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|Provinces of Thailand|
|Location||Kingdom of Thailand|
1 Special Administrative Division
|Populations||193,305 Samut Songkhram – 2,648,927 Nakhon Ratchasima (2019)|
|Areas||414 km2 (160 sq mi) Samut Songkhram – 22,135 km2 (8,546 sq mi) Chiang Mai|
The provinces of Thailand are part of the government of Thailand that is divided into 76 provinces (Thai : จังหวัด , RTGS: changwat, pronounced [t͡ɕāŋ.wàt] ) proper and one special administrative area (Thai : เขตปกครองส่วนท้องถิ่นรูปแบบพิเศษ ), representing the capital Bangkok. They are the primary local government units and are divided into amphoes (districts) and also act as juristic persons. Each province is led by a governor (ผู้ว่าราชการจังหวัด phu wa ratchakan changwat), who is appointed by the central government.
|Population (2019)||Area (km2)||Population density||Namesake town/city||HS||ISO||FIPS|
| Bangkok |
(special administrative area)
|Amnat Charoen||อำนาจเจริญ||378,438||3,290||115||Amnat Charoen||ACR||TH-37||TH77|
|Ang Thong||อ่างทอง||279,654||950||294||Ang Thong||ATG||TH-15||TH35|
|Bueng Kan||บึงกาฬ||424,091||4,003||106||Bueng Kan||BKN||TH-38||TH81|
|Chai Nat||ชัยนาท||326,611||2,506||131||Chai Nat||CNT||TH-18||TH32|
|Chiang Mai||เชียงใหม่||1,779,254||22,135||79||Chiang Mai||CMI||TH-50||TH02|
|Chiang Rai||เชียงราย||1,298,304||11,503||113||Chiang Rai||CRI||TH-57||TH03|
|Kamphaeng Phet||กำแพงเพชร||725,867||8,512||86||Kamphaeng Phet||KPT||TH-62||TH11|
|Khon Kaen||ขอนแก่น||1,802,872||10,659||169||Khon Kaen||KKN||TH-40||TH22|
|Mae Hong Son||แม่ฮ่องสอน||284,138||12,765||23||Mae Hong Son||MSN||TH-58||TH01|
|Maha Sarakham||มหาสารคาม||962,665||5,607||172||Maha Sarakham||MKM||TH-44||TH24|
|Nakhon Nayok||นครนายก||260,751||2,141||122||Nakhon Nayok||NYK||TH-26||TH43|
|Nakhon Pathom||นครปฐม||920,030||2,142||430||Nakhon Pathom||NPT||TH-73||TH53|
|Nakhon Phanom||นครพนม||719,136||5,637||127||Nakhon Phanom||NPM||TH-48||TH73|
|Nakhon Ratchasima||นครราชสีมา||2,648,927||20,736||128||Nakhon Ratchasima||NMA||TH-30||TH27|
|Nakhon Sawan||นครสวรรค์||1,059,887||9,526||111||Nakhon Sawan||NSN||TH-60||TH16|
|Nakhon Si Thammarat||นครศรีธรรมราช||1,561,927||9,885||158||Nakhon Si Thammarat||NRT||TH-80||TH64|
|Nong Bua Lamphu||หนองบัวลำภู||512,780||4,099||125||Nong Bua Lam Phu||NBP||TH-39||TH79|
|Nong Khai||หนองคาย||522,311||3,275||160||Nong Khai||NKI||TH-43||TH17|
|Pathum Thani||ปทุมธานี||1,163,604||1,520||766||Pathum Thani||PTE||TH-13||TH39|
|Phang Nga||พังงา||268,788||5,495||49||Phang Nga||PNA||TH-82||TH61|
|Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya||พระนครศรีอยุธยา||820,188||2,548||322||Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya||AYA||TH-14||TH36|
|Prachuap Khiri Khan||ประจวบคีรีขันธ์||554,116||6,414||88||Prachuap Khiri Khan||PKN||TH-77||TH57|
|Roi Et||ร้อยเอ็ด||1,305,211||7,873||166||Roi Et||RET||TH-45||TH25|
|Sa Kaeo||สระแก้ว||566,303||6,831||83||Sa Kaeo||SKW||TH-27||TH80|
|Sakon Nakhon||สกลนคร||1,153,390||9,580||121||Sakon Nakhon||SNK||TH-47||TH20|
|Samut Prakan||สมุทรปราการ||1,344,875||947||1,420||Samut Prakan||SPK||TH-11||TH42|
|Samut Sakhon||สมุทรสาคร||584,703||866||675||Samut Sakhon||SKN||TH-74||TH55|
|Samut Songkhram||สมุทรสงคราม||193,305||414||467||Samut Songkhram||SKM||TH-75||TH54|
|Sing Buri||สิงห์บุรี||208,446||817||255||Sing Buri||SBR||TH-17||TH33|
|Sukhothai||สุโขทัย||595,072||6,671||89||Sukhothai (Sukhothai Thani)||STI||TH-64||TH09|
