Principality of Leyen

Last updated
Principality of Leyen

Fürstentum Leyen
1806–1814
Flag of the Principality of Leyen (1806-1813).svg
Flag
Leyen.JPG
Coat of arms
Geroldseck1812.png
The Principality of Leyen, shown within the Grand Duchy of Baden
Status Client state of the French Empire
Member of the Confederation of the Rhine
CapitalHohengeroldseck
GovernmentPrincipality
Prince 
Historical era Napoleonic Wars
1806
1814
 Granted to Baden
1819
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Leyen.JPG County of Adendorf
Austrian Empire Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg

The Principality of Leyen was a Napoleonic German state which existed 1806–14 in Hohengeroldseck, in the west of modern Baden-Württemberg. The House of Leyen had acquired many districts in western Germany, and eventually these were inherited by the Leyen line of counts at Adendorf. In 1797, France defeated the Holy Roman Empire and all lands west of the Rhine were lost. Following the defeat of Austria in December 1805, most of the smaller German princely states were mediatized, with the glaring exception of Leyen, which was spared by virtue of the fact that the Count was nephew to Archchancellor Karl Theodor von Dalberg, [1] a close collaborator of Napoleon's.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Hohengeroldseck noble family

Hohengeroldseck was a state of the Holy Roman Empire. It was founded by the House of Geroldseck, a German noble family which arrived in the Ortenau region of Swabia reputedly in 948, though the first mention of the family is documented in the 1080s. The family line went extinct in 1634 and was succeeded by the Kronberg and Leyen families. In 1806, the County was raised to a Principality and adopted the family name of Leyen. Late in 1813, the Principality was mediatized by Austria and its name reverted to Hohengeroldseck, but the history of the state ended when Austria ceded it to the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1819 and merged with the district of Lahr in 1831.

Baden-Württemberg State in Germany

Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany’s third-largest state, with an area of 35,751 km2 (13,804 sq mi) and 11 million inhabitants. Baden-Württemberg is a parliamentary republic and partly sovereign, federated state which was formed in 1952 by a merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern. The largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Other cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Pforzheim, Reutlingen and Ulm.

Contents

In 1806, Count Philip Francis of Adendorf was raised to a Prince, and his lands were renamed to the 'Principality of Leyen'. The territory formed an enclave surrounded by Baden. Prince Philip Francis, like many other members of the Confederation of the Rhine became largely a French puppet, so following Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Leipzig in 1813, the Congress of Vienna opted to mediatize his realm and give it to Austria. In 1819, Austria traded it to Baden.

Philip Francis, Prince of Leyen Ruled the Principality of Leyen

Philipp Franz Wilhelm Ignaz Peter, Fürst von der Leyen und zu Hohengeroldseck was a German nobleman who briefly ruled the Principality of Leyen.

Confederation of the Rhine confederation of client states of the First French Empire

The Confederation of the Rhine was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire. It was formed initially from 16 German states by Napoleon after he defeated Austria and Russia at the Battle of Austerlitz. The Treaty of Pressburg, in effect, led to the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, which lasted from 1806 to 1813.

Battle of Leipzig 1813 Napoleonic battle

The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony. The coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden, led by Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg, decisively defeated the French army of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. Napoleon's army also contained Polish and Italian troops, as well as Germans from the Confederation of the Rhine. The battle was the culmination of the German campaign of 1813 and involved 600,000 soldiers, 2,200 artillery pieces, the expenditure of 200,000 rounds of artillery ammunition and 127,000 casualties, making it the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I.

Prince of Leyen

Heads of the House after Mediatization [2]

  • Philip Franz , 1st Prince 1806-1829 (1766-1829)
    • Erwein, 2nd Prince 1829-1879 (1798-1879)
      • Philip, 3rd Prince 1879-1882 (1819-1882)
        • Erwein, 4th Prince 1895-1938 (1863-1938)
          • Erwein, 5th Prince 1938-1970 (1894-1970)
            • Wolfram Erwein, Hereditary Prince of Leyen and zu Hohengeroldseck (1924-1945)
            • Princess Marie-Adelheid (1932-2015)
              • Philipp Erwein, 7th Prince 1971–present (b.1967)
                • Wolfram, Hereditary Prince of Leyen and zu Hohengeroldseck (b.1990)
                  • Prince Roch (b.2018)
                • Prince Georg (b.1992)
                  • Prince Leo (b.2016)
                  • Prince Antonius (b.2018)
          • Ferdinand, 6th Prince 1970-1971 (1898-1971)
Map illustrating the growth of the Grand Duchy of Baden, with the Principality of Leyen in grey, mid-left Baden-1803-1819.png
Map illustrating the growth of the Grand Duchy of Baden, with the Principality of Leyen in grey, mid-left

Related Research Articles

History of Liechtenstein aspect of history

Political identity came to the territory now occupied by the Principality of Liechtenstein in 814, with the formation of the subcountry of Lower Rhætia. Liechtenstein's borders have remained unchanged since 1434, when the Rhine established the border between the Holy Roman Empire and the Swiss cantons.

