|Comune di Procida|
|Metropolitan city||Naples (NA)|
|• Mayor||Raimondo Ambrosino|
|• Total||4.1 km2 (1.6 sq mi)|
|Elevation||15 m (49 ft)|
|• Density||2,600/km2 (6,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Patron saint||St. Michael|
|Saint day||September 29|
Procida (Italian: [ˈprɔːtʃida] ; Neapolitan : Proceta [ˈprɔːʃətə] ) is one of the Flegrean Islands off the coast of Naples in southern Italy. The island is between Cape Miseno and the island of Ischia. With its tiny satellite island of Vivara, it is a comune of the Metropolitan City of Naples, in the region of Campania.
The island derives its name from the Latin name Prochyta. Προχύτη/Prochýtē means 'poured out' in Greek . According to another theory, Prochyta comes from the Greek verb prokeitai, meaning 'it lies forth', because of the appearance of the island seen from the sea.
Procida is located between Capo Miseno and the island of Ischia. It is less than 4.1 square kilometres (1.6 sq mi). Its coastlines, very jagged, are 16 km (9.9 mi). The Terra Murata hill is the highest point on the island (91 metres (299 ft)).
Geologically, Procida was created by the eruption of four volcanoes, now dormant and submerged.
Some 16th-15th c BCE Achaean objects have been found on Procida. Traces have also been found on Vivara, an islet off the southwest coast of Procida. The first historically attested Greek settlers arrived from the Aegean to this island during the 8th c BCE, followed by other Greeks coming from nearby Cuma.
The island is mentioned by the Roman satirist, Juvenal, in Sat. 3, 5, as a barren place. Later during Roman rule, Procida became a renowned resort for the patrician class of Rome.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Byzantine reconquest in the Gothic Wars, Procida remained under the jurisdiction of the Duke of Naples. The continual devastation first by the Vandals and Goths, and later by the Saracens, pushed the population to resettle in a fortified village typical of medieval times. The population was sheltered by a cape, naturally defended by walls that peak on the sea that were later fortified, thus acquiring the name of Terra Murata ("walled land").
Testimonies from this period are from those who manned the watchtowers on the sea, which became the symbol of the island. With the Norman conquest of Southern Italy, Procida experienced feudal dominion; the island, with a mainland annex (the future Mount of Procida), came under the control of the Da Procida family which continued to hold the island for more than two centuries. The most famous member of the family was John III of Procida, counsellor to Emperor Frederick II and leader of the revolt of the Sicilian Vespers.
In the 1339, the fiefdom, together with the Island of Ischia, was handed over to the Cossa family, of French origin, loyal followers of the Angevin dynasty then reigning in Naples. Baldassare Cossa was elected Antipope in 1410 with the name of John XXIII. In this period a deep economic transformation of the island began, as agriculture was slowly abandoned in favour of fishing.
During the rule of Charles V, the island was granted to the D'Avalos family. Pirate raids continued during this period. Particularly notable was one in 1534, led by the infamous Turk admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa.
In 1744 King Charles III made Procida a royal game reserve. In this period the Procidan fleet reached its zenith, backed by a period of flourishing shipbuilding. The population rose to approximately 16,000. In 1799, Procida took part in the revolts that led to the proclamation of the Neapolitan Republic. With the return of the Bourbon dynasty a few months later 12 Procidans were beheaded.
The Napoleonic Wars brought several episodes of devastation due to the island's strategic position in the naval engagements between French and English. In 1860, after the fall of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the island became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Italy.
The 20th century saw a crisis in Procidan shipbuilding due to competition with industrial conglomerates. In 1907 Procida lost its mainland territory, which became independent and is commonly called the Mount of Procida (Monte di Procida).
In 1957, the first underwater aqueduct in Europe was built in Procida.
In the last few decades, the population has slowly begun to grow. The economy remains in great part tied to the marine industry, although the tourist industry has also grown.
Several writers have set their novels in Procida. These include Graziella written by Alphonse de Lamartine, who came to Procida from Bourgogne at the beginning of the 19th century while in the French army; and Arthur's Island (1957) by Elsa Morante.
Procida has been chosen as a film set for numerous films (more than 30 movies) including The Postman and The Talented Mr. Ripley . Procida was also the site of filming for scenes in Cleopatra 1963, starring Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton. Specifically, the harbor of Procida was shown in scenes related to Cleopatra's barge, where it was intended to represent the harbor of the ancient city of Tarsus in Asia Minor. In anachronistic Hollywood fashion, the baroque dome of the church in Procida can be seen in the background as the golden Egyptian barge of Cleopatra is docking in the port.
In 2013, Fabrizio Borgogna launched the Procida Film Festival, an international contest for young movie directors, writers and lovers.
There are many religious traditions on the island tied to the period of Holy Week before Good Friday. The most evocative of these are the Procession of the Apostles of Holy Thursday and the Procession of the Mysteries of Good Friday. The last one is based on a tradition going back to the end of the 17th century. In the procession, the young males of the island, dressed in the traditional dress of the "Confraternity of the Turchini", carry allegorical wagons (called "mysteries") of religious character for a fixed distance, from the village of Torre Murata to the port of Marina Grande. The "mysteries", often highly artistic, are prepared by the young people and generally nobody except them would have, at least in theory, seen them before the procession. After the procession, they are taken apart or destroyed.
Every summer, there is an election of the Graziella ("Little Graceful"), a young woman that wears the customary clothes of the island, referring to the history told in Alphonse de Lamartine's novel, Graziella. Also during the summer, a literary award dedicated to Elsa Morante and her novel, Arthur's Island, is presented.