|Suphan Buri||สุพรรณบุรี||846,334||5,410||156||Suphan Buri||SPB||TH-72||TH51|
|Surat Thani||สุราษฎร์ธานี||1,068,010||13,079||81||Surat Thani||SNI||TH-84||TH60|
|Ubon Ratchathani||อุบลราชธานี||1,878,146||15,626||120||Ubon Ratchathani||UBN||TH-34||TH75|
|Udon Thani||อุดรธานี||1,586,646||11,072||143||Udon Thani||UDN||TH-41||TH76|
|Uthai Thani||อุทัยธานี||328,618||6,647||50||Uthai Thani||UTI||TH-61||TH15|
| Administrative divisions|
|Special governed cities|
Thailand's national government organisation is divided into three types: central government (ministries, bureaus and departments), provincial government (provinces and districts) and local government (Bangkok, Pattaya, provincial administrative organisations, etc.).
A province, as part of the provincial government, is administered by a governor (ผู้ว่าราชการจังหวัด) who is appointed by the Minister of Interior. Bangkok, as part of the local government, is administered by a corporation called Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. The corporation is led by the Governor of Bangkok (ผู้ว่าราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร) who is directly elected by the citizens of Bangkok.
The provinces are named by their original main city, which is not necessarily still the most populous city within the province today. Also, in several provinces the administration has been moved into a new building outside the city.
Many provinces date back to semi-independent local chiefdoms or kingdoms, which made up the Ayutthaya Kingdom. The provinces were created around a capital city ( mueang ), and included surrounding villages or satellite towns. The provinces were administered either by a governor, who was appointed by the king or by a local ruling family, who were descendants of the old kings and princes of that area and had been given this privilege by the central king. De facto the king did not have much choice but to choose someone from the local nobility or an economically strong man, as against these local power groups the administration would have become impossible. The governor was not paid by the king, but instead financed himself and his administration by imposing local taxes himself. Every province was required to send an annual tribute to Bangkok.
The provinces were divided into four different classes. The first-class were the border provinces. The second-class were those that once had their own princely house. Third-class were provinces that were created by splitting them from other provinces. Fourth-class were provinces near the capital. Additionally tributary states like the principalities of Lan Na, the Laotian kingdoms of Vientiane and Luang Prabang, Cambodia, or the Malay sultanate Kedah were also part of the country, but with more autonomy than the provinces. In this Mandala system the semi-independent countries sometimes were tributary to more than one country.
New provinces were created when the population of an area outgrew the administration, but also for political reasons. If a governor became too dominant in a region former satellite cities were elevated to provincial status, as was the case with Maha Sarakham Province.
Reforms of the provincial administration started in the 1870s under increased pressure from the colonial states of the United Kingdom and France. Agents were sent, especially to border areas, to impose more control on the provinces or tributary states.
