Province No. 1

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Province No. 1

प्रदेश नं० १
Mount Everest as seen from Drukair2 PLW edit.jpg
Kanchenjunga Shines as it gets first sunrays (By Saroj Pandey).jpg
Gokyo Lakes 01.jpg
Stupa at Namche Bazaar.jpg
Repuk Makalu Barun Valley Nepal.jpg
Tea Estate near Ilam Bazar, Ilam. (By Saroj Pandey).jpg
Halesi Mahadev Temple.jpg
Tengboche monastery II.JPG
From top left to right
Mount Everest, Kanchenjunga, Gokyo Lakes, Namche Bazaar, Barun Valley, Ilam, Halesi Mahadev Temple and Tengboche Monastery all located in Province No. 1 of Nepal
Nepal Province 1.svg
Location of Province No. 1 in Nepal
Province No. 1
Coordinates: 26°27′15″N87°16′47″E / 26.45417°N 87.27972°E / 26.45417; 87.27972 Coordinates: 26°27′15″N87°16′47″E / 26.45417°N 87.27972°E / 26.45417; 87.27972
Country Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal
Formation20 September 2015
Capital city Biratnagar [1]
Largest city Biratnagar
Districts 14
  Type Self-governing Province
  Body Government of Province No.1
   Governor Somnath Adhikari Pyasi
   Chief Minister Sher Dhan Rai (NCP)
  High CourtBiratnagar High Court
   Provincial Assembly Unicameral (93 seats)
   Parliamentary constituency 28
  Total25,905 km2 (10,002 sq mi)
Area rank 2nd
Highest elevation
8,848 m (29,029 ft)
Lowest elevation
70 m (230 ft)
  Rank 3rd
  Density180/km2 (450/sq mi)
  Density rank 4th
Demonym(s) Purbeli Nepali
  Ethnic groups Hindus, Kirat, Buddhist
  Ethnic castes Chhetri, Bahun, Rai, Limbu
  Female 52%
  Male /100 female91.48%
Human Development Index 0.553Increase2.svg (medium)
  GDP (2019)36.37% [4]
  Poverty rate0.127 [5]
  Life Expectancy69%
Time zone UTC+5:45 (NPT)
Geocode NP-ON
Official language Nepali (43.07%)
Other language(s) 1. Maithili
2. Limbu

Province No. 1 (proposed names: Koshi/Purbanchal) [6] is the easternmost of the seven provinces established by the new constitution of Nepal which was adopted on 20 September 2015. [6] The province covers an area of 25,905 km2, about 17.5% of the country's total area. With the industrial city of Biratnagar as its headquarter, the province covers other major eastern towns including Damak, Dharan, Itahari, Inarua and Birtamod and includes several mountains including the Everest, Kanchenjunga, and Ama Dablam. Koshi – the largest river of the nation, circumvents the province's western boundary. Adhering to the first-past-the-post voting system issued by the Constituency Delimitation Commission, the province hosts 28 parliamentary seats and 56 provincial seats. [7]


The province is bordered by the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal to the east, and Bihar to the south, and Bagmati Pradesh and Province No. 2 to the west. [8] [9] [10] According to the 2011 census, there are around 4.5 million people in the province, with a population density of 175.6 per square kilometer. [11]


Eastern Districts of Nepal in 1942. Eastern Nepal.png
Eastern Districts of Nepal in 1942.

At the end of Rana regime, Nepal was divided into 32 districts. Eastern Nepal (Province No. 1) contained following districts:

In 1956, eastern districts of Nepal grouped in a region named "Arun Kshetra". Arun Kshetra was composed by grouping the then 5 districts. Those 5 districts are now divided into many districts. Arun Kshetra had total area of 7,000 square miles (18,000 km2) and total population was 11 Lakhs. [12] The five districts were:

  1. Biratnagar District (Sunsari, Morang)
  2. Dhankuta District (Dhankuta, Sankhuwasabha)
  3. Taplejung District (Taplejung, Panchtharl)
  4. Mechi District (Ilam, Jhapa)
  5. Bhojpur District (Bhojpur, Khotang)

In 1962, administrative system restructured and the "Kshetras" system cancelled and the country restructured into 75 development districts and those districts were grouped into zones. [13] In 1972 area of the Province No. 1 named Eastern Development Region. It had 3 zones and 16 districts.

