Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe

Last updated
County (Principality) of Schaumburg-Lippe

Grafschaft (Fürstentum) Schaumburg-Lippe
1647–1918
Flagge Furstentum Schaumburg-Lippe.svg
Flag
Coat of Arms of the Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: Heil unserm Fürsten, heil
Hail to our Prince, hail!
German Empire - Schaumburg Lippe (1871).svg
Schaumburg-Lippe within the German Empire
Status State of the Holy Roman Empire
State of the Confederation of the Rhine
State of the German Confederation
State of the North German Confederation
State of the German Empire
Capital Bückeburg
GovernmentPrincipality
Historical era Early modern Europe
 Partitioned from
     Schaumburg
1647
 Inherited
     Lippe-Alverdissen
 
1777
 Raised to principality
1807
1918
 Merged into
     Lower Saxony
 
1946
Area
1905340 km2 (130 sq mi)
Population
 1905
44,992
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Schaumburg-Grafschaft.PNG County of Schaumburg
Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe Flagge Furstentum Schaumburg-Lippe.svg

Schaumburg-Lippe, also Lippe-Schaumburg, was created as a county in 1647, became a principality in 1807, a free state in 1918, and was until 1946 a small state in Germany, located in the present day state of Lower Saxony, with its capital at Bückeburg.

Contents

History

Schaumburg-Lippe was formed as a county in 1647 through the division of the County of Schaumburg by treaties between the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and the Count of Lippe. The division occurred because Count Otto V of Holstein-Schaumburg had died in 1640 leaving no male heir. Initially Schaumburg-Lippe's position was somewhat precarious: it had to share a wide variety of institutions and facilities with the County of Schaumburg (which belonged to Hesse-Kassel), including the representative assembly and the highly productive Bückeberg mines, and the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel retained some feudal rights over it. It was further threatened by the headstrong policies of ruling Count Friedrich Christian. To counter these threats, Friedrich's grandson Count Wilhelm (who reigned 1748–1777) retained a standing army of up to 1000 troops - quite a lot for such a small territory.

With Wilhelm's death in 1777 the junior Schaumburg-Lippe-Alverdissen inherited the County thereby reuniting Schaumburg-Lippe with Lippe-Alverdissen.

German cartoon from 1834 poking fun at the microscopic size of Schaumburg-Lippe Kleinstaaterei 1834.jpg
German cartoon from 1834 poking fun at the microscopic size of Schaumburg-Lippe

Schaumburg-Lippe was a county until 1807 when it became a principality; from 1871 it was a state within the German Empire. In 1913, it was the smallest state in the German Empire in terms of population. [1] The capital was Bückeburg, and Stadthagen was the only other town. Under the constitution of 1868, there was a legislative diet of 15 members, 10 elected by the towns and rural districts and 1 each by the nobility, clergy and educated classes, the remaining 2 nominated by the prince. Schaumburg-Lippe sent one member to the Bundesrat (federal council) and one deputy to the Reichstag. [2] It lasted until the end of the German monarchies in 1918, when it became a free state as the Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe. In November 1918, Prince Adolf was the second last reigning German monarch to abdicate.

Rulers of Schaumburg-Lippe

Buckeburg Palace, former residence of the ruling princes, still owned by the princely family Bueckeburg Schloss v O.JPG
Bückeburg Palace, former residence of the ruling princes, still owned by the princely family

Counts of Schaumburg-Lippe (1640–1807)

  • Philip I (1601-1681) Count of Lippe-Alverdissen 1613–1640, of Schaumburg-Lippe 1640–1681
    • Frederick Christian (1655–1728) Count of Schaumburg-Lippe 1681–1728
      • Albert Wolfgang (1699–1748) Count of Schaumburg-Lippe 1728–1748
        • William (1724–77) Count of Schaumburg-Lippe 1748-1777
    • Philipp Ernest, Count of Lippe-Alverdissen (1659–1753)
      • Friedrich Ernst, Count of Lippe-Alverdissen (1694–1777)
        • Philip II Ernest (1723–1787), Count of Schaumburg-Lippe 1777–1787
          • George William (1784–1860), Count of Schaumburg-Lippe 1787–1807, raised to Prince

