Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

Last updated
Princess Victoria
Princess of Leiningen
Duchess of Kent and Strathearn
Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld - Rothwell 1832.jpg
Portrait by Richard Rothwell, 1832
Born(1786-08-17)17 August 1786
Coburg, Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Holy Roman Empire
Died16 March 1861(1861-03-16) (aged 74)
Frogmore House, Windsor, Berkshire, United Kingdom
Burial25 March 1861
St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle
1 August 1861
Duchess of Kent's Mausoleum, Frogmore, Berkshire
Spouse
Issue
Full name
Marie Luise Viktoria
House Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Father Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Mother Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf

Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (17 August 1786 – 16 March 1861), later Duchess of Kent and Strathearn, was a German princess and the mother of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. As the widow of Charles, Prince of Leiningen (1763–1814), from 1814 she served as regent of the Principality during the minority of her son from her first marriage, Carl, until her second wedding in 1818 to Prince Edward, son of King George III of the United Kingdom. [1]

Queen Victoria British monarch who reigned 1837–1901

Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.

Emich Carl, 2nd Prince of Leiningen German nobleman

Emich Carl, Prince of Leiningen was a German nobleman. He is an ancestor of various European royals, including Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Felipe VI of Spain, and Constantine II of Greece. After his death, his widow, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, married a son of George III of the United Kingdom and became the mother of Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom.

Principality of Leiningen

The Principality of Leiningen was a short-lived principality ruled by the Prince of Leiningen.

Contents

Early life

Victoria was born in Coburg on 17 August 1786 in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. She was the fourth daughter and seventh child of Franz Frederick Anton, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf. One of her brothers was Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and another brother, Leopold future king of the Belgians, married, in 1816, Princess Charlotte of Wales, the only legitimate daughter of the future King George IV, and heiress presumptive to the British throne. [2]

Coburg Place in Bavaria, Germany

Coburg is a town located on the Itz river in the Upper Franconia region of Bavaria, Germany. Long part of one of the Thuringian states of the Wettin line, it joined Bavaria by popular vote only in 1920. Until the revolution of 1918, it was one of the capitals of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Through successful dynastic policies, the ruling princely family married into several of the royal families of Europe, most notably in the person of Prince Albert, who married Queen Victoria in 1840. As a result of these close links with the royal houses of Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Coburg was frequently visited by the crowned heads of Europe and their families.

Leopold I of Belgium German prince who became the first King of the Belgians

Leopold I was a German prince who became the first King of the Belgians following the country's independence in 1830. He reigned between July 1831 and December 1865.

Princess Charlotte of Wales Second in line to the British throne

Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales was the only child of the British king George IV, who was still Prince of Wales during her lifetime, and his wife Caroline of Brunswick. If she had outlived both her grandfather King George III and her father, she would have become Queen of the United Kingdom, but she died following childbirth at the age of 21, predeceasing them both.

Marriages

First marriage

On 21 December 1803 at Coburg, a young Victoria married (as his second wife) Charles, Prince of Leiningen (1763–1814), whose first wife, Henrietta of Reuss-Ebersdorf, had been her aunt. The couple had two children, Prince Carl, born on 12 September 1804, and Princess Feodora of Leiningen, born on 7 December 1807.

Reuss-Ebersdorf

Reuss-Ebersdorf was a county and from 1806 a principality located in Germany. The Counts of Reuss-Ebersdorf belonged to the Reuss Junior Line. Reuss was successively a part of the Holy Roman Empire, Confederation of the Rhine, German Confederation, North German Confederation, German Empire and Weimar Republic before becoming a part of Thuringia in 1920.

Carl, 3rd Prince of Leiningen German prince

Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Emich, Prince of Leiningen, KG was the third Prince of Leiningen and maternal half-brother of Queen Victoria. Leiningen served as a Bavarian lieutenant general, before he briefly played an important role in German politics as the first Prime Minister of the Provisorische Zentralgewalt government formed by the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848.

