Provinces of Thailand

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Provinces of Thailand
จังหวัดของประเทศไทย
Changwat khong prathet thai
CategorySubordinate province
Location Kingdom of Thailand
Number76 Provinces
1 Special Administrative Division
Populations193,305 Samut Songkhram – 2,646,401 Nakhon Ratchasima (2020) [1]
Areas417 km2 (161 sq mi) Samut Songkhram  – 20,494 km2 (7,913 sq mi) Nakhon Ratchasima [2]
Government Provincal/Special Administrative Divisional government
Subdivisions Districts

The Provinces of Thailand are part of the government of Thailand that is divided into 76 provinces (Thai : จังหวัด , RTGS: changwat, pronounced [t͡ɕāŋ.wàt] ) proper and one special administrative area (Thai : เขตปกครองส่วนท้องถิ่นรูปแบบพิเศษ ), representing the capital Bangkok. [3] [4] [5] They are the primary local government units and are divided into amphoes (districts) and also act as juristic persons. Each province is led by a governor (ผู้ว่าราชการจังหวัด phu wa ratchakan changwat), who is appointed by the central government.

Contents

The provinces and Administrative Areas

A clickable map of Thailand exhibiting its provinces.
Chiang Rai ProvinceChiang Mai ProvinceMae Hong Son ProvincePhayao ProvinceLampang ProvincePhrae ProvinceLamphun ProvinceNan ProvinceUttaradit ProvinceBueng Kan ProvinceNong Khai ProvinceUdon Thani ProvinceNakhon Phanom ProvinceSakon Nakhon ProvinceKalasin ProvinceMukdahan ProvinceLoei ProvinceKhon Kaen ProvinceNong Bua Lamphu ProvinceTak ProvinceSukhothai ProvincePhitsanulok ProvincePhichit ProvinceUthai Thani ProvinceKamphaeng Phet ProvinceNakhon Sawan ProvincePhetchabun ProvinceChaiyaphum ProvinceMaha Sarakham ProvinceRoi Et ProvinceYasothon ProvinceAmnat Charoen ProvinceUbon Ratchathani ProvinceSisaket ProvinceSurin ProvinceBuriram ProvinceNakhon Ratchasima ProvinceLopburi ProvinceChainat ProvinceSingburi ProvinceKanchanaburi ProvinceSuphan Buri ProvinceAng Thong ProvinceSaraburi ProvinceAyutthaya ProvinceNakhon Nayok ProvincePrachin Buri ProvincePathum Thani ProvinceNakhon Pathom ProvinceRatchaburi ProvinceSa Kaew ProvinceChachoengsao ProvinceChonburi ProvinceRayong ProvinceChanthaburi ProvinceTrat ProvincePhetchaburi ProvincePrachuap Khiri Khan ProvinceChumphon ProvinceRanong ProvinceSurat Thani ProvincePhang Nga ProvincePhuket Provinceกระบี่นครศรีธรรมราชตรังPhatthalung ProvinceSatun ProvinceSongkhla ProvincePattani ProvinceYala ProvinceNarathiwat ProvinceSamut Prakan ProvinceBangkokNonthaburi ProvinceSamut Sakhon ProvinceSamut Songkhram ProvinceProvinces of Thailand
Provinces of Thailand
SealNameName (in Thai)Population (2020) [1] Area (km2) [2] Population densityNamesake town/city HS [6] ISO [7] FIPS
Seal Bangkok.png Flag of Bangkok.svg  Bangkok
(special administrative area)
กรุงเทพมหานคร5,787,9321,5653,620.6 Bangkok BKKTH-10TH40
Seal Amnatcharoen.png Flag Amnatcharoen Province.png  Amnat Charoen อำนาจเจริญ378,4383,161119.7 Amnat Charoen ACRTH-37TH77
Seal Ang Thong.png Flag of Ang Thong Province.png  Ang Thong อ่างทอง279,654968288.9 Ang Thong ATGTH-15TH35
Seal Bueng Kan.png Flag of Bueng Kan Province.png  Bueng Kan บึงกาฬ424,0914,30698.5 Bueng Kan BKNTH-38TH81
Seal Buriram.png Flag Buriram Province.png  Buriram บุรีรัมย์1,595,74710,322154.6 Buriram BRMTH-31TH28
Seal Chachoengsao.png Chachoengsao Flag.png  Chachoengsao ฉะเชิงเทรา720,1135,351134.6 Chachoengsao CCOTH-24TH44
Seal Chainat.png Flag of Chai Nat Province.png  Chai Nat ชัยนาท326,6112,470132.2 Chai Nat CNTTH-18TH32
Seal Chaiyaphum.png Chaiyaphum Flag.png  Chaiyaphum ชัยภูมิ1,137,35712,77889.0 Chaiyaphum CPMTH-36TH26
Seal Chanthaburi.png Chanthaburi Flag.png  Chanthaburi จันทบุรี537,6986,33884.8 Chanthaburi CTITH-22TH48
