Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

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Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Portrait 438 Sophie Caroline Marie von Brandenburg-Bayreuth.jpg
Born(1737-10-07)7 October 1737
Wolfenbüttel, Niedersachsen, Germany [1]
Died22 December 1817(1817-12-22) (aged 80)
Spouse Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Full name
German: Sophie Karoline Marie
House House of Brunswick-Bevern
Father Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Mother Princess Philippine Charlotte of Prussia

Duchess Sophie Caroline Marie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (German : Sophie Karoline Marie; 7 October 1737 22 December 1817) was Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth by marriage to Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. She was the eldest daughter of Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and his wife, Philippine Charlotte of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great. [1]

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth

Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.

Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

Charles, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, reigned as Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1735 until his death.

Contents

Life

George, Prince of Wales

The future George III of the United Kingdom, c. 1751. George III As Prince of Wales.jpg
The future George III of the United Kingdom, c. 1751.

In 1753, George II of Great Britain hoped to marry Sophie Caroline to his grandson George, Prince of Wales (the future George III). [2] [3] This was an attempt to improve relations with Prussia, as Sophie Caroline was a niece of Frederick II of Prussia and George II needed Prussian troops to help offset the alliance between France and Austria that had occurred as a result of the Diplomatic Revolution. The prince's mother Augusta, Dowager Princess of Wales, thwarted George II's plans, however, which increased tensions within the British royal family. [2] The Prince of Wales himself, influenced by his mother, was vehemently opposed to the match, declaring he would not be "bewolfenbuttelled". [3] Augusta wanted her son to marry her niece Frederica, but this union also fell through. [3] Soon after becoming king in 1760, George III married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz instead the following year, in what was to become a happy marriage.

George II of Great Britain British monarch

George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.

George III of the United Kingdom King of Great Britain and Ireland

George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, and never visited Hanover.

Diplomatic Revolution historical event

The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 was the reversal of longstanding alliances in Europe between the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War. Austria went from an ally of Britain to an ally of France, while Prussia became an ally of Britain. The most influential diplomat involved was an Austrian statesman, Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz.

George and his mother's refusal also reflected another changing reality in British foreign policy: the relationship with the Electorate of Hanover. George II and his father George I were both descended from the House of Hanover, and thus held the electorate very dear to their hearts. As a daughter of the Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Sophie Caroline was ancestrally related to neighboring Hanover; good relations between the electorate and its neighbors were vital to its continuing security, particularly when another war was soon expected. [4] The Prince of Wales and his mother however did not possess the same attachment to Hanover, thus influencing their decision to reject a match with Sophie Caroline. [4] Though this match was not to be, Sophie Caroline's brother Charles II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, married George's sister Princess Augusta in 1764, and George III's son George IV married their daughter Caroline of Brunswick, thus continuing the close ties between the two houses.

Hanover Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Hanover or Hannover is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,061 (2017) inhabitants make it the thirteenth-largest city of Germany, as well as the third-largest city of Northern Germany after Hamburg and Bremen. The city lies at the confluence of the River Leine and its tributary Ihme, in the south of the North German Plain, and is the largest city of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region. It is the fifth-largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg, Dortmund, Essen, and Bremen.

George I of Great Britain King of Great Britain, Elector of Hanover

George I was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death in 1727.

Seven Years War Global conflict between 1756 and 1763

The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions: one was led by the Kingdom of Great Britain and included the Kingdom of Prussia, the Kingdom of Portugal, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and other small German states; while the other was led by the Kingdom of France and included the Austrian-led Holy Roman Empire, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, and the Swedish Empire. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the increasingly fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal.

Marriage

In Brunswick on 20 September 1759, 11 months after the death of his first wife Princess Wilhelmine of Prussia (Sophie Caroline's aunt), Sophie Caroline married Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. [1] He was 26 years older than she was, and their marriage was childless. Frederick did have a daughter, Margravine Elisabeth Fredericka Sophie of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, from his first marriage; the girl was only five years younger than Sophie Caroline. Frederick died on 26 February 1763. Without any male issue, he was succeeded on his death by his uncle, Frederick Christian.

Braunschweig City and district in Lower Saxony, Germany

Braunschweig, also called Brunswick in English, is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker River which connects it to the North Sea via the Aller and Weser Rivers. In 2016, it had a population of 250,704.

Margravine Elisabeth Fredericka Sophie of Brandenburg-Bayreuth German duchess

Margravine Elisabeth Fredericka Sophie of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, was a German princess of the House of Hohenzollern and the Duchess of Württemberg by marriage.

Frederick Christian, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth

Frederick Christian of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.

Sophie Caroline died on 22 December 1817 at the age of 80. [1] She never remarried.

Ancestry

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Lundy, Darryl. "The Peerage: Sophie Karoline Marie Herzogin von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel" . Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  2. 1 2 Black (2007), p. 229.
  3. 1 2 3 Hibbert, pp. 31-32.
  4. 1 2 Black (2006), p. 19.
  5. Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 52.

Sources

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Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Born: 7 October 1737 Died: 23 December 1817
German nobility
Vacant
Title last held by
Wilhelmine of Prussia
Margravine consort of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
20 September 1759 - 26 February 1763
Succeeded by
Victoria Charlotte of Anhalt-Zeitz-Hoym