Princess Elizabeth of the United Kingdom

Last updated
Princess Elizabeth
Princess Elizabeth (1770-1840).jpg
Portrait by Sir William Beechey, 1797
Landgravine consort of Hesse-Homburg
Tenure20 January 1820 – 2 April 1829
Born22 May 1770
Buckingham House, London, England
Died10 January 1840(1840-01-10) (aged 69)
Free City of Frankfurt
Burial17 January 1840
Mausoleum of the Landgraves, Homburg
Spouse
House Hanover
Father George III of the United Kingdom
Mother Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Princess Elizabeth of the United Kingdom (22 May 1770 – 10 January 1840) was the seventh child and third daughter of King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. [1] After marrying the Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, Frederick VI, she took permanent residence in Germany as landgravine.

Contents

Early life

The Princess Elizabeth was born at Buckingham House, London on 22 May 1770. [2] Her father was the reigning British monarch, George III, the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. Her mother was Queen Charlotte (née Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz). She was christened in the Great Council Chamber at St. James's Palace, on 17 June 1770 by Frederick Cornwallis, the Archbishop of Canterbury. [3] Her godparents were The Hereditary Prince of Hesse-Cassel (her paternal first cousin once-removed, for whom The Earl of Hertford, Lord Chamberlain, stood proxy), The Princess of Nassau-Weilburg (her paternal first cousin once-removed, for whom The Dowager Countess of Effingham, former Lady of the Bedchamber to The Queen, stood proxy) and The Crown Princess of Sweden (another paternal first cousin once-removed, for whom The Countess of Holderness, Lady of the Bedchamber to The Queen, stood proxy). [4]

The Princess' upbringing was very sheltered and she spent most of her time with her parents and sisters. King George and Queen Charlotte were keen to shelter their children, particularly the girls. However, in 1812, Princess Elizabeth purchased The Priory at Old Windsor in Berkshire as her private residence.

Character and interests

Elizabeth was known for her insistently optimistic attitude in spite of her stilted existence. [5] Although she longed for marriage and a family of her own, Elizabeth was determined to enjoy her life by exploring and developing her varied interests and hobbies. Elizabeth was a talented artist, producing several books of her own engravings to benefit various charities. She was the only one of George III's children to share his interests in agriculture, running her own model farm at a rented cottage in Old Windsor. She took great delight in the products of her garden, as well as the eggs, milk, and butter from her flocks of chickens and cows. Elizabeth was equally fond of rich food and drink and was known among the family for her tendency to gain weight, criticism about which she was very sensitive. [6]

Elizabeth was also known for her well-developed sense of humor and maintained a large collection of jokes and witticisms. [7] She had an open and plainspoken nature, and disliked excessive "politeness". She was closest to her sister Augusta and - uniquely among her sisters – her brother Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. Elizabeth was also the closest daughter to their mother, which contributed to Charlotte's reluctance to let her marry. [8]

Possible romantic relationships

It is alleged[ who? ] that Princess Elizabeth went through a form of marriage with George Ramus (1747–1808) and bore him a daughter, Eliza, in 1788. George Ramus was the son of Nicholas Ramus, who had been Page to Elizabeth's father King George. Any such marriage would have been null and void under the Royal Marriages Act 1772, but several of Elizabeth's brothers contracted similar alliances with commoners before marrying German princesses later in life. Eliza Ramus (1788–1869) was allegedly adopted and brought up by her uncle, Henry Ramus (1755–1822) of the East India Company. She married James Money (1770–1833), also of the East India Company, and her daughter Marian Martha (1806–1869) married George Wynyard Battye (1805–1888), a Bengal Judge. In widowhood, Eliza Ramus lived at 28 Chester Square in London, where she educated her Battye grandsons, all ten of whom became army officers, and cared for them when they were on sick or convalescent leave from India. [9]

Largely denied opportunities to marry men of royal blood, several of Elizabeth's sisters embarked on romantic relationships with equerries and other high ranking men at court. Elizabeth herself may have had such a relationship with diplomat Alleyne Fitzherbert, 1st Baron St. Helens. St. Helens was much respected by George III, who created him a Lord of the Bedchamber in 1804. Seventeen years older than Elizabeth, St. Helens was a frank, practical, and sharp-witted character known to dislike court life, qualities which Elizabeth shared. She referred to him as, "a dear and valuable saint," and said of him in a letter to her companion Lady Harcourt, "There is no man I love so well, and his tenderness to me has never varied, and that is a thing I never forget." Elizabeth later wrote that she pined for St. Helens, eager to see him, "at all times, hours, minutes, days, nights, etc." [10] Elizabeth later commissioned a portrait of St. Helens from noted enamelist Henry Pierce Bone, evidence of her great attachment to him. St. Helens in turn kept an enamel miniature of Elizabeth, also painted by Bone.

