Province of Carolina

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Province of Carolina

Coat of arms
Colonial Carolina.png
StatusColony of England (1629–1707)
Colony of Great Britain (1707–12)
Capital Charles Town, South Carolina
Common languages English, Tutelo, Muscogee, Catawban languages, Tuscarora, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Yuchi, Shawnee
Church of England (Anglicanism)
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
LegislatureLords Proprietors
Historical era Colonial Era
 Heath charter
  British government buy-out of Lords Proprietors
Currency Pound sterling
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Colony of Virginia
Province of North Carolina Blank.png
Province of South Carolina Blank.png
Today part ofUnited States

The Province of Carolina [1] was an English and later a British colony of North America. Carolina was founded in what is present-day North Carolina. Carolina expanded south and, at its greatest extent, nominally included the present-day states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee and Mississippi, and parts of modern Florida and Louisiana. [2]


Sir Robert Heath, attorney-general of King Charles I of England, was granted the Cape Fear region of America, incorporated as the Province of Carolana, in 1629. [1] The charter was unrealized and ruled invalid, and a new charter was issued to a group of eight English noblemen, the Lords Proprietors, on March 24, 1663. [3] It was not until 1663 that the province became officially known as "Carolina." [4] Charles II granted the land to the eight Lords Proprietors in return for their financial and political assistance in restoring him to the throne in 1660. [5] Charles II intended for the newly created province to serve as an English bulwark to contest lands claimed by Spanish Florida and prevent their northward expansion. [6] [7] Led informally by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, the Province of Carolina was controlled from 1663 to 1729 by these lords and their heirs.

In 1669, the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina divided the colony of Carolina into two provinces, Albemarle province in the north and Clarendon province in the south. [8] Due to dissent over the governance of the colony, and the distance between settlements in the northern half and settlements in the southern half, in 1691 a deputy governor was appointed to administer the northern half of Carolina (Albemarle province). [9] In 1712, the two provinces became separate colonies, the colony of North Carolina (formerly Albemarle province) and the colony of South Carolina (formerly Clarendon province). [10]

Although the division between the northern and southern governments became complete in 1712, both colonies remained in the hands of the same group of proprietors. A rebellion against the proprietors broke out in 1719 which led to the appointment of a royal governor for South Carolina in 1720. After nearly a decade in which the British government sought to locate and buy out the proprietors, both North and South Carolina became royal colonies in 1729.


1629 Charter

On October 30, 1629, King Charles I of England granted a patent to Sir Robert Heath for the lands south of 36 degrees and north of 31 degrees, "under the name, in honor of that king, of Carolana." [4] [11] Carolus is Latin for 'Charles'. Heath wanted the land for French Huguenots, but when Charles restricted use of the land to members of the Church of England, Heath assigned his grant to George, Lord Berkeley. [12] King Charles I was executed in 1649 and Heath fled to France where he died. Following the 1660 restoration of the monarchy, Heath's heirs attempted to reassert their claim to the land, but Charles II ruled the claim invalid.

1663 Charter

"A New Description of Carolina", engraved by Francis Lamb (London, Tho. Basset and Richard Chiswell, 1676) Carolina Vintage Map.JPG
"A New Description of Carolina", engraved by Francis Lamb (London, Tho. Basset and Richard Chiswell, 1676)

On March 24, 1663, Charles II issued a new charter to a group of eight English noblemen, granting them the land of Carolina, as a reward for their faithful support of his efforts to regain the throne of England. The eight were called Lords Proprietors or simply Proprietors. The 1663 charter granted the Lords Proprietor title to all of the land from the southern border of the Virginia Colony at 36 degrees north to 31 degrees north (along the coast of present-day Georgia). [3]

In 1665, the charter was revised slightly (see Royal Colonial Boundary of 1665), with the northerly boundary extended to 36 degrees 30 minutes north to include the lands of settlers along the Albemarle Sound who had left the Virginia Colony. Likewise, the southern boundary was moved south to 29 degrees north, just south of present-day Daytona Beach, Florida, which had the effect of including the existing Spanish settlement at St. Augustine. The charter also granted all the land, between these northerly and southerly bounds, from the Atlantic, westward to the shores of the Pacific Ocean. [1]

The Lords Proprietors named in the charter were Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon; George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle; William Craven, 1st Earl of Craven; John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton; Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury; Sir George Carteret; Sir William Berkeley (brother of John); and Sir John Colleton. Of the eight, the one who demonstrated the most active interest in Carolina was Lord Shaftesbury. Shaftesbury, with the assistance of his secretary, the philosopher John Locke, drafted the Grand Model for the Province of Carolina (which included the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina), a plan for government of the colony heavily influenced by the ideas of the English political scientist, James Harrington. Some of the other Lords Proprietors also had interests in other colonies: for instance, John Berkeley and George Carteret held stakes in the Province of New Jersey, and William Berkeley had an interest in Virginia.

The Lords Proprietors, operating under their royal charter, were able to exercise their authority with nearly the independence of the king himself. The actual government consisted of a governor, a powerful council, on which half of the councillors were appointed by the Lords Proprietors themselves, and a relatively weak, popularly elected assembly.