Princess Feodora of Leiningen German princess

Princess Feodora of Leiningen was the only daughter of Emich Carl, Prince of Leiningen (1763–1814), and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1786–1861). Feodora and her older brother Carl, 3rd Prince of Leiningen, were maternal half-siblings to Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. She is a matrilineal ancestor of Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden and of King Felipe VI of Spain.

Through her first marriage, she is a direct matrilineal ancestor to various members of royalty in Europe, including Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Felipe VI of Spain, and Constantine II of Greece.

Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden king of Sweden

Carl XVI Gustaf is the King of Sweden. He ascended the throne on the death of his grandfather, King Gustaf VI Adolf, on 15 September 1973.

Felipe VI of Spain Incumbent King of Spain

Philip VI or Felipe VI is the King of Spain. He ascended the throne on 19 June 2014 upon the abdication of his father, King Juan Carlos I. His mother is Queen Sofía, and he has two older sisters, Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo, and Infanta Cristina. When Spanish dictator Francisco Franco chose Juan Carlos as his successor in 1969, Felipe became second in line to the Spanish throne.

Constantine II of Greece Former King of Greece

Constantine II reigned as the King of Greece, from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1973.

Regency

After the death of her first spouse, she served as regent of the Principality of Leiningen during the minority of their son, Carl. [3]

Second marriage

The death in 1817 of Princess Charlotte of Wales, the wife of Victoria's brother Leopold, prompted a succession crisis. With Parliament offering them a financial incentive, three of Charlotte's uncles, sons of George III, were prepared to marry. One of them, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820) proposed to Victoria and she accepted. [4] The couple were married on 29 May 1818 at Amorbach and on 11 July 1818 at Kew, a joint ceremony at which Edward's brother, the Duke of Clarence, later King William IV, married Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen. Shortly after their marriage, the Kents moved to Germany, where the cost of living would be cheaper. Soon after, Victoria became pregnant, and the Duke and Duchess, determined to have their child born in England, raced back. [5] [6] Arriving at Dover on 23 April 1819, they moved into Kensington Palace, where Victoria gave birth to a daughter on 24 May 1819, Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent, later Queen Victoria. [4] An efficient organiser, Sir John Conroy's planning ensured the Kents' speedy return to England in time for the birth of their first child. [7]

Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn Prince of Great Britain

Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, was the fourth son and fifth child of Britain's king, George III, and the father of Queen Victoria.

Amorbach Place in Bavaria, Germany

Amorbach is a town in the Miltenberg district in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia (Unterfranken) in Bavaria, Germany, with some 4,000 inhabitants. It is situated on the small river Mud, in the northeastern part of the Odenwald.

Kew suburban district in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames

Kew is a district in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, 1.5 miles (2.4 km) north-east of Richmond and 7.1 miles (11.4 km) west by south-west of Charing Cross; its population at the 2011 Census was 11,436.

Widowhood

The Duchess of Kent by Sir George Hayter in 1835 Vicky of Kent.jpg
The Duchess of Kent by Sir George Hayter in 1835

The Duke of Kent died suddenly of pneumonia in January 1820, six days before his father, King George III. [4] His widow the Duchess had little cause to remain in the United Kingdom, since she did not speak the language and had a palace at home in Coburg where she could live cheaply on the revenues of her first husband. However, the British succession at this time was far from assured – of the three brothers older than Edward, the new king, George IV, and the Duke of York were both estranged from their wives, who were in any case past childbearing age. The third brother, the Duke of Clarence, had yet to produce any surviving children with his wife. The Duchess of Kent decided that she would do better by gambling on her daughter's accession than by living quietly in Coburg and, having inherited her second husband's debts, sought support from the British government. After the death of Edward and his father, the young Princess Victoria was still only third in line for the throne, and Parliament was not inclined to support yet more impoverished royalty.