Marriage

In 1808 Elizabeth was reluctantly obliged to decline a proposal from the exiled Duke of Orléans (later King of the French as Louis Philippe I) due to his Catholicism and her mother's opposition. [11]

During a ball in the British royal court in 1814 Elizabeth got to know the German Prince Frederick of Hesse-Homburg. When Elizabeth saw the Austrian officer in his elegant Hussar's uniform, she is supposed to have said, "If he is single, I will marry him!" Four years later, Elizabeth received a letter indicating that Frederick was asking for her hand in marriage. Elizabeth was immediately interested, and her surviving sisters were supportive. Although Frederick was said to be overweight and smell constantly of tobacco from his beloved meerschaum pipes, Elizabeth was undeterred in her goal to marry him. Queen Charlotte refused to permit the union for weeks fearing Elizabeth's unavoidable move to Germany, but finally acquiesced when her daughter refused to back down.

Against all resistance, the wedding took place on 7 April 1818 in the private chapel in Buckingham Palace in Westminster. Elizabeth wore a dress made of silver tissue and Brussels lace with ostrich feathers adorning her hair. She was led to the altar by her second eldest brother, the Duke of York. Neither her eldest brother the Prince Regent nor her father attended the wedding, each kept away by gout and severe mental illness respectively. [12] The new couple honeymooned at the Prince Regent's house in Brighton.

It was not a real "love match", in spite of the mutual understanding and respect; in fact it was an agreement with which both were satisfied. Elizabeth was able to escape the constrictive environment of her home by moving to Germany with her husband, and Frederick gained many advantages by becoming allied with the British royal family. However, Frederick remarked during his honeymoon that he was surprised to be happy and content in Elizabeth's presence; Elizabeth found her new husband to be intelligent, generous, and affectionate. The marriage lasted until Frederick's death in 1829 and was described as very happy.

Later life

On 20 January 1820, Frederick succeeded his father as the Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg. Thanks to Elizabeth's dowry and annual allowance, he was able to remodel the palace in Homburg. For her part, Landgravine Elizabeth could bid farewell to the rigid court etiquette she had disliked in England and as one would say today, "find herself", as she could do much as she liked in her new environs. [13] She also built him the Gothic House in the castle's grounds.

Elizabeth founded a care center and school in Hanover for children of working mothers. While she was past childbearing age herself, Elizabeth found fulfillment in working with the children attending the school.

She died on 10 January 1840 at age 69 in Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany. She was buried in the Mausoleum of the Landgraves, Homburg, Germany.

Exhibition

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

Arms

As of 1789, as a daughter of the sovereign, Elizabeth had use of the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points, the centre point bearing a cross gules, the outer points each bearing a rose gules. [15]

Coat of Arms of Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg.svg

Ancestors

Related Research Articles

Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge Duchess of Teck

Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge was a member of the British royal family, a granddaughter of George III, grandmother of Edward VIII and George VI and great-grandmother of Elizabeth II. She held the title of Duchess of Teck through marriage.

Princess Augusta of Cambridge Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Princess Augusta of Cambridge was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George III. She married into the Grand Ducal House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and became the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel Duchess of Cambridge

Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel was the wife of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, the tenth-born child, and seventh son, of George III of the United Kingdom and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. The longest-lived daughter-in-law of George III, she was the maternal grandmother of Mary of Teck, wife of George V.

Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Princess Louis Charles of Prussia

Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a German princess who became, by marriage, princess of Prussia, princess of Solms-Braunfels, Duchess of Cumberland in Britain and Queen of Hanover as the consort of Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover.

Charlotte, Princess Royal Princess Royal

Charlotte, Princess Royal, was Queen of Württemberg as the wife of King Frederick I. She was the first daughter and fourth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and his wife, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh

Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh was the eleventh child and fourth daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

Princess Augusta Sophia of the United Kingdom Sixth child and second daughter of King George III and Queen Charlotte

Princess Augusta Sophia of the United Kingdom was the sixth child and second daughter of King George III and Queen Charlotte.

Princess Margaret of Prussia Queen consort-elect of Finland

Princess Margaret of Prussia was a daughter of Frederick III, German Emperor and Victoria, Princess Royal, and the younger sister of Emperor Wilhelm II and a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. She married Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse, the elected King of Finland, making her the would-be Queen of Finland had he not decided to renounce the throne on 14 December 1918. In 1926 they assumed the titles of Landgrave and Landgravine of Hesse. She lost three sons in World Wars I and II.

Princess Mary of Great Britain Landgravine consort of Hesse-Kassel

Princess Mary of Great Britain was the second-youngest daughter of King George II of Great Britain and his wife, Caroline of Ansbach, and Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel as the wife of Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel.

Princess Wilhelmina Caroline of Denmark Landgravine consort of Hesse-Kassel

Princess Wilhelmina Caroline of Denmark and Norway, was the Landgravine consort of Hesse-Kassel and later the Electress of Hesse-Kassel by marriage to William I, Elector of Hesse.

Prince Frederick Augustus of Anhalt-Dessau Prince of Anhalt-Dessau

Frederick Augustus of Anhalt-Dessau, was a German prince of the House of Ascania from the Anhalt-Dessau branch.