Campania is a region in Southern Italy. As of 2018, the region has a population of around 5,820,000 people, making it the third-most-populous region of Italy; its total area of 13,590 km2 (5,247 sq mi) makes it the most densely populated region in the country. Located on the south-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, with the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west, it includes the small Phlegraean Islands and Capri for administration as part of the region.
Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest city of Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents. Its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe.
Sorrento is a town overlooking the Bay of Naples in Southern Italy. A popular tourist destination due to its variety of small antique shops and location on the Amalfi Coast, it can be reached easily from Naples and Pompeii as it is at the south-eastern end of the Circumvesuviana rail line. The town is most known for its small shops selling ceramics, lacework and marquetry (woodwork).
Ischia is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea. It lies at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples, about 30 kilometres from the city of Naples. It is the largest of the Phlegrean Islands. Roughly trapezoidal in shape, it measures approximately 10 km east to west and 7 km north to south and has about 34 km of coastline and a surface area of 46.3 square kilometres (17.9 sq mi). It is almost entirely mountainous; the highest peak is Mount Epomeo, at 788 metres. The island is very densely populated, with 60,000 residents.
The Phlegraean Fields is a large supervolcano situated to the west of Naples, Italy. It was declared a regional park in 2003. The area of the caldera consists of 24 craters and volcanic edifices; most of them lie under water. Hydrothermal activity can be observed at Lucrino, Agnano and the town of Pozzuoli. There are also effusive gaseous manifestations in the Solfatara crater, the mythological home of the Roman god of fire, Vulcan. This area is monitored by the Vesuvius Observatory.
The history of Naples is long and varied. The first Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the 2nd millennium BC. During the end of the Greek Dark Ages a larger mainland colony – initially known as Parthenope – developed around the 9-8th century BC, and was refounded as Neapolis in the 6th century BC: it held an important role in Magna Graecia. The Greek culture of Naples was important to later Roman society. When the city became part of the Roman Republic in the central province of the Empire, it was a major cultural center. Virgil is an example of the political and cultural freedom of Naples.
The Neapolitan Republic was a republic created in Naples, which lasted from 22 October 1647 to 5 April 1648. It began after the successful revolt led by Masaniello and Giulio Genoino against King Philip III and his viceroys.
Lacco Ameno is a town and comune situated in the northwest of the island of Ischia, in the Metropolitan City of Naples off the west coast of Italy. The town has a population of around 4,800 inhabitants.
The Duchy of Naples began as a Byzantine province that was constituted in the seventh century, in the reduced coastal lands that the Lombards had not conquered during their invasion of Italy in the sixth century. It was governed by a military commander (dux), and rapidly became a de facto independent state, lasting more than five centuries during the Early and High Middle Ages. The modern city of Naples remains a significant region of Italy, today.
Canzone napoletana, sometimes referred to as Neapolitan song, is a generic term for a traditional form of music sung in the Neapolitan language, ordinarily for the male voice singing solo, although well represented by female soloists as well, and expressed in familiar genres such as the love song and serenade. Many of the songs are about the nostalgic longing for Naples as it once was. The genre consists of a large body of composed popular music—such songs as "'O sole mio"; "Torna a Surriento"; "Funiculì, Funiculà"; "Santa Lucia" and others.
Giugliano in Campania[dʒuʎˈʎaːno iŋ kamˈpaːnja], also known simply as Giugliano, is a city and comune in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Campania, Italy. As of 2017, it had some 124,000 inhabitants, making it the most populated Italian city that is not a provincial capital.
Bacoli is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Naples in the Italian region Campania, located about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) west of Naples.
Barano d'Ischia is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Naples in the Italian region Campania, located in the south-west area of Ischia island, about 30 km southwest of Naples.
Monte di Procida a small comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Naples in the Italian region of Campania, located about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) west of Naples, facing the island of Procida. Monte di Procida includes the small island of San Martino, which was occupied by the Germans during World War II. Its territory is included in the Campi Flegrei Regional Park.
Cape Miseno is the headland that marks the northwestern limit of the Gulf of Naples as well as the Bay of Pozzuoli in southern Italy. The cape is directly across from the island of Procida and is named for Misenus, a character in Virgil's Aeneid.
The Phlegraean Islands is an archipelago in the Gulf of Naples and the Campania region of southern Italy.
Vivara is a satellite islet of Procida, one of the three main islands in the Gulf of Naples.
The Campanian Archipelago, also called Neapolitan Archipelago, is an archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea, in southwestern Italy. It principally comprises 5 islands: Capri, Ischia, Nisida, Procida, and Vivara. Most of the archipelago belongs to the Metropolitan City of Naples.
Forastera is a white Italian wine grape variety that is grown on the islands of Ischia and Procida off the coast of Naples in Campania. In the early 21st century, DNA analysis confirmed that the Spanish wine grape variety of the same name grown in the Canary Islands is a completely different and distinct variety with no close genetic relationship to the Italian Forastera.
Graziella is an 1852 novel by the French author Alphonse de Lamartine. It tells of a young French man who falls for a fisherman's granddaughter – the eponymous Graziella – during a trip to Naples, Italy; they are separated when he must return to France, and she soon dies. Based on the author's experiences with a tobacco-leaf folder while in Naples in the early 1810s, Graziella was first written as a journal, and intended to serve as commentary for Lamartine's poem "Le Premier Regret".
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