Principality of Bulgaria

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Principality of Bulgaria

Княжество България  (Bulgarian)
Knyazhestvo Balgariya  (transliteration)
1878–1908
Flag of Bulgaria.svg
Flag
Blason Principaute de Bulgarie (1887).svg
State coat of arms (1881–1927)
Anthem: "Maritsa Rushes"
Шуми Марица  (Bulgarian)
Shumi Maritsa  (transliteration)
Royal anthem
"God Save the Tsar!" [1]
Боже, Царя храни!  (Bulgarian)
Bozhe, Tsarya khrani!  (transliteration)
Principality of Bulgaria (1890).svg
Bulgaria in dark green. Eastern Rumelia, in light green, was in a personal union with the Principality from 1885.
  •   Principality of Bulgaria
StatusNominally vassal of the Ottoman Empire [2] [3] [ self-published source? ]
Capital Plovdiv
(1878–1878) (Provisional Russian Administration in Bulgaria)
Sofia
(1878–1908) (Provisional Russian Administration in Bulgaria until June 1879)
Tarnovo
(1879-1879) (Bulgarian Constituent Assembly election, 1879)
Common languages Bulgarian
Religion
Bulgarian Orthodoxy
Government Principality
Knyaz (Prince) 
 1879–1886
Alexander I
 1887–1908
Ferdinand I
Regents  
 1886–1887
Stefan Stambolov
 1886–1887
Sava Mutkurov
 1886–1887
Petko Karavelov
Chairman of the Council of Ministers  
 1879 (first)
Todor Burmov
 1908 (last)
Aleksandar Malinov
Legislature National Assembly
History 
3 March 1878
13 July 1878
28 April 1879
6 September 1885
5 October 1908
Area
188063,752 km2 (24,615 sq mi)
190895,223 km2 (36,766 sq mi)
Population
 1880
2,007,919
 1908
4,215,000
Currency Bulgarian lev
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg Ottoman Empire
Kingdom of Bulgaria Flag of Bulgaria.svg
Today part ofFlag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia

The Principality of Bulgaria (Bulgarian : Княжество България, Knyazhestvo Balgariya) was a de facto independent, and de jure vassal state under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. It was established by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878.

Contents

After the Russo-Turkish War ended with a Russian victory, the Treaty of San Stefano was signed by Russia and the Ottoman Empire on 3 March 1878. Under this, a large Bulgarian vassal state was agreed to, which was significantly larger: its lands encompassed nearly all ethnic Bulgarians in the Balkans, and included most of Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia, stretching from the Black Sea to the Aegean. However, the United Kingdom and Austria-Hungary were against the establishment of such a large Russian client state in the Balkans, fearing it would shift the balance of power in the Mediterranean. Due to this, the great powers convened and signed the Treaty of Berlin, superseding the Treaty of San Stefano, which never went into effect. This created a much smaller principality, alongside an autonomous Eastern Rumelia within the Ottoman Empire.

Although an Ottoman vassal, Bulgaria only acknowledged the authority of the Sublime Porte in a formal way. It had its own Constitution, flag and anthem, and conducted its own foreign policy. In 1885, a bloodless revolution resulted in Eastern Rumelia being de facto annexed by Bulgaria, which the Ottoman Empire accepted with the Tophane Agreement. On 5 October 1908, Bulgaria declared its independence as the Kingdom of Bulgaria.

Background

In 1396 the Bulgarian–Ottoman Wars ended with the fall of the Bulgarian Empire, due to the Ottoman invasion of the Balkans and its own internal divisions. Under Ottoman rule, the Bulgarian nobility was destroyed and the national consciousness suppressed. The Bulgarian National Revival, emerging in the late 18th century, revived Bulgarian identity and stoked the idea of creating a new Bulgarian state. Numerous revolutionary movements and uprisings against the Ottomans occurred alongside similar movements in the rest of the Balkans, culminating in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 to 1878.

Treaty of Berlin

The Treaty of San Stefano and Treaty of Berlin Bulgaria-SanStefano -(1878)-byTodorBozhinov.png
The Treaty of San Stefano and Treaty of Berlin

The Treaty of San Stefano of March 3, 1878 proposed a Bulgarian state, which comprised the geographical regions of Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia. Based on that date Bulgarians celebrate Bulgaria's national day each year.

Fearing the establishment of a large Russian client state on the Balkans, the other great powers, however, were not willing to agree to the treaty. As a result, the Treaty of Berlin (1878), under the supervision of Otto von Bismarck of Germany and Benjamin Disraeli of United Kingdom, revised the earlier treaty, and scaled back the proposed Bulgarian state.

