Province of Salamanca

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Salamanca
Collage provincia de Salamanca.jpg
Bandera de la provincia de Salamanca.svg
Flag
Coat of Arms of Salamanca Province.svg
Coat of arms
Salamanca in Spain.svg
Map of Spain with Salamanca highlighted
Coordinates: 40°49′N6°00′W / 40.817°N 6.000°W / 40.817; -6.000 Coordinates: 40°49′N6°00′W / 40.817°N 6.000°W / 40.817; -6.000
Country Spain
Autonomous community Castilla y León
Capital Salamanca
Government
  PresidentFrancisco Javier Iglesias [1] (PP)
Area
  Total12,349 km2 (4,768 sq mi)
Area rank Ranked 16th
 2.45% of Spain
Population
 (2018)
  Total331,473
  Rank Ranked 37th
  Density27/km2 (70/sq mi)
 0.75% of Spain
Demonym(s) Spanish: Salmantino/a, Charro/a
Official language(s) Spanish
Leonese (recognized, but not official)
Parliament Cortes Generales
Website Official website

Salamanca (Spanish pronunciation:  [salaˈmaŋka] ) [2] is a province of western Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Castile and León (Castilla y León). It is bordered by the provinces of Zamora, Valladolid, Ávila, and Cáceres; it is bordered on the west by Portugal. It has an area of 12,349 km ² and in 2018 had a population of 331,473 people. It is divided into 362 municipalities, 11 comarcas, 32 mancomunidades and five judicial districts. Of the 362 municipalities, [3] more than half are villages with fewer than 300 people.

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a European country located in Southwestern Europe with some pockets of Spanish territory across the Strait of Gibraltar and the Atlantic Ocean. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Autonomous communities of Spain first-level political and administrative division of Spain

In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.

Castile and León Autonomous community of Spain

Castile and León is an autonomous community in north-western Spain.

Contents

History

The Vettones occupied the areas of the current Spanish provinces of Salamanca and Ávila, as well as parts of Cáceres, Toledo and Zamora. They were a pre-Roman people of Celtic culture. Their numerous archaeological sites exist throughout the province, and several locality names have Vettone origin, some of which are quite important. This is the case of Salamanca (Salmantica), Ledesma (Bletisama) and Ciudad Rodrigo (Augustobriga). Vettone villages were often established on the banks of rivers or on mountains. Examples include Salamanca and Ledesma, built along the Tormes, [4] [5] [6] Bermellar, El Castillo (Saldeana) Moncalvo (Hinojosa de Duero), Picon de la Mora (Picones) and Castro de Yecla la Vieja (Yecla de Yeltes) next to Huebra, Ciudad Rodrigo, Irueña (Fuenteguinaldo) and Lerilla (Zamarra) on the banks of the Agueda and Castro de Las Merchanas (Lumbrales), in a loop of the Camaces. The area between La Armuña and Salamanca marked the border between Vettones and Vaccaei, the other pre-Roman people of the province. They were situated in the northeast area of the province.

Vettones

The Vettones were a pre-Roman people of the Iberian Peninsula of possibly Celtic ethnicity.

Ciudad Rodrigo municipality in Castile and León, Spain

Ciudad Rodrigo is a small cathedral city in the province of Salamanca, in western Spain, with a population in 2016 of 12,896. It is also the seat of a judicial district.

Tormes river in Spain

The Tormes is a Spanish river, that starts in Prado Tormejón, in the mountain range of Gredos, Navarredonda de Gredos, province of Ávila. It crosses the provinces of Avila and Salamanca, ending at the Duero river, at a place known locally as Ambasaguas, after 284 kilometres (176 mi). This river is not able to provide the water supply to the population during summer and for this reason, the dam of Santa Teresa was constructed in 1960, with a capacity of 496 million cubic metres (402,000 acre⋅ft) to regulate and assure the water supply in summer, as well as to moderate high flows in winter. Also it has the dam of Villagonzalo and the Almendra Dam, near to where it joins the Duero.

Geography

Salamanca Province is situated in western Spain, in the western part of Castile and León. It has average altitude of 823 meters, but there are large variations throughout the province, with 2,428 metres (7,966 ft) being the highest point at the peak of the Ceja Canchal in the Sierra de Béjar range, [7] and 116 metres (381 ft) being the lowest point in the valley of the Salto de Saucelle. Also of note is the Sierra de Francia mountain range. The Salamanca hydrographic network is mainly formed by the Duero basin. The most important rivers are the Duero, Tormes, Águeda, Huebra, and Yeltes rivers. [8]

The Sierra de Béjar is a mountain range near the center of the Iberian Peninsula.

Sierra de Francia mountain range in Spain

The Sierra de Francia is a mountain range located in Sierra de Francia Comarca at the southern end of Salamanca Province, Castile and León, Spain. It is located about 70 km from Salamanca city. The region is sparsely inhabited and its few towns have great cultural value.