Within three generations of Columbus, the Spanish from their Florida base had started to emigrate up the coast of modern North Carolina. A hostile Virginia tribe drove them back to Georgia.[ citation needed ] A Scottish contingent had meanwhile settled in South Carolina only to be extirpated by the Spanish, who inhabited Parris Island, SC, as late as 1655. The Spanish were again beaten back to Georgia. [13]

Although the Lost Colony on Roanoke Island was the first English attempt at settlement in the Carolina territory, the first permanent English settlement was not established until 1653, when emigrants from the Virginia Colony, with others from New England and Bermuda, settled at the mouths of the Chowan and Roanoke Rivers, on the shores of Albemarle Sound, in the northeastern corner of present-day North Carolina. The Albemarle Settlements, preceding the royal charter by ten years, came to be known in Virginia as "Rogues' Harbor". [14] By 1664, the region was organized as Albemarle County.

In 1663, Captain William Hilton had noted the presence of a wooden cross erected by the Spaniards that still stood before the town meeting house of the Indians living at what later became Port Royal. [15] In 1665, Sir John Yeamans established a second short-lived English settlement on the Cape Fear River, near present-day Wilmington, North Carolina, which he named Clarendon.

The Lords Proprietors founded a sturdier new settlement when they sent 150 colonists to the province in early 1670, landing them at a location south of the other settlements, near present-day Charleston, South Carolina. Many of the colonists were planters from Barbados. The "Charles Town" settlement, as it was known then, developed more rapidly than the Albemarle and Cape Fear settlements due to the advantages of a natural harbor and expanding trade with the West Indies. Charles Town was made the principal seat of government for the entire province; Lord Shaftesbury specified its street plan. The nearby Ashley and Cooper rivers are named for him.

Due to their remoteness from each other, the northern and southern sections of the colony operated more or less independently until 1691, when Philip Ludwell was appointed governor of the entire province. From that time until 1708, the northern and southern settlements remained under one government. The north continued to have its own assembly and council; the governor resided in Charles Towne and appointed a deputy-governor for the north. During this period, the two-halves of the province began increasingly to be known as North Carolina and South Carolina.

Carolina was the first of three colonies in North America settled by the English to have a comprehensive plan. Known as the Grand Model, or Grand Modell, it was composed of a constitution and detailed guidelines for settlement and development. The constitution, titled Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, was drafted by the philosopher John Locke under the direction of Anthony Ashley Cooper (later made Earl of Shaftesbury). [16]


From 1708 to 1710, due to disquiet over attempts to establish the Anglican church in the province, the people were unable to agree on a slate of elected officials; consequently, there was no recognized and legal government for more than two years, a period which culminated in Cary's Rebellion when the Lords Proprietors finally commissioned a new governor. This circumstance, coupled with the Tuscarora War and the Yamasee War, and the inability of the Lords Proprietors to act decisively, led to separate governments for North and South Carolina.

Some take this period as the establishment of separate colonies, but that did not officially occur until 1729 when seven of the Lords Proprietors sold their interests in Carolina to the Crown, and both North Carolina and South Carolina became royal colonies. The eighth share was Sir George Carteret's, which had passed to his great-grandson John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville. He retained ownership of a sixty-mile-wide strip of land in North Carolina adjoining the Virginia boundary, which became known as the Granville District. This district was to become the scene of many disputes, from 1729 until the American Revolutionary War, at which time it was seized by the North Carolina revolutionary government.

Governments under proprietary rule and under crown rule were similarly organized. The primary difference was who was to appoint the governing officials: the Lords Proprietors or the Sovereign.


In 1732, a corporate charter for the Province of Georgia was carved out of South Carolina by King George II.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Granville District

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<i>Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina</i>

The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina were adopted on March 1, 1669 by the eight Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina, which included most of the land between what is now Virginia and Florida. It replaced the Charter of Carolina and the Concessions and Agreements of the Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina (1665). The date March 1, 1669 was the date that proprietors confirmed the Constitutions and sent them to the Colony, but later on two other versions were introduced in 1682 and in 1698. Moreover, the proprietors suspended the Constitutions in 1690. Despite the claims of proprietors on the valid version of the Constitution, the colonists officially recognized the July 21, 1669 version, claiming that six proprietors had sealed the Constitutions as "the unalterable form and rule of Government forever" on that date. The earliest draft of this version in manuscript is believed to be the one found at Columbia, South Carolina archives.

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The early province of Carolana was the land forming the southern English colonies, spanning from 31° to 36° north latitude. In 1629, King Charles I of England granted the territory to his attorney general Sir Robert Heath. The original charter claimed the land from Albemarle Sound in present day North Carolina, to the St. Johns River in the south, just miles below the current Florida-Georgia state line. The region as a whole comprised the modern day states of Louisiana, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and North and South Carolina. Charles I named the colony for himself, the name Carolana derives from Carolus, the Latin form of Charles.

Samuel Stephens (1629–1669) was the Governor of the Albemarle colony from 1667 until his death in late 1669. He was appointed by the Lords Proprietor to succeed William Drummond.