As per the cabinet meeting held on 17 January 2018, the city of Biratnagar was declared the interim capital of Province No. 1. It was later declared as the permanent capital on 6 May 2019 when two-thirds of the provincial assembly's MLAs voted in favor of Biratnagar. [1]


Topography of Province No. 1 Nepal Province No 1 rel location map.svg
Topography of Province No. 1

Province No. 1 covers an area of 25,905 km2. [11] The province has three-fold geographical division: Himalayan in the north, Hilly in the middle and Terai in the southern part of Nepal, varying between an altitude of 70 m and 8,848 m. Terai, extended from east to west, is made up of alluvial soil. To the west of Koshi River, in between Mahabharat Range and Churia Range, there elongates a valley called Inner Terai. Churai Range, Mahabharat Range and other hills of various height, basins, tars and valleys form the hilly region. Some parts of this region are favorable for agriculture but some other parts are not. Himalayan region, in the north, consists of many mountains ranges. Mahalangur, Kumbhakarna, Umvek, Lumba Sumba and Janak being some of them. The highest mountain in the world, Mount Everest (8848.86 m); and the third highest mountain, Kangchenjunga (8598 m) also lie in this province.

Nepal's lowest point, Kechana Kawal at 70 m, is located in Jhapa district of this province. There are many river basins and gentle slopes as well. Chure, Mahabharat, many basins, tars and valleys form the Terai region. Between the Churia and Mahabharat a low land of inner Terai exists. The Koshi river flows through the region with its seven tributaries; Indrawati, Likhu, Tamur, Dudh Kosi, Arun, Tamakoshi and Bhote Koshi (Sunkoshi). Tundra vegetables, coniferous forest, deciduous monsoon forests and sub-tropical evergreen woods are vegetations found here. Sub-tropical, temperate, sub-temperate, and alpine and tundra types of climates are found here.

Province No. 1 also includes the snow fall capped peaks including Mount Everest, Kangchenjunga, Makalu with Solukhumbu, Sankhuwasabha, and Taplejung districts towards the north, the jungle clad hill tracts of Okhaldhunga, Khotang, Bhojpur, Tehrathum, Ilam and Panchthar in the middle and the alluvial fertile plains of Udayapur, Sunsari, Morang and Jhapa. Province No. 1 includes places like Haleshi Mahadev Temple, Pathivara Temple and Barahachhetra, which are the famous religious shrines for Hindus.


Climatic conditions of Nepal vary from one place to another in accordance with their geographical features. Province No. 1 has three geographical folds: the low-land of Terai, the hilly region and the highlands of the Himalayas. The low land altitude is 59 m, whereas the highest point is 8848 m.

In the north, summers are cool and winters severe, while in the south, summers are tropical and winters are mild. Climatically, the southern belt of the province, the Terai, experiences a warm and humid climate. Eastern Nepal receives approximately 2,500 millimeters of rain annually. Province No. 1 has five seasons: spring, summer, monsoon, autumn and winter.

Average temperatures and precipitation for selected communities in Province No. 1 [14]









Precipitation (mm/in)

Damak 94 / 8234 / 2874 / 4723 / 82618 /103.07
Dharan 85.1/72.329.5/22.468.4/44.420.2/6.91416/55.7
Biratnagar 83.128.460.8161549.8/61
Bhadrapur 82.227.961.216.22351.9/92.6
Dhankuta 76.524.754.512.51809.5/71.2
Khandbari 74.823.85211.12040.7/80.3
Ilam 71.822.150.910.52551.5/100.5
Bhojpur 69.120.646.88.22290.4/90.2
Khumbu Pasang Lhamu 56.1/38.313.4/3.533.8/-0.81/-18.2645/25.4


Everest and Lhotse from the south. In the foreground are Thamserku, Kantega, and Ama Dablam Mount Everest morning.jpg
Everest and Lhotse from the south. In the foreground are Thamserku, Kantega, and Ama Dablam
South-west (Yalung) face of Kangchenjunga seen from Nepal Kangchenjunga South Face.jpg
South-west (Yalung) face of Kangchenjunga seen from Nepal

Northern part of Province No. 1 has the highest mountain of the world. Here is a list of mountains in Province No. 1.

