, with assistance from the Federal Government, the RTA also previously managed the NSW national highway system. The agency was abolished in 2011 and replaced by NSW Roads and Maritime Services.

Goulburn Valley Highway highway in Victoria

The Goulburn Valley Highway is a highway located in Victoria, Australia. The section north of the Hume Freeway is part of the Melbourne to Brisbane National Highway and is the main link between these two cities as well as a major link between Victoria and inland New South Wales. It is also the most direct route between Melbourne and the major regional centre of Shepparton in Victoria.

Old Hume Highway former sections of highway in Victoria and New South Wales

The Old Hume Highway, an urban and rural road, may be described as any part of an earlier route of the Hume Highway, which traverses Victoria and New South Wales between the cities of Sydney and Melbourne in Australia. In some places, the highway has been deviated several times since the first rough track was made between Sydney and Melbourne in November 1842.

The M80 Ring Road, more formally known as the Western Ring Road and Metropolitan Ring Road, is an urban freeway corridor in Melbourne, Australia. It connects the northern suburbs and western suburbs to other Victorian urban and rural freeways:

Old Princes Highway, Victoria former sections of highway in Victoria

The Old Princes Highway is a 52-kilometre (32 mi) stretch of road, formerly designated as a highway, located in Victoria, Australia. The road links the Princes Highway at Traralgon in the east to the Monash Freeway at Berwick in the west, on the eastern perimeter of Melbourne.

The Camden Valley Way is a 24-kilometre (15 mi) arterial road between Sydney and the historic town of Camden. Since 2018, all of the route is dual carriageway.

Highway 1 (Victoria) road route in Victoria

In Victoria, Highway 1 is a 958-kilometre (595 mi) long route that follows the coastline of the state, from the New South Wales border near Genoa to the South Australian border near Dartmoor. Highway 1 continues around the rest of Australia, joining all mainland state capitals, and connecting major centres in Tasmania. All roads within the Highway 1 system are allocated a road route numbered 1, M1, A1, or B1, depending on the state route numbering system. In Victoria, the highway is designated as State Route M1 between Traralgon and Winchelsea, and route A1 elsewhere.

References

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