The provision made for the Duchess of Kent was mean: she resided in a suite of rooms in the dilapidated Kensington Palace, along with several other impoverished members of the royal family, and received little financial support from the Civil List, since Parliament had vivid memories of the late Duke's extravagance. In practice, a main source of support for her was her brother, Leopold. The latter had a huge income of fifty thousand pounds per annum for life, representing an annuity allotted to him by the British Parliament on his marriage to Princess Charlotte, which had made him seem likely to become in due course the consort of the monarch. [8] Even after Charlotte's death, Leopold's annuity was not revoked by Parliament.

In 1831, with George IV dead and the new king, William IV, over 60 and still without legitimate issue, the young princess's status as heir presumptive and the Duchess's prospective place as regent led to major increases in British state income for the Kents. A contributing factor was Leopold's designation as King of the Belgians, upon which he surrendered his British income.

Royal feud

The Duchess of Kent with her daughter, the future Queen Victoria Duchess of Kent and Victoria by Henry Bone.jpg
The Duchess of Kent with her daughter, the future Queen Victoria

Together in a hostile environment, [7] [note 1] John Conroy's relationship with the Duchess was very close, with him serving as her comptroller and private secretary for the next nineteen years, [10] as well as holding the unofficial roles of public relations officer, counsellor, confidant and political agent. [11] While it is not clear which of the two was more responsible for devising the Kensington System, [10] it was created to govern young Victoria's upbringing. The intention was for the Duchess to be appointed regent upon Victoria's (assumed youthful) ascension and for Conroy to be created Victoria's private secretary and given a peerage. [7] The Duchess and Conroy continued to be unpopular with the royal family and, in 1829, the Duke of Cumberland spread rumours that they were lovers in an attempt to discredit them. [12] The Duke of Clarence referred to Conroy as "King John", [7] while the Duchess of Clarence wrote to the Duchess of Kent to advise that she was increasingly isolating herself from the royal family and that she must not grant Conroy too much power. [13] [14]

The Duchess of Kent was extremely protective, and raised Victoria largely isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System". The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable (including most of her father's family), and was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them. [15] The Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children, [16] and perhaps prompted the emergence of Victorian morality by insisting that her daughter avoid any appearance of sexual impropriety. [17] Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, and spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash. [18]

Perhaps because of Conroy's influence, the relationship between the Duchess's household and King William IV soon soured, with the Duchess regarding the King as an oversexed oaf. [19] As far as she dared, the Duchess denied the King access to his niece. She prevented her daughter from attending William's coronation out of a disagreement of precedence, [note 2] a decision attributed by the Duke of Wellington to Conroy. [21] [22] In 1831, the year of William's coronation, Conroy and the Duchess embarked on a series of royal tours with Victoria to expose her to the people and solidify their status as potential regents. [23] [24] Their efforts were ultimately successful and, in November 1831, it was declared that the Duchess would be sole regent in the event of Victoria's young queenship. [25] [26]

The Duchess further offended the King by taking rooms in Kensington Palace that the King had reserved for himself. Both before and during William's reign, she snubbed his illegitimate children, the FitzClarences. Both the King and his wife Queen Adelaide were fond of their niece, Princess Victoria of Kent. Their attempts to forge a close relationship with the girl were frustrated by the conflict between the King and the Duchess of Kent. The King, angered at what he took to be disrespect from the Duchess to his wife, took the opportunity at what proved to be his final birthday banquet in August 1836 to settle the score. Speaking to those assembled at the banquet, who included the Duchess and Princess Victoria, William expressed his hope that he would survive until Princess Victoria was 18 so that the Duchess of Kent would never be regent. He said,

I trust to God that my life may be spared for nine months longer ... I should then have the satisfaction of leaving the exercise of the Royal authority to the personal authority of that young lady, heiress presumptive to the Crown, and not in the hands of a person now near me, who is surrounded by evil advisers and is herself incompetent to act with propriety in the situation in which she would be placed. [27]

The breach between the Duchess and the King and Queen was never fully healed, but Victoria always viewed both of them with kindness. [28]