Mount Everest 8,84829,029 Khumbu Mahalangur   Earth's highest from sea level
Kanchenjunga 8,58628,169Northern Kangchenjunga  3rd highest on Earth
Lhotse 8,51627,940Everest Group  4th highest
Makalu 8,46327,766Makalu Mahalangur  5th highest
Cho Oyu 8,20126,906Khumbu Mahalangur  6th highest
Gyachung Kang 7,95226,089Khumbu Mahalangur  between Everest and Cho Oyu
Nuptse 7,86125,791Everest Group  319 metres prominence from Lhotse
Jannu 7,71125,299Kumbhakarna Kangchenjunga  
Kabru 7,41224,318Singalila Kangchenjunga  
Kirat Chuli 7,36524,163Kangchenjunga  
Nangpai Gosum 7,35024,114Khumbu Mahalangur  
Chamlang 7,32124,019Barun Mahalangur  #79 in the world
Pumori 7,16123,494Khumbu Mahalangur  First ascent 1962
Baruntse 7,12923,389Barun Mahalangur  First ascent 1954
Ama Dablam 6,81222,349Barun Mahalangur  "Mother and her necklace"
Kangtega 6,78222,251Barun Mahalangur  First ascent 1963
Cho Polu 6,73522,096Barun Mahalangur  First ascent 1999
Lingtren 6,71422,028Khumbu Mahalangur  First ascent 1935
Num Ri 6,67721,906Barun Mahalangur  First ascent 2002
Khumbutse 6,64021,785Khumbu Mahalangur  First mountain west of Everest
Thamserku 6,62321,729Barun Mahalangur  First ascent 1964
Pangboche 6,62021,719Kutang Himal  
Taboche 6,54221,463Khumbu Mahalangur  First ascent 1974
Mera Peak 6,47621,247Himalayas  Trekking peak
Cholatse 6,44021,129Khumbu Mahalangur  Connected to Taboche
Kusum Kangguru 6,36720,889Barun Mahalangur  Trekking peak (difficult)
Ombigaichan 6,34020,801Barun Mahalangur  
Kongde Ri 6,18720,299Barun Mahalangur  Trekking peak (difficult)
Imja Tse 6,16020,210Khumbu Mahalangur  Also known as Island Peak. Popular trekking peak.
Lobuche 6,14520,161Khumbu Mahalangur  Trekking peak
Nirekha 6,06919,911Khumbu Mahalangur  Trekking peak (difficult)
Pokalde 5,80619,049Khumbu Mahalangur  Trekking peak (moderate)
Mount Khumbila 5,76118,901Mahalangur  Unclimbed
Kala Patthar 5,54518,192Khumbu Mah  Popular hiking peak below Pumori
Gokyo Ri 5,35717,575Himalayas  Popular hiking peak
South Side: View from Mera Peak


There are many rivers in the region which flow towards south from the Himalayas which are tributaries of other large rivers which joins Ganga River (in India). Sapt Koshi or the Koshi is the main river of the region. Seven tributaries join the Koshi so it called Saptkoshi.

The major rivers in the province are:

Protected Areas


There are total 137 local administrative units in this province, in which there is 1 metropolitan city, 2 sub-metropolitan cities, 46 municipalities and 88 rural municipalities.


The province is made up of the 14 following districts:


Nepal Province No 1 rel location map.svg
Province No. 1 (Province No. 1)

Cities and villages are governed by municipalities in Nepal. A district may have one or more municipalities. Province No. 1 has two types of municipalities.

  1. Urban Municipality (Urban Municipality has three levels):
    1. Metropolitan city
    2. Sub-metropolitan city and
    3. Municipality
  2. Rural Municipality (Gaunpalika)

The government of Nepal has set out a minimum criteria to meet city and towns. These criteria include a certain population, infrastructure and revenues.