Peter Carteret was the Governor of the British colony of Albemarle from 1670 to approximately 1672.

Col. Thomas Walcot born in Warwickshire, the fourth son of Charles Walcot and Elizabeth Games, a Puritan and Lt. Col. in the Parliamentary Army. Thomas married Jane Blayney, purchased Ballyvarra Castle in 1655, and in 1659 was at Dunmurry. He settled at Croagh, Co. Limerick, Ireland where he had an estate of £800 per annum. He also had lands at Amogan in the Barony of Lower Conneloe. He was offered the Governorship of Province of Carolina, but declined it. Arrested in 1672 on allegation of planning a Dutch invasion of Ireland. Spent eight months in Tower of London before being exonerated.

Culpeper's Rebellion was a popular uprising in 1677 provoked by the British Navigation Acts. It was led by John Culpeper against the ruling Lords Proprietor in Albemarle County, Province of Carolina, near what is now Elizabeth City, North Carolina. The uprising met with temporary success before being suppressed by English authorities.

Thomas Eastchurch was governor of Albemarle County, North Carolina between 1675 and 1676. During his time in office, he imprisoned the former governor John Jenkins for various offenses. Jenkins was later released from prison with the aid of his supporters and reclaimed his position as governor in the spring of 1676. After Eastchurch explained the situation in London to the Lords Proprietors, they reappointed him as governor. In 1677, he left London to celebrate his honeymoon in Nevis Island. During his absence, his fellow proprietary Thomas Miller acted as governor. Miller's crimes created a revolt and Eastchurch, upon return to Albemarle, was unable to help the government recover. In addition, the Anti-Proprietors' leaders decided to send an army to the northern part of the Albemarle County to prevent the new governor from accessing Albemarle. Although Eastchurch sought aid to invade the county, he never got it. He did not return to government of Albemarle until after the spring of 1676.

The Grand Model was a utopian plan for the Province of Carolina, founded in 1670. It consisted of a constitution coupled with a settlement and development plan for the colony. The former was titled the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina. The word "constitutions" was synonymous with "articles." The document was composed of 120 constitutions, or articles. The settlement and development plan for the colony consisted of several documents, or "instructions," for guiding town and regional planning as well as economic development.

The Revolution of 1719 was a bloodless military coup in the Province of South Carolina which resulted in the overthrow of the Lords Proprietors and the installation of Colonel James Moore, Jr. as the colony's de facto ruler. The Revolution of 1719 led to the permanent end of proprietary rule in South Carolina and its 1720 recreation as a crown colony.


  1. 1 2 3 "Charter of Carolina – March 24, 1663". Avalon Law. Lillian Goldman Law Library, Yale Law School. 2008. Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2016. Know ye, that we of our further grace, certain knowledge, and meer motion, have thought fit to erect the same tract of ground, county, and island, into a province, and out of the fulness of our royal power and prerogative, we do, for us, our heirs and successors, erect, incorporate and ordain the same into a province, and call it the Province of Carolina,...
  2. Medley, Mary Louise (1976). History of Anson County, North Carolina, 1750–1976. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company. p. 1. ISBN   9780806347554 . Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  3. 1 2 "Charter of Carolina – March 24, 1663" . Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  4. 1 2 Cummings, William (1998). The Southeast in Early Maps, Third Edition. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. p. 14. ISBN   0807823716.
  5. Danforth Prince (10 March 2011). Frommer's The Carolinas and Georgia. John Wiley & Sons. p. 11. ISBN   978-1-118-03341-8.
  6. Peter Charles Hoffer (14 December 2006). The Brave New World: A History of Early America. JHU Press. p. 323. ISBN   978-0-8018-8483-2.
  7. Patricia Riles Wickman (2 March 1999). The Tree that Bends: Discourse, Power, and the Survival of Maskoki People. University of Alabama Press. p. 179. ISBN   978-0-8173-0966-4.
  8. Richard Middleton, Colonial America: A History (Malden, Massachusetts: Wiley Blackwell, 1992), p. 125.
  9. Charles McLean Andrews, The Colonial Period of American History, Volume III (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1934), p. 258.
  10. Alan Taylor, American Colonies: The Settlement of North America (New York: Penguin Books, 2001), 226.
  11. N. C. Board of Agriculture (1902). A sketch of North Carolina. Charleston: Lucas-Richardson Co. p. 4. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  12. "NHC Public Library – New Hanover County – North Carolina" (PDF). New Hanover County.
  13. Crane, Vernon (1928). The Southern Frontier 1670–1732. University of North Carolina.
  14. "Part IV, Chapter 42". Retrieved 2012-07-31.
  15. Verner Crane (1928). The Southern Frontier 1670–1732. University of Alabama Press. p. 6. ISBN   978-0-8173-5082-6.
  16. Wilson, Thomas D. The Ashley Cooper Plan: The Founding of Carolina and the Origins of Southern Political Culture. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2016. Chapter 1.

Coordinates: 34°59′38″N81°28′26″W / 34.994°N 81.474°W / 34.994; -81.474