Seal Chiang Mai.png Flag Chiang Mai Province.png  Chiang Mai เชียงใหม่1,779,25420,10788.5 Chiang Mai CMITH-50TH02
Seal Chiang Rai.png Chiangrai Flag.png  Chiang Rai เชียงราย1,298,30411,678111.2 Chiang Rai CRITH-57TH03
Seal Chonburi.png Chon Buri Flag.png  Chonburi ชลบุรี1,558,3014,363357.2 Chonburi CBITH-20TH46
Seal Chumphon.png Chumphon Flag.png  Chumphon ชุมพร511,3046,00985.1 Chumphon CPNTH-86TH58
Seal Kalasin.png Flag Karasin Province.png  Kalasin กาฬสินธุ์983,4186,947141.6 Kalasin KSNTH-46TH23
Seal Kamphaeng Phet.png Kamphaeng Phet Flag.png  Kamphaeng Phet กำแพงเพชร727,8078,60784.6 Kamphaeng Phet KPTTH-62TH11
Seal Kanchanaburi.png Kanchanaburi Flag.png  Kanchanaburi กาญจนบุรี895,52519,48346.0 Kanchanaburi KRITH-71TH50
Seal Khon Kaen.png Khon Kaen Flag.png  Khon Kaen ขอนแก่น1,802,87210,886165.6 Khon Kaen KKNTH-40TH22
Seal Krabi.png Flag of Krabi Province.jpg  Krabi กระบี่476,7394,709101.2 Krabi KBITH-81TH63
Seal Lampang.png Flag Lampang Province.png  Lampang ลำปาง738,31612,53458.9 Lampang LPGTH-52TH06
Seal Lamphun.png Flag Lam Phun Province.png  Lamphun ลำพูน405,0754,50689.9 Lamphun LPNTH-51TH05
Seal Loei.png Loei Flag.png  Loei เลย642,95011,42556.3 Loei LEITH-42TH18
Seal Lopburi.png Flag of Lopburi Province.png  Lopburi ลพบุรี755,5566,200121.9 Lopburi LRITH-16TH34
Seal Mae Hong Son.png Flag of Mae Hong Son Province.png  Mae Hong Son แม่ฮ่องสอน284,13812,68122.4 Mae Hong Son MSNTH-58TH01
Seal Maha Sarakham.png Mahasarakham PV Flag.png  Maha Sarakham มหาสารคาม962,6655,292181.9 Maha Sarakham MKMTH-44TH24
Seal of the Mukdahan Province.png Flag Mokdahan Province.png  Mukdahan มุกดาหาร353,1744,34081.4 Mukdahan MDHTH-49TH78
Seal Nakhon Nayok.png Flag of Nakhon Nayok Province.png  Nakhon Nayok นครนายก260,7512,122122.9 Nakhon Nayok NYKTH-26TH43
Seal Nakhon Pathom.png Flag of Nakhon Pathom Province.jpg  Nakhon Pathom นครปฐม920,0302,168424.4 Nakhon Pathom NPTTH-73TH53
Seal Nakhon Phanom.png Flag Nakhon Phanom Province.png  Nakhon Phanom นครพนม719,1365,513130.4 Nakhon Phanom NPMTH-48TH73
Seal Nakhon Ratchasima.png Nakhon Ratchasima Flag.png  Nakhon Ratchasima นครราชสีมา2,646,40120,494129.13 Nakhon Ratchasima NMATH-30TH27
Seal Nakhon Sawan.png Nakhon Sawan Flag.png  Nakhon Sawan นครสวรรค์1,059,8879,598110.4 Nakhon Sawan NSNTH-60TH16
Seal Nakhon Si Thammarat.png Flag Nakhon Si Thammarat Province.png  Nakhon Si Thammarat นครศรีธรรมราช1,561,9279,943157.1 Nakhon Si Thammarat NRTTH-80TH64
Seal Nan.png Flag of Nan Province.jpg  Nan น่าน478,22711,47241.7 Nan NANTH-55TH04
Seal Narathiwat.png Flag Naratiwat Province.png  Narathiwat นราธิวาส808,0204,475180.6 Narathiwat NWTTH-96TH31
Seal Nong Bua Lamphu.png Nong Bua Lam Phu Flag.png  Nong Bua Lamphu หนองบัวลำภู512,7803,859132.9 Nong Bua Lam Phu NBPTH-39TH79
Seal Nong Khai.png Flag Nong Khai Province.png  Nong Khai หนองคาย522,3113,027172.6 Nong Khai NKITH-43TH17
Seal Nonthaburi.png Nonthaburi Flag.png  Nonthaburi นนทบุรี1,265,3876222,034.4 Nonthaburi NBITH-12TH38
Seal Pathum Thani.png Flag of Pathum Thani Province.png  Pathum Thani ปทุมธานี1,163,6041,526762.5 Pathum Thani PTETH-13TH39
Seal Pattani.png Pattani Flag.png  Pattani ปัตตานี725,1041,940373.8 Pattani PTNTH-94TH69
Seal Phang Nga.png Phangnga Flag.png  Phang Nga พังงา268,7884,17164.4 Phang Nga PNATH-82TH61
Seal Phattalung.png Phattalung provincial flag .png  Phatthalung พัทลุง524,8653,424153.3 Phatthalung PLGTH-93TH66
Seal Phayao.png Flag of Phayao Province.jpg  Phayao พะเยา472,3566,33574.6 Phayao PYOTH-56TH41
Seal Phetchabun.png Flag of Phetchabun Province.png  Phetchabun เพชรบูรณ์992,45112,66878.3 Phetchabun PNBTH-67TH14
Seal Phetchaburi.png Flag Petchaburi Province.png  Phetchaburi เพชรบุรี485,1916,22577.9 Phetchaburi PBITH-76TH56