The first provincial assembly elections in Nepal were held on 26 November and 7 December 2017.

After the results of the recent election in Province No. 1 the biggest party is CPN (UML) which wins 51 seats out of 93 seats and second biggest party is Nepali Congress which wins 21 seats and third biggest party is CPN (Maoist Center) which wins 15 seats in first Provincial Assembly election. [15]

There are 56 FPTP and 37 PR seats in the province.

In a meeting on 17 January 2018 government of Nepal finalized the temporary capital of Province No. 1, the meeting also appointed Govinda Subba as the governor. [16]

Sher Dhan Rai was elected as Chief Minister of Province No. 1 on February 14, 2018. [17] He was a former Minister for Information and Communications. He was appointed as the chief minister, according to Article 168 (1) of the Constitution of Nepal. [17]

Provincial Assembly

The first meeting of the provincial assembly was held on 5 February 2018 in Biratnagar and was chaired by Om Prakash Sarbagi. [18] Pradeep Kumar Bhandari was elected unopposed as the Speaker of the Provincial Assembly on 11 February 2018. [19] Saraswoti Pokharel was also elected unopposed to the post of Deputy Speaker on 15 February 2018. [20]

Province 1 Assembly 2018.svg
NCP 462066
Nepali Congress 81321
Federal Socialist Forum, Nepal 123
Rastriya Prajatantra Party 011
Sanghiya Loktantrik Rastriya Manch 011
Independent 1-1
Source: Election Commission of Nepal


All provinces of Nepal except Province No. 2 have difficult geographic features. Only three districts out of fourteen of Province No. 1 falls in Terai and one district falls in inner Terai. Elevation from lowest point of Nepal, Kechana (70 m above sea level) to the highest point of world, Everest (8848 m above sea level) lies in this province, so maintaining consistent road network is one of the most challenging. Despite of those challenges, all districts are connected via road networks. Air services are available. Rail services are under construction.


Almost all districts are connected by roads in Province No. 1, although some roads at high altitudes are not paved and conditions of those roads worsen during the rainy season. In the hills and mountain regions, the traffic is much lighter compared to Terai regions like Jhapa and Morang due to difficult terrain.

The main highways of Province No. 1 connect Terai to the high altitude regions. There are feeder roads too for inter-district and in-district travel.


Tenzing-Hillary Airport at Lukla Lukla Airport April 2010.JPG
Tenzing-Hillary Airport at Lukla
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Indo-Nepal border
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Many domestic airports and air services are available in the region including one of the most geographically challenging airports, Lukla Airport.

Airports in Province No. 1:


There is a 13 km railway track which has been laid in Nepal by Indian Railways is connected to Bathnaha railway station. Bathnaha is a village situated at Araria district of Bihar state of India. Budhanagar is the first railway station of ForbesganjBiratnagar section in Nepal which is at distance of 18 km from Bathnaha Railway Station. The railway track is further being constructed to connect Biratnagar city. [22] [23]

Economic activities

Tourism, natural resources, industries, agriculture and foreign employment are the major sources of income for the people of Province No. 1. Similarly, there are many tourist sites: Sagarmatha National Park, Makalu Barun National Park, Barahachhetra, Damak, Itahari, Dharan, Ilam, etc. Industries are also important. In this province manly there are four transit points: i.e Kakarbhitta, Pashupatinagar and Jogbani to India, and Olangchunggola and Kimathanka to China.


Religion in Province No. 1

   Hinduism (66.63%)
   Kirat Mundhum (17.14%)
   Buddhism (9.20%)
   Islam (3.59%)
   Christianity (1.72%)
   Prakṛti (1.33%)
  Other or not religious (0.39%)

Total population of Province No. 1 (according to 2011 Nepal census) is 4,543,943 in which female comprises 52% (2,368,407) of the total population. [24] There are 992,445 households [25]


Hinduism is the major religion of the province.Kirat Mundhum is the second major religion of the province. 67% of the total population are Hindus, 17% are Kirantis, 9% Buddhists, 4% Muslims and 1% others.