A widely autonomous Principality of Bulgaria was created, between the Danube and the Stara Planina range, with its seat at the old Bulgarian capital of Veliko Turnovo, and including Sofia. This state was to be under nominal Ottoman sovereignty but was to be ruled by a prince elected by a congress of Bulgarian notables and approved by the Powers. They insisted that the Prince could not be a Russian, but in a compromise Prince Alexander of Battenberg, a nephew of Tsar Alexander II, was chosen. An autonomous Ottoman province under the name of Eastern Rumelia was created south of the Stara Planina range, whereas Macedonia was returned under the sovereignty of the Sultan.[ citation needed ]

19th century

Stefan Stambolov Stefan Stambolov by Georgi Danchov Zografina.jpg
Stefan Stambolov

The Bulgarians adopted an advanced democratic constitution, and power soon passed to the Liberal Party led by Stefan Stambolov. Prince Alexander had conservative leanings, and at first opposed Stambolov's policies, but by 1885 he had become sufficiently sympathetic to his new country to change his mind, and supported the Liberals. He also supported the Unification of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia, which was brought about by a coup in Plovdiv in September 1885. The Powers did not intervene because of the power struggles between them. Shortly after, Serbia declared war on Bulgaria in the hope of grabbing territory while the Bulgarians were distracted. The Bulgarians defeated them at Slivnitsa, pushed the Serbian army into Serbia and succeeded to re-conquer the seized by the Berlin Treaty Bulgarian populated towns of Pirot and Vranya, but they were given back to Serbia with the Treaty of Bucharest in 1886.

These events made Alexander very popular in Bulgaria, but Russia was increasingly dissatisfied at the liberal tendencies under his reign. In August 1886 they fomented a coup, in the course of which Alexander was forced to abdicate and was exiled to Russia. Stambolov, however, acted quickly and the participants in the coup were forced to flee the country. Stambolov tried to reinstate Alexander, but strong Russian opposition forced the prince to abdicate again. In July 1887 the Bulgarians elected Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha as their new Prince. Ferdinand was the "Austrian candidate" and the Russians refused to recognise him. Ferdinand initially worked with Stambolov, but by 1894 their relationship worsened. Stambolov resigned and was assassinated in July 1895. Ferdinand then decided to restore relations with Russia, which meant returning to a conservative policy.[ citation needed ]

20th century

There was a substantial Bulgarian population still living under Ottoman rule, particularly in Macedonia. To complicate matters, Serbia and Greece too made claims over parts of Macedonia, while Serbia, as a Slavic nation, also considered Macedonians as belonging to Serbian nation. Thus began a five-sided struggle for control of these areas which lasted until World War I. In 1903 there was a Bulgarian insurrection in Ottoman Macedonia and war seemed likely. In 1908 Ferdinand used the struggles between the Great Powers to declare Bulgaria a fully independent kingdom, with himself as Tsar, which he did on 5 October (though celebrated on 22 September, as Bulgaria remained officially on the Julian calendar until 1916) in the Holy Forty Martyrs Church, Veliko Tarnovo.

Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising

An IMARO banner Ohrid Banner1.jpg
An IMARO banner

The main external political problem confronting Bulgaria throughout the period up to World War I was the fate of Macedonia and Eastern Thrace. At the end of 19th century the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization was founded and began the preparation of an armed uprising in the regions still occupied by the Ottoman Turks. Relying in part on nationwide support on the part of the Principality of Bulgaria, IMARO got down to organizing a network of committees in Macedonia and Thrace. In August 1903 a mass armed uprising, known in history as the Ilinden-Preobrajenie, broke out in Macedonia and Thrace. Its aim was to liberate those regions, or at least to draw the attention of the Great Powers and make them advocate for the improvement of the living conditions for the population through legal and economic reforms. After three months of fierce battles the Ottoman army crushed the uprising using much cruelty against the civilian population.

List of Princes of Bulgaria

PortraitNameBirthDeathFromUntilNotes
Alexander I of Bulgaria by Dimitar Karastoyanov.jpg Alexander I 5 April 185723 October 189329 April 18797 September 1886Abdicated
Zar Ferdinand Bulgarien.jpg Ferdinand I 26 February 186110 September 194829 April 18875 October 1908Became King of Bulgaria in 1908

See also

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References

  1. "Химнът на България през превратностите на времето". socbg.com. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  2. Pearson, Raymond (25 September 2014). "The Longman Companion to European Nationalism 1789-1920". Routledge. Retrieved 15 October 2017 via Google Books.
  3. Miller-Yianni, Martin (20 May 2010). "Bulgarian History - A Concise Account". Lulu.com. Retrieved 15 October 2017 via Google Books.[ self-published source ]

Coordinates: 42°42′N23°20′E / 42.700°N 23.333°E / 42.700; 23.333