Seal Phichit.png Flag of Phichit Province.png  Phichit พิจิตร536,3114,531118.4 Phichit PCTTH-66TH13
Seal Phitsanulok.png Phitsanulok provincial flag.png  Phitsanulok พิษณุโลก865,24710,81680.0 Phitsanulok PLKTH-65TH12
Seal Ayutthaya.png Flag of Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province.png  Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya พระนครศรีอยุธยา820,1882,557320.8 Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya AYATH-14TH36
Phrae seal.svg Flag of Phrae Province.png  Phrae แพร่441,7266,53967.6 Phrae PRETH-54TH07
Seal Phuket.png Phuket Flag.png  Phuket ภูเก็ต416,582543767.2 Phuket PKTTH-83TH62
Seal Prachinburi.png Flag of Prachin Buri Province.jpg  Prachinburi ปราจีนบุรี494,6804,762103.9 Prachinburi PRITH-25TH74
Seal Prachuap Khiri Khan.png Prachuap Khiri Khan Flag.png  Prachuap Khiri Khan ประจวบคีรีขันธ์554,1166,36887.0 Prachuap Khiri Khan PKNTH-77TH57
Seal Ranong.png Flag Ranong Province.png  Ranong ระนอง193,3703,29858.6 Ranong RNGTH-85TH59
Seal Ratchaburi.png Ratchaburi Flag.png  Ratchaburi ราชบุรี873,1015,196168.0 Ratchaburi RBRTH-70TH52
Seal Rayong.png Rayong Flag.png  Rayong ระยอง734,7533,552206.9 Rayong RYGTH-21TH47
Seal Roi Et.png Flag Roi-Et Province.png  Roi Et ร้อยเอ็ด1,305,2118,299157.3 Roi Et RETTH-45TH25
Seal of Sa Kaeo Province.png Sa Kaeo Flag.png  Sa Kaeo สระแก้ว566,3037,19578.7 Sa Kaeo SKWTH-27TH80
Seal Sakon Nakhon.png Sakon Nakhon Flag.png  Sakon Nakhon สกลนคร1,153,3909,606120.1 Sakon Nakhon SNKTH-47TH20
Seal Samut Prakan.png Flag of Samut Prakan Province.png  Samut Prakan สมุทรปราการ1,344,8751,0041,339.5 Samut Prakan SPKTH-11TH42
Seal Samut Sakhon.png Flag of Samut Sakhon Province.png  Samut Sakhon สมุทรสาคร584,703872670.5 Samut Sakhon SKNTH-74TH55
Seal Samut Songkhram.png Flag Samut Songkhram Province.png  Samut Songkhram สมุทรสงคราม193,305417463.6 Samut Songkhram SKMTH-75TH54
Seal Saraburi.png Saraburi Flag 2.png  Saraburi สระบุรี645,9113,576180.6 Saraburi SRITH-19TH37
Seal Satun.png Satun Flag.png  Satun สตูล323,5862,479130.5 Satun STNTH-91TH67
Seal Sing Buri.png Flag of Sing Buri Province.png  Sing Buri สิงห์บุรี208,446822253.6 Sing Buri SBRTH-17TH33
Seal Sisaket.png Si Sa Ket Flag.png  Sisaket ศรีสะเกษ1,472,8598,840166.6 Sisaket SSKTH-33TH30
Seal Songkhla.png Flag Songkhla Province.png  Songkhla สงขลา1,435,9687,394194.2 Songkhla SKATH-90TH68
Seal Sukhothai.png Flag of Sukhothai Province.png  Sukhothai สุโขทัย595,0726,59690.2Sukhothai (Sukhothai Thani)STITH-64TH09
Seal Suphanburi.png Flag Suphan Buri Province.png  Suphan Buri สุพรรณบุรี846,3345,358158.0 Suphan Buri SPBTH-72TH51
Seal Surat Thani.png Flag Surat Thani Province.png  Surat Thani สุราษฎร์ธานี1,068,01012,89182.8 Surat Thani SNITH-84TH60
Seal Surin.png Flag of Surin Province.png  Surin สุรินทร์1,396,8318,124171.9 Surin SRNTH-32TH29
Seal Tak.png Flag of Tak Province.png  Tak ตาก665,62016,40740.6 Tak TAKTH-63TH08
Seal Trang.png Trang Flag.png  Trang ตรัง643,1644,918130.8 Trang TRGTH-92TH65
Seal Trat.png Trat Flag.png  Trat ตราด229,9582,81981.6 Trat TRTTH-23TH49
Seal Ubon Ratchathani.png Ubon Ratchathani Flag.png  Ubon Ratchathani อุบลราชธานี1,878,14615,745119.3 Ubon Ratchathani UBNTH-34TH75
Seal Udon Thani.png Udon Thani Flag.png  Udon Thani อุดรธานี1,586,64611,730135.3 Udon Thani UDNTH-41TH76
Seal Uthaithani.png Flag of Uthai Thani Province.jpg  Uthai Thani อุทัยธานี328,6186,73048.8 Uthai Thani UTITH-61TH15
Seal Uttaradit.png Flag of the Uttaradit Province.png  Uttaradit อุตรดิตถ์453,1037,83957.8 Uttaradit UTDTH-53TH10
Seal Yala.png Yala Flag 2.png  Yala ยะลา536,3304,521118.6 Yala YLATH-95TH70
Seal of Yasothon Province.png Yasothon Flag.png  Yasothon ยโสธร537,2994,162129.1 Yasothon YSTTH-35TH72