Conroy had high hopes for his patroness and himself: He envisaged Victoria succeeding the throne at a young age, thus needing a regency government, which, following the Regency Act 1830, would be headed by the princess's mother (who had already served in that capacity in Germany following the death of her first husband). [29] As the personal secretary of the Duchess, Conroy would be the veritable "power behind the throne". He had not counted on William IV surviving long enough for Victoria to succeed to the throne as an adult and consequently, while cultivating her mother, had shown little consideration for Victoria. When the latter succeeded, Conroy risked having no influence over her. He tried to force Victoria to agree to make him her personal secretary once she succeeded, but this plan, too, backfired. Victoria resented her mother's support for Conroy's schemes and being pressured by her to sign a paper declaring Conroy her personal secretary. The result was that when Victoria became queen, she relegated the Duchess to separate accommodations, away from her own. [30]

Reconciliation

The Duchess of Kent in a portrait by Winterhalter N-W0001-053-portrait-of-marie-louise-victoria-duchess-of-kent.jpg
The Duchess of Kent in a portrait by Winterhalter

When the Queen's first child, the Princess Royal, was born, the Duchess of Kent unexpectedly found herself welcomed back into Victoria's inner circle. It is likely that this came about as a result of the dismissal of Baroness Lehzen at the behest of Victoria's husband (and the Duchess's nephew), Prince Albert. Firstly, this removed Lehzen's influence, and Lehzen had long despised the Duchess and Conroy, suspecting them of an illicit affair. Secondly, it left the Queen wholly open to Albert's influence, and he likely prevailed upon her to reconcile with her mother. Thirdly, Conroy by now lived in exile on the Continent and so his divisive influence was removed. The Duchess's finances, which had been left in shambles by Conroy, were restored thanks to Victoria and her advisors. By all accounts, the Duchess became a doting grandmother and was closer to her daughter than she ever had been. [31]

Rumours of affairs

Some historians, including A. N. Wilson, suggested that Victoria's father could not have been the Duke of Kent. Those who promote this position point to the absence of porphyria in the British royal family among the descendants of Queen Victoria – it had been widespread before her; and haemophilia, unknown in either the Duke's or Duchess's family, had arisen among the best documented families in history. [32]

In practice, this would have required the Duchess's lover to be haemophiliac  – an extremely unlikely survival, given the poor state of medicine at the time, [33] or the Duchess herself to be a carrier of haemophilia, since haemophilia is X-linked, meaning that her mother would have been a carrier, if haemophilia was not otherwise previously expressed in the Duchess's parents. [33] Actual evidence to support this theory has not arisen, and haemophilia occurs spontaneously through mutation in at least 30% of cases. [34]

John Röhl's book, Purple Secret, documents evidence of porphyria in Victoria, Princess Royal's daughter Charlotte, and her granddaughter, Feodora. [35] It goes on to say that Prince William of Gloucester was diagnosed with porphyria shortly before he died in a flying accident. [35]

Death

The Duchess of Kent's Mausoleum at Frogmore Kentmausoleum.jpg
The Duchess of Kent's Mausoleum at Frogmore

The Duchess died at 09:30 on 16 March 1861 with her daughter Victoria at her side, aged 74 years. The Queen was much affected by her mother's death. Through reading her mother's papers, Victoria discovered that her mother had loved her deeply; [36] she was heart-broken, and blamed Conroy and Lehzen for "wickedly" estranging her from her mother. [37] She is buried in the Duchess of Kent's Mausoleum at Frogmore, Windsor Home Park, near to the royal residence Windsor Castle.