At the end of the 19th century King Chulalongkorn reformed the central government. In 1892 the ministry, which previously had many overlapping responsibilities, was reorganized with clear missions as in Western administrations. Prince Damrong Rajanubhab became minister of the Ministry of the North ( Mahatthai ), originally responsible for the northern administration. When the Ministry of the South ( Kalahom ) was dissolved in 1894, Prince Damrong became Minister of the Interior, responsible for the provincial administration of the whole country.
Starting in 1893 the already existing commissionaireships in some parts of the country were renamed "superintendent commissioner" (khaluang Thesaphiban), and their area of responsibility was called a monthon . In strategically important areas the monthon were created first, while in other areas the provinces kept their independence a bit longer. Several smaller provinces were reduced in status to a amphoe (district) or even lower to a tambon (sub-district) and included in a neighboring province, sometimes for administrative reasons, but sometimes to remove an uncooperative governor.
In some regions rebellions broke out against the new administrative system, usually induced by the local nobility fearing their loss of power. The most notable was the Holy Man Rebellion in 1902 in Isan. It was initially a messianic doomsday sect, but it also attacked government representatives in the northeast. The provincial town Khemarat was even burned by the rebels. After a few months the rebellion was beaten back.
After 1916, the word changwat became common to use for the provinces, partly to distinguish them from the provincial capital city (mueang or amphoe mueang), but also to stress the new administrative structure of the provinces.
When Prince Damrong resigned in 1915, the whole country was divided into 19 monthon (including the area around Bangkok, which was under the responsibility of another ministry until 1922), with 72 provinces.
In December 1915 King Vajiravudh announced the creation of regions (phak), each administered by a viceroy (upparat), to cover several monthon. Until 1922 four regions were established, however in 1925 they were dissolved again. At the same time several monthon were merged, in an attempt to streamline administration and reduce costs.
The monthons were dissolved when Thailand transformed from an absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy in 1932, making the provinces the top level administrative division again. Several smaller provinces were also abolished at that time. During World War II, several provinces around Bangkok were merged. These changes were undone after the war. Also the occupied area from French Indochina was organized into four provinces: Phra Tabong, Phibunsongkhram, Nakhon Champasak and Lan Chang. The current province of Sukhothai was at first known as Sawankhalok. It was renamed Sukhothai in 1939 (which is why the railway system goes to Sawankhalok city and not Sukhothai city). The province, Kalasin, was reestablished in 1947 after having been dissolved in 1932.
In 1972 Phra Nakhon and Thonburi Provinces were merged to form the special administrative area of Bangkok, which combines the tasks of the provinces with that of a municipality, including having an elected governor.
Starting in the second half of the 20th century some provinces were newly created by splitting them off from bigger provinces. In 1975, Yasothon Province was split off from Ubon Ratchathani. In 1977, Phayao province was created from districts formerly part of Chiang Rai. In 1982, Mukdahan was split off from Nakhon Phanom. In 1993 three provinces were created: Sa Kaeo (split from Prachinburi), Nong Bua Lamphu Province (split from Udon Thani), and Amnat Charoen (split from Ubon Ratchathani). The newest province is Bueng Kan, which was split off from Nong Khai effective 23 March 2011.