Governance

Administrative divisions
of Thailand
Central division
Provincial division
Local division
Special governed cities

Thailand's national government organisation is divided into three types: central government (ministries, bureaus and departments), provincial government (provinces and districts) and local government (Bangkok, Pattaya, provincial administrative organisations, etc.).

A province, as part of the provincial government, is administered by a governor (ผู้ว่าราชการจังหวัด) who is appointed by the Minister of Interior. Bangkok, as part of the local government, is administered by a corporation called Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. The corporation is led by the Governor of Bangkok (ผู้ว่าราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร) who is directly elected by the citizens of Bangkok.

The provinces are named by their original main city, which is not necessarily still the most populous city within the province today. Also, in several provinces the administration has been moved into a new building outside the city.

History

Before 1892

Many provinces date back to semi-independent local chiefdoms or kingdoms, which made up the Ayutthaya Kingdom. The provinces were created around a capital city ( mueang ), and included surrounding villages or satellite towns. The provinces were administered either by a governor, who was appointed by the king or by a local ruling family, who were descendants of the old kings and princes of that area and had been given this privilege by the central king. De facto the king did not have much choice but to choose someone from the local nobility or an economically strong man, as against these local power groups the administration would have become impossible. The governor was not paid by the king, but instead financed himself and his administration by imposing local taxes himself. Every province was required to send an annual tribute to Bangkok.