Queen Victoria and Albert dedicated a window in the Royal Chapel of All Saints in Windsor Great Park to her memory. [38]

Portrayal

Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was portrayed by Alison Leggatt in the ATV drama Edward the Seventh , by Penelope Wilton in the 2001 television serial Victoria and Albert , [39] by Miranda Richardson in the 2009 film The Young Victoria , [40] and by Catherine Flemming in the 2016 ITV series Victoria . [41]

Ancestry

Notes

  1. A German, the Duchess of Kent was unpopular in England, and did not mix well with the British royal family. [9]
  2. King William ordered that Victoria follow his brothers down the aisle during the coronation. The Duchess interpreted this as a deliberate slight. [20]

Related Research Articles

Countess Augusta Reuss of Ebersdorf German princess

Countess Augusta Caroline Sophie Reuss-Ebersdorf, was by marriage the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She was born in Saalburg-Ebersdorf. She was the maternal grandmother of Queen Victoria and the paternal grandmother of Albert, Prince Consort.

Louise Lehzen governess, adviser and companion to Queen Victoria of England

Johanna Clara Louise Lehzen, better known as Baroness Louise Lehzen, was the governess, and later adviser and companion, to Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.

Legitimacy of Queen Victoria

The parentage of Queen Victoria has been the subject of speculation. The speculation has largely centered on the familial incidence of hereditary diseases and circumstantial evidence, and has generally been discredited.

Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1800–1831) German princess

Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg was the wife of Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and the mother of Duke Ernst II and Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria. She was the paternal grandmother of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom. She is also the paternal great-great-great grandmother of Elizabeth II.

Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha German princess

Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the daughter of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Maria Antonia Koháry de Csábrág. Her father was the second son of Francis Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Augusta Reuss-Ebersdorf.

Princess Sophia of the United Kingdom British princess

Princess Sophia of the United Kingdom was the twelfth child and fifth daughter of King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Sophia is perhaps best known for the rumours surrounding a supposed illegitimate child to whom she gave birth as a young woman.

John Conroy British army officer who served as comptroller to the Duchess of Kent

Sir John Ponsonby Conroy, 1st Baronet, KCH was a British army officer who served as comptroller to the Duchess of Kent and her young daughter, Princess Victoria, the future Queen of the United Kingdom.

Princess Anna Sophie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt German royal

Princess Anna Sophie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a Princess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.

Haemophilia in European royalty preponderance of a genetic disorder

Haemophilia figured prominently in the history of European royalty in the 19th and 20th centuries. Britain's Queen Victoria, through two of her five daughters, Princess Alice and Princess Beatrice, passed the mutation to various royal houses across the continent, including the royal families of Spain, Germany and Russia. Victoria's son Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, also suffered from the disease. For this reason, haemophilia was once popularly called "the royal disease". Tests on the remains of the Romanov imperial family show that the specific form of haemophilia passed down by Queen Victoria was probably the relatively rare Haemophilia B.

Lady Flora Hastings British aristocrat and lady-in-waiting to Queen Victorias mother

Lady Flora Elizabeth Rawdon-Hastings was a British aristocrat and lady-in-waiting to Queen Victoria's mother, the Duchess of Kent. Her death in 1839 was the subject of a court scandal that gave the Queen a negative image.

Victoria & Albert is a 2001 British-American historical television serial. It focused on the early life and marriage of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. The series starred Victoria Hamilton as Victoria, Jonathan Firth as Prince Albert and Peter Ustinov as King William IV. It was directed by John Erman.

Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria

The Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria was celebrated on 20 June 1887 on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of Queen Victoria's accession on 20 June 1837. It was celebrated with a banquet to which 50 European kings and princes were invited.

Kensington System System of rules concerning the upbringing of the future Queen Victoria

The Kensington System was a strict and elaborate set of rules designed by Victoria, Duchess of Kent, along with her attendant, Sir John Conroy, concerning the upbringing of the Duchess's daughter, the future Queen Victoria. It is named after Kensington Palace in London, where they resided prior to Queen Victoria's accession to the throne.

Dash (spaniel) dog owned by Queen Victoria

Dash (1830–1840) was a King Charles Spaniel owned by Queen Victoria. Victoria's biographer Elizabeth Longford, called him "the Queen's closest childhood companion", and in the words of the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, he "was the first in a long line of beloved little dogs".

Charlotte Percy, Duchess of Northumberland UK duchess

Charlotte Florentia Percy, Duchess of Northumberland, was governess of the future Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.