Princess Elisabeth of Prussia Princess Charles of Hesse and by Rhine

Princess Elisabeth of Prussia was the second daughter of Prince Wilhelm of Prussia and Landgravine Marie Anna of Hesse-Homburg and a granddaughter of Frederick William II of Prussia. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh is her great-great-grandson.

Princess Marie of Hesse-Kassel Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Princess and Landgravine Marie of Hesse-Kassel was the consort of George, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

Princess Amalie of Hesse-Homburg Hereditary Princess of Anhalt-Dessau

Princess and Landgravine Christiane Amalie of Hesse-Homburg, full German name: Christiane Amalie, Landgräfin von Hessen-Homburg was a member of the House of Hesse-Homburg and a Princess and Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg by birth. Through her marriage to Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, Amalie was also a member of the House of Ascania and Hereditary Princess of Anhalt-Dessau.

Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel

Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen was the elder daughter of Karl Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Usingen, and wife of Landgrave Frederick of Hesse-Kassel.

Princess Caroline of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgravine consort of Hesse-Homburg

Caroline of Hesse-Darmstadt was Landgravine consort of Hesse-Homburg by marriage to Frederick V, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg.

Frederick V, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg

Frederick V Louis William Christian, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg was from 1751 to his death landgrave of Hesse-Homburg.

Louise Elisabeth of Courland Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg

Louise Elisabeth of Courland was Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg by marriage to Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg.

Gustav, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg was landgrave of the German state of Hesse-Homburg from 1846 to 1848.

Princess Marie Luise Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel Princess Frederick Augustus of Anhalt-Dessau

Princess Marie Luise Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel, German: Marie Luise Charlotte, Prinzessin von Hessen-Kassel was a member of the House of Hesse-Kassel by birth. Through her marriage to Prince Frederick Augustus of Anhalt-Dessau, she became a princess of Anhalt-Dessau.

References

  1. Hall, Mrs. Matthew (1858). The Royal Princesses of England from the Reign of George I. London: Routledge. p. 333. Retrieved 2010-11-08. The Princess Elizabeth, destined in after years to become Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg, was the third daughter of George III and Queen Charlotte... born on the 22nd of May, 1770, between eight and nine o'clock A.M.
  2. Beatty, Michael A. (2003). The English Royal Family of America, from Jamestown to the American Revolution. US: McFarland & Co. p. 203. ISBN   0-7864-1558-4 . Retrieved 2010-11-08.
  3. Hall (1858). See p.336: "On the 17th of June, the young Princess was christened in the great council-chamber by the Archbishop of Canterbury, when she was named Elizabeth."
  4. "Yvonne's Royalty Home Page: Royal Christenings". Archived from the original on 2011-08-27. Retrieved 2009-06-29.
  5. Hadlow, Janice (2014). A Royal Experiment (1 ed.). New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC. ISBN   978-0-8050-9656-9.[ page needed ]
  6. Robertson, Jillian (1977). The Royal Race for the British Crown: 1817-1819 (1 ed.). London and Tiptree, Colchester, Essex: Blond & Briggs Ltd. ISBN   978-0-8563-4068-0.
  7. Fraser, Flora (2006). Princesses: The Six Daughters of George III (1 ed.). London: Anchor Books. ISBN   9781400096695.[ page needed ]
  8. Robertson, Jillian (1977). The Royal Race for the British Crown: 1817-1819 (1 ed.). London and Tiptree, Colchester, Essex: Blond & Briggs Ltd. ISBN   978-0-8563-4068-0.
  9. Battye, Evelyn Desirée (1984), "The Fighting Ten", London: British Association for Cemeteries in South Asia, ISBN   0-907799-09-4.
  10. Hadlow, Janice (2014). A Royal Experiment (1 ed.). New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC. ISBN   978-0-8050-9656-9.[ page needed ]
  11. A. W. Purdue, daughters of George III (1766–1857) in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004).
  12. Robertson, Jillian (1977). The Royal Race for the British Crown: 1817-1819 (1 ed.). London and Tiptree, Colchester, Essex: Blond & Briggs Ltd. ISBN   978-0-8563-4068-0.
  13. Peter, Bernhard. "Das Schloss in Bad Homburg vor der Höhe – Geschichten der Landgrafen Teil 4 (in German)". Galerie: Photos schöner alter Wappen Nr. 436. Dr. Bernhard Peter. Archived from the original on March 20, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  14. The London Gazette: 25 April; 19 May 1818 [ dead link ]
  15. Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family
  16. Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 5.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Princess Elizabeth of the United Kingdom at Wikimedia Commons

Princess Elizabeth of the United Kingdom
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 22 May 1770 Died: 10 January 1840
German royalty
Preceded by
Caroline of Hesse-Darmstadt
Landgravine consort of Hesse-Homburg
20 January 1820 – 2 April 1829
Succeeded by
Augusta Amalia of Nassau-Usingen