The provinces were divided into four different classes. The first-class were the border provinces. The second-class were those that once had their own princely house. Third-class were provinces that were created by splitting them from other provinces. Fourth-class were provinces near the capital. Additionally tributary states like the principalities of Lan Na, the Laotian kingdoms of Vientiane and Luang Prabang, Cambodia, or the Malay sultanate Kedah were also part of the country, but with more autonomy than the provinces. In this Mandala system the semi-independent countries sometimes were tributary to more than one country.

New provinces were created when the population of an area outgrew the administration, but also for political reasons. If a governor became too dominant in a region former satellite cities were elevated to provincial status, as was the case with Maha Sarakham Province.

Reforms of the provincial administration started in the 1870s under increased pressure from the colonial states of the United Kingdom and France. Agents were sent, especially to border areas, to impose more control on the provinces or tributary states.

Administrative reform of 1892

Map of Siam in 1900 Map fix.png
Map of Siam in 1900

At the end of the 19th century King Chulalongkorn reformed the central government. In 1892 the ministry, which previously had many overlapping responsibilities, was reorganized with clear missions as in Western administrations. Prince Damrong Rajanubhab became minister of the Ministry of the North ( Mahatthai ), originally responsible for the northern administration. When the Ministry of the South ( Kalahom ) was dissolved in 1894, Prince Damrong became Minister of the Interior, responsible for the provincial administration of the whole country.

Starting in 1893 the already existing commissionaireships in some parts of the country were renamed "superintendent commissioner" (khaluang Thesaphiban), and their area of responsibility was called a monthon . In strategically important areas the monthon were created first, while in other areas the provinces kept their independence a bit longer. Several smaller provinces were reduced in status to a amphoe (district) or even lower to a tambon (sub-district) and included in a neighboring province, sometimes for administrative reasons, but sometimes to remove an uncooperative governor.

In some regions rebellions broke out against the new administrative system, usually induced by the local nobility fearing their loss of power. The most notable was the Holy Man Rebellion in 1902 in Isan. It was initially a messianic doomsday sect, but it also attacked government representatives in the northeast. The provincial town Khemarat was even burned by the rebels. After a few months the rebellion was beaten back. [8]

After 1916, the word changwat became common to use for the provinces, partly to distinguish them from the provincial capital city (mueang or amphoe mueang), but also to stress the new administrative structure of the provinces. [9]

When Prince Damrong resigned in 1915, the whole country was divided into 19 monthon (including the area around Bangkok, which was under the responsibility of another ministry until 1922), with 72 provinces.

In December 1915 King Vajiravudh announced the creation of regions (phak), each administered by a viceroy (upparat), to cover several monthon. Until 1922 four regions were established, however in 1925 they were dissolved again. At the same time several monthon were merged, in an attempt to streamline administration and reduce costs.

Since 1932

The monthons were dissolved when Thailand transformed from an absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy in 1932, making the provinces the top level administrative division again. Several smaller provinces were also abolished at that time. During World War II, several provinces around Bangkok were merged. These changes were undone after the war. Also the occupied area from French Indochina was organized into four provinces: Phra Tabong, Phibunsongkhram, Nakhon Champasak and Lan Chang. The current province of Sukhothai was at first known as Sawankhalok. It was renamed Sukhothai in 1939 (which is why the railway system goes to Sawankhalok city and not Sukhothai city). The province, Kalasin, was reestablished in 1947 after having been dissolved in 1932.

In 1972 Phra Nakhon and Thonburi Provinces were merged to form the special administrative area of Bangkok, which combines the tasks of the provinces with that of a municipality, including having an elected governor.

