Professionalism in association football

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David Beckham, an English retired professional footballer with a net worth of US$ 300 million David Beckham 2009.jpg
David Beckham, an English retired professional footballer with a net worth of US$ 300 million

Association football is the world's most popular sport, and is worth US$600 billion worldwide. [1] By the end of the 20th century it was played by over 250 million players in over 200 countries. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Around the world, the sport is played at a professional level by professional footballers, and millions of people regularly go to football stadiums to follow their favourite football teams, [1] while billions more watch the sport on television or on the internet. [7] Football has the highest global television audience in sport. [8] The sport had amateur origins and evolved into the modern professional competition.

Association football Team field sport

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.

World planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization

The world is the planet Earth and all life on it, including human civilization. In a philosophical context, the "world" is the whole of the physical Universe, or an ontological world. In a theological context, the world is the material or the profane sphere, as opposed to the celestial, spiritual, transcendent or sacred spheres. "End of the world" scenarios refer to the end of human history, often in religious contexts.

Sport Forms of competitive activity, usually physical

Sport includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete, simultaneously or consecutively, with one winner; in others, the contest is between two sides, each attempting to exceed the other. Some sports allow a "tie" or "draw", in which there is no single winner; others provide tie-breaking methods to ensure one winner and one loser. A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs.

Contents

History

Association football was first codified in 1863, with the formation of the Football Association (FA) in England. At this time the sport was played mainly by public schools, or teams with public school roots, and amateurism was the norm. This remained the case until the 1880s, when working-class teams began to vie for supremacy. Blackburn Olympic, a team composed mainly of factory workers, won the 1883 FA Cup Final. [9] They were the first working-class team to win the competition since its inception in 1870. [10] Though professionalism was not permitted, Olympic arranged jobs for their players, and supplemented their income with additional payments, a common occurrence among Lancashire clubs. [11]

Public school (United Kingdom) Type of independent school in England and Wales

A public school in England and Wales is a long-established, student-selective, fee-charging independent secondary school that caters primarily for children aged between 11 or 13 and 18, and whose head teacher is a member of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference (HMC). Public refers to their origins as schools open to any public citizen who could afford to pay the fees; they are not funded from public taxes. Traditionally, English public schools were all-male boarding schools, but the term now also includes co-educational and girls' schools, while many accept day pupils as well as boarders.

Blackburn Olympic F.C. association football club

Blackburn Olympic Football Club was an English football club based in Blackburn, Lancashire in the late 19th century. Although the club was only in existence for just over a decade, it is significant in the history of football in England as the first club from the north of the country and the first from a working-class background to win the country's leading competition, the Football Association Challenge Cup. The cup had previously been won only by teams of wealthy amateurs from the Home counties, and Olympic's victory marked a turning point in the sport's transition from a pastime for upper-class gentlemen to a professional sport.

1883 FA Cup Final

The 1883 FA Cup Final was contested by Blackburn Olympic and Old Etonians at the Kennington Oval. Blackburn Olympic won 2–1 after extra time. Jimmy Costley and Arthur Matthews scored for Blackburn; Harry Goodhart for Old Etonians. It was a watershed match for the sport, as for the first time in an FA Cup final a working-class team playing the 'combination game' (passing) were triumphant over a team playing the public school tactics of 'rushing' and 'scrimmages'.

The differences between the amateur idealists from southern England and the increasingly professionalised teams from northern industrial towns came to a head in 1884. After Preston North End won an FA Cup match against Upton Park, the Londoners protested, seeking the result to be overturned due to the presence of paid players in the Preston ranks. This sparked a series of events which threatened to split the FA. Preston withdrew from the competition, and fellow Lancashire clubs Burnley and Great Lever followed suit. The protest gathered momentum, to the point where more than 30 clubs, predominantly from the north, announced that they would set up a rival British Football Association if the FA did not permit professionalism. [12] 18 months later the FA relented, and in July 1885 professionalism was formally legalised in England. [13] [14]

Preston North End F.C. Association football club

Preston North End Football Club is a professional football club in Preston, Lancashire, whose team currently plays in the EFL Championship, the second tier of the English football league system. Originally a cricket club, Preston have been based at Deepdale since 1875. The club first took up football in 1878 as a winter fitness activity and decided to focus on it in May 1880, when the football club was officially founded. Deepdale is now football's oldest ground in terms of continuous use by a major league club.

Upton Park Football Club was an amateur football club from Upton Park, London in the late 19th and early 20th century, now defunct. As well as being one of the fifteen teams that played in the inaugural FA Cup, they also represented Great Britain at the 1900 Summer Olympics football tournament, which they won.

Burnley F.C. Association football club

Burnley Football Club is a professional association football club based in Burnley, Lancashire, England. Founded on 18 May 1882, the team originally played only friendly matches until they entered the FA Cup for the first time in 1885–86. The club currently plays in the Premier League, the first tier of English football. Nicknamed the Clarets, due to the dominant colour of their home shirts, they were one of the twelve founding members of the Football League in 1888. The club's emblem is based on the town's crest, with a Latin motto Pretiumque et Causa Laboris.

Though English clubs employed professionals, the Scottish Football Association continued to forbid the practice. Consequently, many Scottish players migrated southward. At first the FA put residential restrictions in place to prevent this, but these were abandoned by 1889. [15] In the inaugural season of the Football League (1888–89), champions Preston North End fielded ten Scottish professionals. [16] The Scottish FA lifted its ban on professionalism in 1893, whereupon 560 players were registered as professionals. [17]

Scottish Football Association governing body of association football in Scotland

The Scottish Football Association, is the governing body of football in Scotland and has the ultimate responsibility for the control and development of football in Scotland. Members of the SFA include clubs in Scotland, affiliated national associations as well as local associations. It was formed in 1873, making it the second oldest national football association in the world. It is not to be confused with the "Scottish Football Union", which is the name that the SRU was known by until the 1920s.

Timeline by country

This table details the year in which professionalism was introduced, country by country.

CountryYearNotes
England1885 [13] Football League, first professional league, formed 1888
Scotland1893 [17]
United States1921 [18]
Italy1923 [19] [20] Juventus became the first professional club in the country in 1923.
Austria1924 [21] First fully professional league in continental Europe
Hungary1924 [21]
Spain1926 [22]
Mexico1927 [23] Year when the national team turned professional. Mexico's first professional league was formed in 1943.
Argentina1931 [24]
Chile1931 [25]
France1932 [22]
Uruguay1932 [26]
Brazil1933 [27] São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro state leagues.
Netherlands1954 [28]
West Germany1963 [29]
Sweden1967 [30]
Denmark1978 [31]
Norway1992 [32]
Saudi Arabia2007 [33]

See also Professional sports#Association football

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to association football:

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