Águeda Municipality in Centro, Portugal

Águeda is a city and a municipality in Portugal. According to the Portuguese 2011 census, the municipality of Águeda had 47,729 inhabitants, in an area of 335.27 km². The city proper had a population of 14,504, while the remainder is distributed in 11 parishes, within the Baixo Vouga Subregion.

The region is well-irrigated with a number of dams and reservoirs, and with more 3,400 million cubic meters, it is the province with the third highest water storage capacity in Spain, second only to the Province of Badajoz and the Province of Cáceres. Of particular note is the Almendra Dam, five kilometres from the village of Almendra. Constructed between 1964 and 1970, the dam forms part of the hydroelectric system known as the Duero Drops, along with the Castro, Ricobayo, Saucelle and Villalcampo. It is one of the largest reservoirs in Spain with an area of 86.5 square kilometres (33.4 sq mi) and 2.5 billion cubic metres of water. [9] [10] The dam itself is more than half a kilometre wide and, at a height of 202 metres (663 ft), it is one of Spain's tallest structures.

Province of Badajoz Province of Spain

The province of Badajoz is a province of western Spain located in the autonomous community of Extremadura. It was formed in 1833. It is bordered by the provinces of Cáceres in the north, Toledo, Ciudad Real in the east, Córdoba in the south-east, Seville, and Huelva in the south and Portugal in the west.

Province of Cáceres Province of Spain

The province of Cáceres is a province of western Spain, and makes up the northern half of the autonomous community of Extremadura. Its capital is the city of Cáceres. Other cities in the province include Plasencia, Coria, Navalmoral de la Mata and Trujillo, the birthplace of Francisco Pizarro González. As of 2014, the province had 408,703 inhabitants, of whom a quarter lived in the capital. The Tagus river runs through the province.

Almendra Dam dam in Spain

The Almendra Dam, also known as Villarino Dam, in Salamanca, Spain, interrupts the course of the River Tormes five kilometres from the village from which it takes its name: Almendra. It was constructed between 1964 and 1970.

Landmarks

There are Roman Catholic cathedrals at Salamanca and Ciudad Rodrigo. The Old Cathedral of Salamanca was founded by Bishop Jerome of Périgord, in the 12th century and completed in Romanesque/Gothic style in the 14th century. It is dedicated to Santa Maria de la Sede (Saint Mary of the See). The New Cathedral of Salamanca was constructed between the 16th and 18th centuries in the Late Gothic and Baroque styles. Building began in 1513 and the cathedral was consecrated in 1733. It was commissioned by Ferdinand V of Castile of Spain. It was declared a national monument by royal decree in 1887. [11]

Jerome of Périgord

Jerome of Périgord, in Spanish Jerónimo, was a French monk who became the bishop of several dioceses in Spain. He was a companion of Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, and in 1097 or 1098 became the bishop of Valencia after Rodrigo's conquest of the city. Forced to abandon it following Rodrigo's death, Jerome entered the service of Duke Raymond of Galicia in 1102 and became bishop over the churches in Salamanca, Ávila and Zamora.

Baroque cultural movement, starting around 1600

The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, music, dance, painting, sculpture and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It followed Renaissance art and Mannerism and preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles. It was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture, art and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well.

Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service, usually religious. The word consecration literally means "association with the sacred". Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, and the term is used in various ways by different groups. The origin of the word comes from the Latin stem consecrat, which means dedicated, devoted, and sacred. A synonym for to consecrate is to sanctify; a distinct antonym is to desecrate.

See also

Kingdom of León Former country, from 910-1230 CE

The Kingdom of León was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula. It was founded in AD 910 when the Christian princes of Asturias along the northern coast of the peninsula shifted their capital from Oviedo to the city of León. The Kings of León fought civil wars, wars against neighbouring kingdoms as well as campaigns to repel invasions by both the Moors and the Vikings, to protect their kingdom's changing fortunes.

Notes and references

  1. (in Spanish) President's page on provincial official website
  2. The Gazetteer of the World Prominence given to Great Britain and Colonies, Indian Empire, United States of America (Public domain ed.). 1887. pp. 271–.
  3. "Municipios" (in Spanish). Lasalina.es. Retrieved 18 September 2014. List of municipalities on provincial official website]
  4. Ayuntamiento de Salamanca. "Historia" (in Spanish). Ayunatamiento de Salamanca. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  5. Salvador, Diego. "El colectivismo vacceo" (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  6. "Ayuntamiento de la Villa de Ledesma" (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  7. Plikat, Bernd (2011). Sierra de Gredos: Circo de Gredos, Valle del Tiétar, Valle del Jerte ; 56 excursiones y rutas de montaña selectas. Bergverlag Rother GmbH. p. 179. ISBN   978-3-7633-4716-2.
  8. Moreno, M. (1996). Calidad Quimica y Contaminacion Delas Aguas Subterraneas en España, P (in Spanish). IGME. p. 63. ISBN   978-84-7840-257-1.
  9. Engineering News-record. McGraw-Hill. 1972. p. 24.
  10. The Encyclopedia Americana International Edition. 1970. p. 325.
  11. Garcia Vincente, Jose (2002). "Catedral Nueva" (in Spanish).

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