|Kabin Buri||Kabin Buri||1926||Merged into Prachinburi Province|
|Sukhothai (beforce 1932)||Sukhothai Thani||1932||Merged into Sawankhalok Province. However, The province's name and location of capital was changed back to Sukhothai in 1938.|
|Lom Sak||Lom Sak||Merged into Phetchabun Province|
|Thanyaburi||Thanyaburi||Merged into Pathum Thani Province|
|Kalasin||Kalasin||Merged into Maha Sarakham Province, Splited out again in 1947|
|Lang Suan||Lang Suan||Merged into Chumphon Province|
|Takua Pa||Takua Pa||Merged into Phang Nga Province|
|Sai Buri||Sai Buri||Merged into Pattani Province (except Bacho District which was merged into Narathiwat Province)|
|Phra Pradaeng||Phra Pradaeng||Merged into Samut Prakan Province (except Rat Burana District which was merged into Thonburi Province)|
|Min Buri||Min Buri||Merged into Phra Nakhon Province (Nong Chok District was merged into Chachoengsao Province first then reallocated back in 1933)|
|Samut Prakan (before 1943)||Samut Prakan||1943||Merged into Phra Nakhon Province (except Ko Sichang District which was merged into Chonburi Province), The part of Phra Nakhon was splited out again in 1946|
|Nakhon Nayok||Nakhon Nayok||Merged into Prachinburi Province (except Ban Na District which was merged into Saraburi Province), Splited out again in 1946|
|Samut Sakhon||Samut Sakhon||Merged into Thonburi Province, Splited out again in 1946|
|Nonthaburi||Nonthaburi||Merged into Phra Nakhon Province (except Bang Kruai District, Bang Yai District, Bang Bua Thong District which was merged into Thonburi Province), Splited out again in 1946|
|Phra Nakhon||Phra Nakhon||1971||Merged to form the current Bangkok|
|Province||Capital||Period||Fate||Today part of|
|Prachankiriket||Prachankiriket||1855–1904||Pursat and Kampot, French Indochina||Pursat and Koh Kong, Cambodia|
|Lan Chang (formerly Chaiburi)||Sama Buri||until 1904|
|Luang Prabang, French Indochina||Sainyabuli and Luang Prabang, Laos|
|Phra Tabong||Battambang||until 1907|
|Battambang, French Indochina||Battambang and Pailin, Cambodia|
|Phibunsongkhram||Sisophon||1941–1946||Battambang, Siem Reap, Kompong Thom and Stung Treng, French Indochina||Banteay Meanchey, Oddar Meanchey and Siem Reap, Cambodia|
|Kompong Thom, Stung Treng and Bassac, French Indochina|| Preah Vihear and Stung Treng, Cambodia |
|Kedah, British Malaya||Kedah, Malaysia|
|Perlis, British Malaya||Perlis, Malaysia|
|Kelantan, British Malaya||Kelantan, Malaysia|
|Terengganu, British Malaya||Terengganu, Malaysia|
|Saharat Thai Doem||Chiang Tung||1943–1945||Karenni State and Shan State, British Burma||Kayah State and Shan State Myanmar|
Map of Siam in 1871 showing provinces.
Nakhon Sawan is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat) lies in lower northern Thailand. Neighbouring provinces are Kamphaeng Phet, Phichit, Phetchabun, Lopburi, Sing Buri, Chai Nat, Uthai Thani, and Tak.
Rayong Province is one of seventy-six provinces (changwat) lies in eastern Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Chonburi, and Chanthaburi. To the south is the Gulf of Thailand.
Phetchabun is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat) lies in lower northern Thailand. Neighbouring provinces are Loei, Khon Kaen, Chaiyaphum, Lopburi, Nakhon Sawan, Phichit, and Phitsanulok.
Narathiwat is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Yala and Pattani. To the south it borders the Malaysian state of Kelantan and Perak. The southern railway line ends in this province, which is one of the nation's four provinces that border Malaysia. The province features a range of cultures as well as natural resources, and is relatively fertile. Narathiwat is about 1,140 kilometers south of Bangkok and has an area of 4,475 km2 (1,728 sq mi). Seventy-five percent of the area is jungle and mountains and has a tropical climate.
Nan is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat) lies in upper northern Thailand. Neighboring provinces are : Uttaradit, Phrae, and Phayao. To the north and east it borders Sainyabuli of Laos.
Satun is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Trang, Phatthalung, and Songkhla. To the south it borders Perlis of Malaysia.
Uttaradit is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat). It lies in upper northern Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Phitsanulok, Sukhothai, Phrae and Nan. To the east it borders Xaignabouli of Laos. Uttaradit is 488 km north of Bangkok, and 238 km southeast of Chiang Mai.