Nepali language is lingua franca of the province and it is the mostly spoken language. Maithili language is second largest spoken language. About 43% people of the province speak Nepali language, Maithili language is spoken by 11% of population. Limbu, Tamang and Tharu are also spoken here.


Chetri is the largest ethnic group in the province, 15% of the total population are Chetri. Second largest ethnic group is Hilly Brahmins Bahun which comprises 12% of the total population of the province. Rai (11%), Limbu (8%), Tamang (5%) and others 16%.


71.22% of the total population of the province can read and write mean educated. [26]

See also

Related Research Articles

Biratnagar Metropolitan City in Province No. 1, Nepal

Biratnagar is a metropolitan city in Nepal, which serves as the capital city of Province No. 1. With a population of 242,548 as per the 2011 census, it is the largest city in the province and also serves as the headquarters of Morang district. Biratnagar is located 399 km (248 mi) east of the capital, Kathmandu and 6 km (3.7 mi) north of the bordering town of Jogbani in the Indian state of Bihar. The highest peak in the world, Mount Everest, is located 174 km (108 mi) north of the city.

Bhojpur Municipality Municipality in Province No. 1, Nepal

Bhojpur is one of the two urban municipalities of Bhojpur District of Province No. 1 of Nepal.

Dhankuta District District in Province No. 1, Nepal

Dhankuta District is one of 14 districts of Province No. 1 of eastern Nepal. The district covers an area of 891 km2 (344 sq mi) and has a population (2011) of 163,412. Dhankuta is the district headquarters of Dhankuta District.

Morang District District in Nepal

Morang District is located in Province No. 1 in eastern Nepal. It is an Outer Terai district. It borders with Bihar, India to the South, Jhapa to the East, Dhankuta and Panchthar to the North, and Sunsari to the west. Morang has one metropolitan city (Biratnagar), eight municipalities and eight rural municipalities. The total area of Morang is 1,855 km2 (716 sq mi). The lowest elevation point is 60 meters and the highest is 2410 meters above sea level. The headquarters of Morang is connected by Koshi National Highway to the east–west Mahendra National Highway at Itahari, Sunsari, and Morang is also connected to the Hill parts of the eastern region of Nepal. Morang is the core industrial sector for the eastern region of Nepal.

Sankhuwasabha District District in Province No. 1, Nepal

Sankhuwasabha District is one of 14 districts of Province No. 1 of eastern Nepal. The district's area is 3,480 km² with a population of 159,203 in 2001 and 158,742 in 2011. The administrative center is Khandbari.

Ilam Municipality Municipality in Province No. 1, Nepal

Ilam is one of four urban municipalities of Ilam District, which lies in the Mahabharata hilly range of Province No. 1, eastern Nepal. Ilam also acts as the headquarters of Ilam District. Being the largest producer region for Nepali tea, its tea farms comprise a major tourist attraction in Province No. 1. Ilam is also famous for its natural scenery and landscapes as well as its diverse agricultural economy which specializes in horticultural crop production.

Khandbari Municipality Municipality in Kosi Zone, Nepal

Khandbari is the district headquarters of Sankhuwasabha District in Province No. 1 of north-eastern Nepal. The 2011 Nepal census counted 26,301 population.

Limbuwan Place in Eastern Nepal, Nepal

Limbuwan is an area of the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, historically made up of 10 Limbu kingdoms, now part of Nepal, northern Sikkim in India and western Bhutan. Limbuwan means "abode of the Limbus" or "Land of the Limbus". "Yakthung Laaje" in original Limbu language which means "the country of the Yakthungs".

Itahari Sub-Metropolitan City in Nepal

Itahari is a sub-metropolitan city in the Sunsari District of Province No. 1 of Nepal. Itahari is also counted as one of the biggest cities of Nepal. Situated at a distance of 25 kilometres north of the provincial capital of Biratnagar, 16 kilometres south of Dharan and 92 kilometres west of Kakarbhitta, Itahari serves as a junction point of the east-west Mahendra highway and the north-south Koshi highway.