Schönborn family noble family

The Schönborn family is a noble and mediatised formerly sovereign family of the former Holy Roman Empire.

German mediatisation 19th-century event

German mediatisation was the major territorial restructuring that took place between 1802 and 1814 in Germany and the surrounding region by means of the mass mediatisation and secularisation of a large number of Imperial Estates. Most ecclesiastical principalities, free imperial cities, secular principalities, and other minor self-ruling entities of the Holy Roman Empire lost their independent status and were absorbed into the remaining states. By the end of the mediatisation process, the number of German states had been reduced from almost 300 to just 39.

Waldburg-Zeil

Waldburg-Zeil was a County ruled by the House of Waldburg, located in southeastern Baden-Württemberg, Germany, located around Schloss Zeil, near Leutkirch im Allgäu.

Solms-Hohensolms-Lich

Solms-Hohensolms-Lich was a County with Imperial immediacy in what is today the federal Land of Hessen, Germany.

County of Isenburg countship

Isenburg was a region of Germany located in southern present-day Hesse, located in territories north and south of Frankfurt. The states of Isenburg emerged from the Niederlahngau, which partitioned in 1137 into Isenburg-Isenburg and Isenburg-Limburg-Covern. These countships were partitioned between themselves many times over the next 700 years.

Hohenlohe-Langenburg family name

Hohenlohe-Langenburg was a German county of northeastern Baden-Württemberg, Germany, located around Langenburg. Hohenlohe-Neuenstein was partitioned into it, Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen and Hohenlohe-Kirchberg in 1701. Hohenlohe-Langenburg was raised from a county to a principality in 1701, and was mediatised to Württemberg in 1806.

Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen was a German County of the House of Hohenlohe, located in northeastern Baden-Württemberg, Germany, around Ingelfingen. Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen was a scion of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. It was raised from a County to a Principality in 1764, and was mediatised to Württemberg in 1806.

Hohenlohe-Bartenstein

Hohenlohe-Bartenstein was a German principality of the House of Hohenlohe, located in northeastern Baden-Württemberg, Germany, around Bartenstein.

Salm (state) name of several historic countships and principalities in present Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg and France

Salm is the name of several historic countships and principalities in present Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg and France.

Fürstenberg may refer to:

Principality of Fürstenberg principality

Fürstenberg was a county, and later a principality (Fürstentum), of the Holy Roman Empire in Swabia, which was located in present-day southern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Its ruling family was the House of Fürstenberg.

Hohenlohe noble family

Hohenlohe is the name of a German princely dynasty descended from the ancient Franconian Imperial immediate noble family that belonged to the German High Nobility. The family was granted the titles of Count and, later, Prince. In 1806 the Princes of Hohenlohe lost their independence and their lands formed part of the Kingdoms of Bavaria and of Württemberg by the Act of the Confederation of the Rhine. At the time of this mediatization in 1806, the area of Hohenlohe was 1 760 km² and its estimated population was 108,000. The Act of the Confederation of the Rhine deprived the Princes of Hohenlohe of their Imperial immediacy, but did not confiscate their possessions. Until the German Revolution of 1918–19 the Princes of Hohenlohe, as other mediatized families, had important political privileges. They were considered equal by birth (Ebenbürtigkeit) to the European Sovereign houses. In Bavaria, Prussia and Württemberg the Princes of Hohenlohe had hereditary right to sit in the House of Lords. In 1825 the Assembly / Diet of the German Confederation recognized the predicate of "Serene Highness" (Durchlaucht) for the heads of the Hohenlohe lines.

Zell am Harmersbach Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Zell am Harmersbach is a small town and a historic “Reichsstadt” in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It lies in the Ortenaukreis, between the Black Forest and the Rhine.

House of Leyen noble family

von der Leyen is an ancient German noble family of princely and historically sovereign rank. As a former ruling and mediatized family, it belongs to the Hochadel.

Electorate of Baden

The Electorate of Baden was a State of the Holy Roman Empire from 1803 to 1806. In 1803, Napoleon bestowed the office of Prince-elector to Charles Frederick. This only lasted until 1806, when Francis II dissolved the Empire. When the Holy Roman Empire dissolved, Baden achieved sovereignty, and Charles Frederick became Grand Duke.

Fürst von der Leyen und zu Hohengeroldseck was a German noble title of the House of Leyen.

References

  1. Heinrich von Treitschke, History of Germany in the Nineteenth Century, Volume 1, page 270.
  2. Online Gotha - Leyen