Uthai Thani, one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat) lies in lower northern Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Nakhon Sawan, Chai Nat, Suphan Buri, Kanchanaburi and Tak. It lies somewhat off the route between Bangkok, 200 km distant and Chiang Mai.
Phichit is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat) lies in lower northern Thailand and 330 km due north of Bangkok. Neighbouring provinces are Phitsanulok, Phetchabun, Nakhon Sawan, and Kamphaeng Phet.
Roi Et is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat) lies in central northeastern Thailand also called Isan. Neighboring provinces are Kalasin, Mukdahan, Yasothon, Sisaket, Surin, and Maha Sarakham.
Sing Buri is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Nakhon Sawan, Lopburi, Ang Thong, Suphan Buri, and Chai Nat.
Nonthaburi is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand, established by the Act Establishing Changwat Samut Prakan, Changwat Nonthaburi, Changwat Samut Sakhon and Changwat Nakhon Nayok, Buddhist Era 2489 (1946), which came into force on 9 May 1946 (Thursday).
Nakhon Pathom is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand. Neighbouring provinces are Suphan Buri, Ayutthaya, Nonthaburi, Bangkok, Samut Sakhon, Ratchaburi, and Kanchanaburi. The capital city of Nakhon Pathom Province is Nakhon Pathom.
Monthon were administrative subdivisions of Thailand at the beginning of the 20th century. The Thai word monthon is a translation of the word mandala, in its sense of a type of political formation. The monthon were created as a part of the Thesaphiban bureaucratic administrative system, introduced by Prince Damrong Rajanubhab which, together with the monthon, established step-by-step today's present provinces (changwat), districts (amphoe), and communes (tambon) throughout Thailand. Each monthon was led by a royal commissioner called Thesaphiban (เทศาภิบาล), later renamed to Samuhathesaphiban (สมุหเทศาภิบาล). The system was officially adopted by the 1897 Local Administration Act, after some monthon had been established and administrative details were sorted out.
Samut Sakhon is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand, established by the Act Establishing Changwat Samut Prakan, Changwat Nonthaburi, Changwat Samut Sakhon, and Changwat Nakhon Nayok, Buddhist Era 2489 (1946), which came into force on 9 May 1946.
Prince Tisavarakumarn, the Prince Damrong Rajanubhab was the founder of the modern Thai educational system as well as the modern provincial administration. He was an autodidact, a (self-taught) historian, and one of the most influential Thai intellectuals of his time.
Tambon is a local governmental unit in Thailand. Below district (amphoe) and province (changwat), they form the third administrative subdivision level. As of 2016 there were 7,255 tambons, not including the 180 khwaeng of Bangkok, which are set at the same administrative level, thus every district contains eight to ten tambon. Tambon is usually translated as "township" or "subdistrict" in English — the latter is the recommended translation, though also often used for king amphoe, the designation for a subdistrict acting as a branch of the parent district. Tambon are further subdivided into 69,307 villages (muban), about ten per tambon. Tambon within cities or towns are not subdivided into villages, but may have less formal communities called chumchon that may be formed into community associations.
An amphoe is the second level administrative subdivision of Thailand. Usually translated as "district". Amphoe make up the provinces, and are analogous to counties. The chief district officer is Nai Amphoe. Amphoe are divided into tambons,, or sub-districts.
Thailand is a unitary state in Southeast Asia. The administrative services of the executive branch of the government are regulated by the National Government Organisation Act, BE 2534 (1991). Under this Act, the services are divided into three levels: central, provincial and local.
Bueng Kan, also spelled Bung Kan, is the 76th province (changwat) of Thailand, established by the Act Establishing Changwat Bueng Kan, BE 2554 (2011) on 23 March 2011. The province, consisting of the districts (amphoe) partitioned off Nong Khai Province, lies in upper northeastern Thailand also called Isan. It is named after its central district, Mueang Bueng Kan.
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