Starting in the second half of the 20th century some provinces were newly created by splitting them off from bigger provinces. In 1975, Yasothon Province was split off from Ubon Ratchathani. In 1977, Phayao province was created from districts formerly part of Chiang Rai. In 1982, Mukdahan was split off from Nakhon Phanom. In 1993 three provinces were created: Sa Kaeo (split from Prachinburi), Nong Bua Lamphu Province (split from Udon Thani), and Amnat Charoen (split from Ubon Ratchathani). The newest province is Bueng Kan, which was split off from Nong Khai effective 23 March 2011.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Phetchabun Province Province of Thailand

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Ubon Ratchathani Province Province of Thailand

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Nan Province Province of Thailand

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Satun Province Province of Thailand

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Uthai Thani Province Province of Thailand

Uthai Thani, one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat) lies in lower northern Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Nakhon Sawan, Chai Nat, Suphan Buri, Kanchanaburi and Tak. It lies somewhat off the route between Bangkok, 200 km distant and Chiang Mai.

Sisaket Province Province of Thailand

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Sa Kaeo Province Province of Thailand

Sa Kaeo is one of Thailand's seventy-six province (changwat) lies in eastern Thailand about 200 km from Bangkok. Neighboring provinces are Chanthaburi, Chachoengsao, Prachinburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Buriram. To the east it borders Banteay Meanchey and Battambang of Cambodia.

Prachinburi Province Province of Thailand

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Suphan Buri Province Province of Thailand

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Nonthaburi Province Province of Thailand

Nonthaburi is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand, established by the Act Establishing Changwat Samut Prakan, Changwat Nonthaburi, Changwat Samut Sakhon and Changwat Nakhon Nayok, Buddhist Era 2489 (1946), which came into force on 9 May 1946.

Nakhon Pathom Province Province of Thailand

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Nakhon Nayok Province Province of Thailand

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Pathum Thani Province Province of Thailand

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Samut Prakan Province Province of Thailand

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Samut Sakhon Province Province of Thailand

Samut Sakhon is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand, established by the Act Establishing Changwat Samut Prakan, Changwat Nonthaburi, Changwat Samut Sakhon, and Changwat Nakhon Nayok, Buddhist Era 2489 (1946), which came into force on 9 May 1946.

Tambon

Tambon is a local governmental unit in Thailand. Below district (amphoe) and province (changwat), they form the third administrative subdivision level. As of 2016 there were 7,255 tambons, not including the 180 khwaeng of Bangkok, which are set at the same administrative level, thus every district contains eight to ten tambon. Tambon is usually translated as "township" or "subdistrict" in English — the latter is the recommended translation, though also often used for king amphoe, the designation for a subdistrict acting as a branch of the parent district. Tambon are further subdivided into 69,307 villages (muban), about ten per tambon. Tambon within cities or towns are not subdivided into villages, but may have less formal communities called chumchon (ชุมชน) that may be formed into community associations.

Amphoe Second level administrative subdivision of Thailand

An amphoe is the second level administrative subdivision of Thailand. Usually translated as "district". Amphoe make up the provinces, and are analogous to counties. The chief district officer is Nai Amphoe (นายอำเภอ). Amphoe are divided into tambons,, or sub-districts.

Thailand is a unitary state in Southeast Asia. The administrative services of the executive branch of the government are regulated by the National Government Organisation Act, BE 2534 (1991). Under this Act, the services are divided into three levels: central, provincial and local.

References

  1. 1 2 3 รายงานสถิติจำนวนประชากรและบ้านประจำปี พ.ส.2563 [Statistics, population and house statistics for the year 2020]. Registration Office Department of the Interior, Ministry of the Interior. stat.bora.dopa.go.th (in Thai). 31 December 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  2. 1 2 3 Thailand Human Development Report 2014 by UNDP Table 0, Basic Data
  3. "Administrative information". Department of Provincial Affairs (DOPA). Provincial Affairs Bureau. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  4. "ประกาศสำนักทะเบียนกลาง เรื่อง จำนวนราษฎรทั่วราชอาณาจักร ตามหลักฐานการทะเบียนราษฎร ณ วันที่ 31 ธันวาคม 2558" [Announcement of the Central Registry. The number of people throughout the Kingdom. The evidence of registration as of 31 December 2015]. Department of Provincial Administration (DOPA). Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  5. "The World Factbook: Thailand". U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  6. "What is the Harmonized System (HS)?". World Customs Organization .
  7. "ISO 3166-2:TH".
  8. Tej Bunnag (1969). The Provincial Administration of Siam from 1892 to 1915. p. 273ff.
  9. ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง ทรงพระกรุณาโปรดเกล้า ฯ ให้เปลี่ยนคำว่าเมืองเรียกว่าจังหวัด (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 33 (0 ก): 51–53. 1916-05-28.

Further reading