The Bantawa Language, is a Kiranti language spoken in the eastern Himalayan hills of eastern Nepal by Bantawa ethnic groups. They use a syllabic alphabet system known as Kirat Khambu (Rai). Among the Kirat Rai people of Eastern Nepal, Sikkim, Darjeeling and Kalimpong in India. Bantawa is the largest language spoken. According to the 2001 National Census, at least 1.63% of the Nepal's total population speaks Bantawa. About 370,000 speak Bantawa Language mostly in eastern hilly regions of Nepal (2001). Although Bantawa is among the more widely used variety of the Bantawa language, it falls in the below-100,000 category of endangered languages. It is experiencing language shift to Nepali, especially in the northern region.

Mahendra Highway Major road in Nepal

Mahendra Highway, also called East-West Highway runs across the Terai geographical region of Nepal, from Mechinagar in the east to Bhim Datta in the west, cutting across the entire width of the country. It is the longest highway in Nepal and was constructed by CPWD/PWD Nepali and Indian engineers.

Chemjong is a Limbu surname. It is most common in Limbuwan, East Nepal and Sikkim. The origin and history of the name "Chemjong" comes from the era of Lasahang (LashaHang) which was during the 7th century AD. The fifth king of Lasahang dynasty was King Chemjong Hang. He was born in Chempojong palace in Ilam, where his mother was living. When he was born his mother had to keep him away from everyone, fearing that Chief Pathong Hang's people would come and murder him. She told him that his father's enemy would destroy him if they were to find out his true identity. He grew up to be a wise and strong individual. His mother having told him of his late father's followers in the northern part of Limbuwan, he made his way there and forged alliances with the chiefs. He made a surprise attack while everyone at Hellang palace was celebrating the marriage of one of the district chiefs. After capturing Hellang palace, he revealed his identity to all those present and they accepted him as the true ruler and heir of the late King Wedo Hang. Since he had no real name and that he was born in the old palace of Chempojong, the assembled chiefs decided to name him Chemjong Hang, which became his name. He once again tried to unite all of Limbuwan and succeeded in extending from present-day Panchthar, Illam, Dhankuta, Sunsari, Morang and Jhapa. Back in those days Morang composed of the lower terai lands of Sunsari, Morang and Jhapa, while northern Limbuwan was still in fragments.

The Kirat Kulung are one of the indigenous communities of Nepal, as well as parts of northeastern Sikkim and Darjeeling district of India, having their own Kulung language, culture, history and tradition. The Kulung population in Nepal is estimated to be in the region of 150,000-200,000.

Lohorung people

Lohorung are a janajati or ethnic native people of eastern Nepal. The Lohorung homeland is Sankhuwasabha district in the northern part of the Arun watershed, a tributary to the Koshi. At present they are found in eight other districts of Nepal: Ilam, Jhapa, Sunsari, Morang, Dhankuta, Terhathum, Lalitpur and Kathmandu. They also live in northeastern states of India: Darjeeling and Kalimpong in West Bengal, Sikkim and Assam, and even Bhutan, Australia, United Kingdom and United States.

Administration in Province No. 1

Province No. 1 is a province of Nepal. It is located in easternmost part of Nepal. It is surrounded by Tibet of China to the north, the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal to the east and Bihar to the south and Bagmati Province and Province No. 2 to the west.

Former administrative units of Nepal

Former administrative units of Nepal are administrative divisions during Kingdom of Nepal. In 2008 Nepal was proclaimed a federal republic and old administrative units restricted after adoption of new constitution on 20 September 2015.

Geography of Province No. 1

Province No. 1 covers an area of 25,905 square kilometres (10,002 sq mi). It is located at easternmost part of Nepal bordering by Tibet Autonomous Region of China in north Bagmati Pradesh in west, Province No. 2 in south-west, Bihar of India in south, North Bengal of India in south-east and Sikkim of India in north-east. Sikkim and part of North Bengal of India forms ethno-linguistic relation with Nepal. Geography of Province No. 1 in eastern Nepal is very diverse, of highest peaks of Himalayas in northern extremes to terai region to south. It lies between 86 degree 1 minute and 88 degree 3 minutes east longitude and 28 degree 2 minutes and 26 degree 3 minutes north longitude. Biratnagar, the industrial capital of Nepal, is the temporary capital of this province.


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