Princes of Schaumburg-Lippe (1807–1918)

Heads of the House of Schaumburg-Lippe, post monarchy

  • George (1846–1911), 3rd Prince 1893–1911
    • Adolf II (1883–1936), 4th Prince 1911–1936
    • Wolrad (1887–1962), 5th Prince 1936–1962
      • Philipp-Ernst (1928–2003), 6th Prince 1962–2003
        • Alexander (born 1958), 7th Prince 2003–present
          • (1) Hereditary Prince Heinrich-Donatus (born 1994), heir apparent
      • Prince Konstantin Karl-Eduard of Schaumburg-Lippe (1930–2008)
        • (2) Prince York Karl-Albrecht Konstantin of Schaumburg-Lippe (born 1960)
          • Prince Nicolai-York Gerhard Konstantin of Schaumburg-Lippe (1989–2016)
        • (3) Prince Oliver Konstantin Mortimer of Schaumburg-Lippe (born 1988)
    • Prince Friedrich Christian Wilhelm Alexander of Schaumburg-Lippe (1906-1983)
      • (4) Prince Albrecht-Wolfgang Friedrich Wolrad Ruppert of Schaumburg-Lippe (born 1934)
        • (5) Prince Stephan Wilhelm Ernst of Schaumburg-Lippe (born 1965)
          • (6) Prince Raphael Elias of Schaumburg-Lippe (born 1989)
          • (7) Prince Niklas Georg of Schaumburg-Lippe (born 2001)

See also

Related Research Articles

Georg, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe

Georg, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe was a ruler of the small Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe.

George William, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe Count, then Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe

Georg Wilhelm, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe was a Count and later Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe.

Philip II, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe

Philipp II Ernst, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe was a ruler of the counties of Lippe-Alverdissen and Schaumburg-Lippe.

William, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe

Wilhelm, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe-Bückeburg, born Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Graf zu Schaumburg-Lippe-Bückeburg, was a German ruler of the County of Schaumburg-Lippe-Bückeburg, an important military commander in the Seven Years' War, Generalfeldzeugmeister of the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, a British field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) and the grandson of George I of Great Britain.

Albert Wolfgang, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe

Albrecht Wolfgang, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe was a ruler of the County of Schaumburg-Lippe.

Frederick Christian, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe

Friedrich Christian, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe was the second ruler of the County of Schaumburg-Lippe.

Philip I, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe

Philipp I, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe was the founder of the Schaumburg-Lippe line.

Philipp-Ernst, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe was a head of the Princely House of Schaumburg-Lippe.

Wolrad, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe

Ernst Wolrad, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe was a head of the Princely House of Schaumburg-Lippe.

Lippe-Alverdissen

Lippe-Alverdissen was a paragium of the ruling House of Lippe.

House of Lippe

The House of Lippe is the former reigning house of a number of small German states, two of which existed until the German Revolution of 1918–19, the Principality of Lippe and the Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe.

Princess Adelheid of Schaumburg-Lippe Duchess consort of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Princess Adelheid of Schaumburg-Lippe was a member of the House of Schaumburg-Lippe and a Princess of Schaumburg-Lippe by birth. Through her marriage to Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Adelheid was a sister-in-law of Christian IX of Denmark and Duchess consort of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg from 14 October 1878 to 27 November 1885.

Sophie of Hesse-Kassel was a princess of Hesse-Kassel by birth and by marriage Countess of Schaumburg-Lippe.

Royal descendants of John William Friso Wikimedia list article

The royal descendants of John William Friso, Prince of Orange currently occupy all the hereditary European royal thrones, with Friso and his wife, Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel, being the most recent common ancestors of all the European monarchs. Due to the intermarriage of the European royal houses, many monarchs are descended from Friso in more than one way. Through history, Friso has also been the ancestor of many monarchs whose thrones no longer exist.

References

  1. Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Schaumburg-Lippe"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Schaumburg-Lippe"  . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.