Wedding of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 1840 Royal wedding

The wedding of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha took place on 10 February 1840 at Chapel Royal, St. James's Palace, in London.

Funeral of Queen Victoria state funeral in 1901

The funeral of Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, occurred on 2 February 1901. It was one of the largest gatherings of European royalty ever to take place.

References

  1. Tom Levine: Die Windsors. Glanz und Tragik einer fast normalen Familie. Campus-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2005, ISBN   3-593-37763-2, S. 20.
  2. Chambers, pp. 164–167.
  3. Tom Levine: Die Windsors. Glanz und Tragik einer fast normalen Familie. Campus-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2005, ISBN   3-593-37763-2, S. 20.
  4. 1 2 3 Longford, Elizabeth (2004). "Edward, Prince, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/101008526.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  5. Hibbert 2000, pp. 9–10.
  6. Gill 2009, p. 34.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Longford 2004.
  8. Chambers, p. 164.
  9. Vallone 2001, p. 63.
  10. 1 2 Hough 1996, p. 20.
  11. Gill 2009, p. 47.
  12. Hibbert, p. 27; Longford, pp. 35–38, 118–119; St Aubyn, pp. 21–22; Woodham-Smith, pp. 70–72. The rumours were false in the opinion of these biographers.
  13. Williams 2010, pp. 211–12.
  14. Hibbert 2001, pp. 27–28.
  15. Hibbert, pp. 27–28; Waller, pp. 341–342; Woodham-Smith, pp. 63–65
  16. Hibbert, pp. 32–33; Longford, pp. 38–39, 55; Marshall, p. 19
  17. Lacey, Robert (2006) Great Tales from English History, Volume 3, London: Little, Brown, and Company, ISBN   0-316-11459-6, pp. 133–136
  18. Waller, pp. 338–341; Woodham-Smith, pp. 68–69, 91
  19. Farquhar, Michael (2001). A Treasure of Royal Scandals, p.152. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN   0-7394-2025-9.
  20. Williams 2010, p. 226.
  21. Williams 2010, p. 227.
  22. Hibbert 2001, p. 33.
  23. Rappaport 2003, p. 101.
  24. Williams 2010, pp. 218–20.
  25. Barrow 1831, p. 242.
  26. Vallone 2001, p. 72.
  27. Somerset, p. 209.
  28. Allen, p.225
  29. Hibbert, p. 31; St Aubyn, p. 26; Woodham-Smith, p. 81
  30. Gill 2009, pp. 75–76.
  31. Packard, p. 85
  32. A. N. Wilson, The Victorians (Hutchinson, 2002). ISBN   0-09-179421-8, page 25
  33. 1 2 Packard, Jerrold (1973). Victoria's Daughters. New York: St. Martin's Press, pp. 43-44
  34. "Hemophilia B (Factor IX)". National Hemophilia Foundation. 2006. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
  35. 1 2 Röhl, John C. G.; Warren, Martin; Hunt, David (1998) Purple Secret: Genes, "Madness" and the Royal Houses of Europe, London: Bantam Press, ISBN   0-593-04148-8
  36. Hibbert, p. 267; Longford, pp. 118, 290; St Aubyn, p. 319; Woodham-Smith, p. 412
  37. Hibbert, p. 267; Marshall, p. 152; Woodham-Smith, p. 412
  38. Jane Roberts (1997). Royal Landscape: The Gardens and Parks of Windsor. Yale University Press. pp. 347–. ISBN   978-0-300-07079-8.
  39. "'Victoria & Albert' brings royal couple to life". Telegraph Herald . Knight Ridder. 21 October 2001. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  40. Mary Kunz Goldman (21 August 2010). "'The Young Victoria': Royal romance story is beautifully filmed and acted – Gusto". The Buffalo News. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  41. Doran, Sarah (28 August 2016). "Meet the cast of Victoria". Radio Times. Retrieved 29 August 2016.

Bibliography