| Administrative divisions|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
Mongolia is divided into 21 provinces or aimags (Mongolian : аймаг) and one provincial municipality. Each aimag is subdivided into several districts. The modern provinces have been established since 1921. The capital, Ulaanbaatar, is governed as an independent provincial municipality separate from Töv Province, inside which it is situated. [ citation needed ]
|Capital [ citation needed ]|
|Bayan-Ulgii (Bayan-Ölgii)||1940||45,704.89||88,056|| Ölgii |
| Ulaanbaatar |
Politics of Mongolia takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential multi-party representative democracy. Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister, who is the head of government, and the Cabinet. The President is the head of state, but holds limited authority over the executive branch of the government, unlike full presidential republics like the United States. Legislative power is vested in parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
The economy of Mongolia has traditionally been based on agriculture and livestock. Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits: copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of Gross domestic product (GDP), disappeared almost overnight in 1990–91, at the time of the Collapse of the Soviet Union. Mongolia was driven into deep recession. Reform has been held back by the ex-communist MPRP opposition and by the political instability brought about through four successive governments under the DUC. Economic growth picked up in 1997–99 after stalling in 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and increases in world prices of copper and cashmere. Public revenues and exports collapsed in 1998 and 1999 due to the repercussions of the Asian financial crisis. In August and September 1999, the economy suffered from a temporary Russian ban on exports of oil and oil products. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1997. The international donor community pledged over $300 million per year at the last Consultative Group Meeting, held in Ulaanbaatar in June 1999. Recently, the Mongolian economy has grown at a fast pace due to an increase in mining and Mongolia attained a GDP growth rate of 11.7% in 2013. However, because much of this growth is export-based, Mongolia is suffering from the global slowdown in mining caused by decreased growth in China.
Telecommunications in Mongolia face unique challenges. As the least densely populated country in the world, with a significant portion of the population living a nomadic lifestyle, it has been difficult for many traditional information and communication technology (ICT) companies to make headway into Mongolian society. With almost half the population clustered in the capital of Ulaanbaatar, most landline technologies are deployed there. Wireless technologies have had greater success in rural areas.
The transportation system in Mongolia consists of a network of railways, roads, waterways, and airports.
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as, Ulan Bator, is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population as of 2014 was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's population. The municipality is in north central Mongolia at an elevation of about 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system.
Mongolia has diplomatic relations with 188 states—187 UN states, the Holy See and the European Union. Of the states with limited recognition it has relations only with the State of Palestine.
Buyant-Ukhaa International Airport, is an international airport serving Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, situated 18 km (11 mi) southwest of the capital. The largest operating international air facility in the country, it is set to be replaced by a new airport that is to obtain Buyant-Ukhaa's previous name of Chinggis Khaan International Airport.
The Prime Minister of Mongolia is the head of government, and heads the Mongolian cabinet. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Mongolian parliament or the State Great Hural, and can be removed by the parliament with a vote of no confidence.
The Arkhangai Province or Arkhangai Aimag is one of the 21 aimags of Mongolia. It is located slightly west of the country's center, on the northern slopes of the Khangai Mountains.It is composed of 19 soums.
Bulgan is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia, located in northern Mongolia. Its capital is also named Bulgan.
Khentii is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia, located in the east of the country. Its capital is Chinggis City. The aimag is named after the Khentii Mountains. It is best known as the birthplace and likely final resting place of Temüjin, otherwise known as Genghis Khan.
Töv is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia. The national capital Ulaanbaatar is located roughly at its center, but the city itself is administrated as an independent municipality.
Erdenet is the second-largest city in Mongolia, with a 2017 population of 97,814, and the capital of the aimag (province) of Orkhon. Located in the northern part of the country, it lies in a valley between the Selenge and Orkhon rivers about 240 km (149 mi) northwest of Ulaanbaatar, the capital. The road length between Ulaanbaatar and Erdenet is about 370 km (230 mi).
Baganuur is one of nine düüregs (districts) of the Mongolian capital of Ulaanbaatar. It is subdivided into four khoroos (subdistricts).
Jargal is a common part of Mongolian names, signifying:
Argalant is a sum in Mongolia's Töv Province, just west of Ulaanbaatar. The area is 1210 square kilometres, of which about 160 square kilometres are farmland and 940 square kilometres are pasture. In 2005, the sum had 1892 inhabitants in 387 households. Distance from sum center to Ulaanbaatar is 82 km. The sum was founded in 1977, in the first year of Mongolia's second Virgin Soils campaign.
Czech Republic–Mongolia relations continue the diplomatic relations between Mongolia and Czechoslovakia, which were established on 25 April 1950. In the 1980s, Czechoslovakia was Mongolia's second-largest trading partner, behind Russia. After the 1992 dissolution of Czechoslovakia, Mongolia reaffirmed its relations with the newly formed Czech Republic in 1993. The Czech Republic has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar. Both countries are members of the International Investment Bank (IIB) and formerly Comecon.
Zuunmod is the administrative seat of Mongolia's Töv Province. It has a population of 16,953 (2017) inhabitants and an area of 19.18 square kilometres. Zuunmod is located on the south side of Bogd Khan Mountain, 43 kilometres (27 mi) south of the capital city of Ulaanbaatar.
Montsame is the official state owned news agency of Mongolia. Montsame is an acronym for Mongolyn Tsakhilgaan Medee Mongolian: Монголын Цахилгаан Мэдээ, or Mongolian Electronic News. It was founded in 1921. It has permanent correspondents in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolian aimag centers, Beijing, and Moscow.